Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 21.747
Filter
1.
Melo, Marcelo Dantas Tavares de; Paiva, Marcelo Goulart; Santos, Maria Verônica Câmara; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo; Moreira, Valéria de Melo; Saleh, Mohamed Hassan; Soares, Brandão, Simone Cristina; Gallafrio, Claudia Cosentino; Goldwasser, Daniel; Gripp, Eliza de Almeida; Piveta, Rafael Bonafim; Silva, Tonnison Oliveira; Santo, Thais Harada Campos Espirito; Ferreira, Waldinai Pereira; Salemi, Vera Maria Cury; Cauduro, Sanderson A; Barberato, Silvio Henrique; Lopes, Heloísa M Christovam; Pena, José Luiz Barros; Rached, Heron Rhydan Saad; Miglioranza, Marcelo Haertel; Pinheiro, Aurélio Carvalho; Vrandecic, Bárbara Athayde Linhares Martins; Cruz, Cecilia Beatriz Bittencourt Viana; Nomura, César Higa; Cerbino, Fernanda Mello Erthal; Costa, Isabela Bispo Santos da Silva; Coelho-Filho, Otavio Rizzi; Carneiro, Adriano Camargo de Castro; Burgos, Ursula Maria Moreira Costa; Fernandes, Juliano Lara; Uellendahl, Marly; Calado, Eveline Barros; Senra, Tiago; Assunção, Bruna Leal; Freire, Claudia Maria Vilas; Martins, Cristiane Nunes; Sawamura, Karen Saori Shiraishi; Brito, Márcio Miranda; Jardim, Maria Fernanda Silva; Bernardes, Renata Junqueira Moll; Diógenes, Tereza Cristina; Vieira, Lucas de Oliveira; Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco; Lopes, Rafael Willain; Neto, Elry Medeiros Vieira Segundo; Rigo, Letícia; Marin, Valeska Leite Siqueira; Santos, Marcelo José; Grossman, Gabriel Blacher; Quagliato, Priscila Cestari; Alcantara, Monica Luiza de; Teodoro, José Aldo Ribeiro; Albricker, Ana Cristina Lopes; Barros, Fanilda Souto; Amaral, Salomon Israel do; Porto, Carmen Lúcia Lascasas; Barros, Marcio Vinícius Lins; Santos, Simone Nascimento dos; Cantisano, Armando Luís; Petisco, Ana Cláudia Gomes Pereira; Barbosa, José Eduardo Martins; Veloso, Orlando Carlos Glória; Spina, Salvador; Pignatelli, Ricardo; Hajjar, Ludhmilla Abrahão; Filho, Roberto Kalil; Lopes, Marcelo Antônio Cartaxo Queiroga; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos; Almeida, André Luiz Cerqueira.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(4): 845-909, Oct. 2021. graf, ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1344557
2.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-10-01.
Non-conventional in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54947

ABSTRACT

La hoja de ruta para las enfermedades tropicales desatendidas, publicada por la OMS en el 2012, estableció dos metas para el control de las geohelmintiasis para el 2020, a saber: suministrar tratamiento regular a 75% de los niños en edad preescolar y escolar que lo requirieran y lograr la cobertura de 75% con la quimioterapia preventiva en los niños en edad preescolar y escolar en 100% de los países. En el 2017, los datos recopilados de los 103 países donde las geohelmintiasis son endémicas mostraban que era factible alcanzar esas dos metas. En octubre del 2018, un grupo de representantes de esos países, junto con asociados de otras instituciones que apoyan las actividades de control, se reunió en Basilea para proponer nuevas metas que orientaran la quimioterapia preventiva y otras actividades de control una vez alcanzadas las metas para el 2020. Los indicadores establecidos por el grupo de trabajo y que se presentan en esta publicación pueden considerarse recomendaciones de los expertos dirigidas al Departamento de la OMS de Control de Enfermedades Tropicales Desatendidas, para distribuir a su vez a las oficinas regionales y en los países de la OMS, los funcionarios del ministerio de salud y los responsables de los programas en los países con endemicidad, a fin de sustentar la lista definitiva de los indicadores en materia de geohelmintiasis que deberán alcanzarse para el 2030.


Subject(s)
Helminthiasis , Neglected Diseases , Child Health , Infant , Drug Therapy , Endemic Diseases , Communicable Disease Control , Communicable Diseases , Sustainable Development , Climate Change , Environment and Public Health
4.
DNA Cell Biol ; 40(11): 1356-1368, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704810

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to explore cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) response-associated genes and constructed a model to predict the prognosis of breast cancer (BRCA) patients. Samples obtained from TCGA and GEO databases were subjected to Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis (WGCNA) and univariate Cox and LASSO Cox regression analysis to identify and validate the Cytoxan response-related prognostic signature. Moreover, multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to analyze the independence of factors, and the nomogram model was constructed by including all the independent factors. WGCNA revealed that 159 genes are significantly correlated with Cytoxan response in BRCA samples, and the samples with a different prognosis could be effectively distinguished based on the expression of those 159 genes. Ten genes were further selected to be related to the prognosis of BRCA patients, including PCDHB2, GRIK2, FRMD7, CCSER1, PCDHGA1, PCDHA1, LRRC37A6P, PCDHGA12, ZNF486, and PCDHGB5, based on the Risk Score model. Among them, PCDHA1 expression was validated in cells and patient samples. Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that the Risk Score is an independent factor. Furthermore, the nomogram model showed that the predicted survival probability is closely related to the actual survival probability. In conclusion, we identified 159 genes potentially correlated with the Cytoxan response of BRCA patients, which had prognostic value in BRCA.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Pharmacological/analysis , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics , Databases, Genetic , Drug Therapy/methods , Female , Gene Expression/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Genetic Testing/methods , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Nomograms , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Transcriptome/genetics , Tumor Microenvironment
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(37): e27163, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a major health burden in many countries. This review aimed to evaluate the efficacy of traditional herbal medicine (THM) combined with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy (PBCT) for the treatment of advanced NSCLC. METHODS: From inception to April 2021, relevant studies were retrieved from 9 electronic databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing survival outcomes of THM + PBCT treatment with PBCT treatment in patients with advanced NSCLC were reviewed. The risk of bias was evaluated using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Overall survival, 1-year survival, progression-free survival or time to progression, tumor response rate, and adverse effects were analyzed. RESULTS: Sixteen RCTs comprising 1445 patients were included. The meta-analysis indicated that THM + PBCT treatment, compared to PBCT alone, could improve overall survival (median survival ratio = 1.24, 95% confidence intervals [CI] [1.11, 1.39], P < .001), progression-free survival/time to progression (median survival ratio = 1.22, 95% CI [1.09, 1.37], P < .001), and the 1-year survival rate (risk ratio [RR] = 1.56, 95% CI [1.31, 1.86], P < .001). THM + PBCT also led to a higher tumor response rate (RR = 1.39, 95% CI [1.22, 1.59], P < .001) and lower incidence of thrombocytopenia (RR = 0.72, 95% CI [0.56, 0.92], P = .009) and nausea/vomiting (RR = 0.35, 95% CI [0.21, 0.57], P < .001), while there was no significant effect observed on leukopenia (RR = 0.68, 95% CI [0.34, 1.36], P = .27). CONCLUSION: THM, when used in combination with PBCT, might increase survival and the tumor response rate while decreasing the side effects caused by chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC. However, considering the limited methodological qualities of the included trials, more rigorous RCTs are needed.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Drug Therapy/standards , Medicine, Traditional/standards , Platinum/pharmacology , Drug Therapy/methods , Humans , Medicine, Traditional/methods , Platinum/therapeutic use , Progression-Free Survival , Survival Analysis
7.
Rev. psiquiatr. Urug ; 85(1): 28-42, oct. 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1343130

ABSTRACT

El tratamiento farmacológico de demostrada eficacia en la esquizofrenia es el antipsicótico. Sin embargo, en muchas ocasiones se requiere medicación concomitante que depende de comorbilidades y efectos adversos. Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo, longitudinal, retrospectivo, considerando el año 2006 y 2016, en una población de usuarios con esquizofrenia de la Policlínica del Hospital Vilardebó, analizando los tratamientos con psicofármacos. Se diferenciaron los tratamientos según monoterapia antipsicótica y polifarmacia con 2 antipsicóticos, y polifarmacia con más de 2 antipsicóticos, antidepresivos, estabilizantes del humor, benzodiacepinas y anticolinérgicos. La población inicial en 2006 fue de 621 pacientes y 398 pacientes continuaban en tratamiento en 2016. Mantuvieron el trata-miento con antipsicóticos 377 pacientes; 184 mantuvieron benzodiacepinas; 59 se mantuvieron con anticolinérgicos; 49, con estabilizantes del humor y 47, con antidepresivos. La monoterapia antipsicótica se presentó en torno al 50 % de la población estudiada. Se deberían revisar aquellas prácticas que se infieren a partir de este estudio, como el uso prolongado de anticolinérgicos, benzodiacepinas, y polifarmacia con más de 2 antipsicóticos, que está extendida en los usuarios con esquizofrenia. El tratamiento con clozapina fue el más estable y no parece aumentar la mortalidad en estos pacientes


Antipsychotics are the proved effective therapy for schizophrenia. However, on many occasions, associated drugs are required depending on comorbidities and side effects. A retrospective longitudinal quantitative study of drug prescription for 2006 and 2016 in patients with schizophrenia diagnosis was carried out in an outpatient clinic at Hospital Vilardebó. Treatments were classified as antipsychotic monotherapy, two antipsychotic drugs polypharmacy and polypharmacy with two antipsychotic drugs, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, benzodiazepines and anticholinergic drugs. Initial population in 2006 included 621 patients, 398 were still being treated in 2016. Antipsychotic drugs were still being received in 377 patients, benzodiazepines in 184, anticholinergic drugs in 59, mood stabilizers in 49, and anti-depressants in 47. Antipsychotic monotherapy was 50% of the population. Those practices that can be inferred from this study, with lengthy use of anticholinergic drugs, benzodiazepines, and the use of more than 2 antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia diagnosis should be revised. Clozapine therapy was the most stable and does not seem to increase mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Phenothiazines/therapeutic use , Chlorpromazine/therapeutic use , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Clozapine/therapeutic use , Risperidone/therapeutic use , Polypharmacy , Age and Sex Distribution , Tiapride Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Quetiapine Fumarate/therapeutic use , Aripiprazole/therapeutic use , Olanzapine/therapeutic use , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Methotrimeprazine/therapeutic use
8.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(3): 331-338, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339796

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder accompanied by behavioral and personality changes and/or language deterioration. Its behavioral variant (bvFTD) is the main clinical presentation. Objective: This study aims to investigate the treatment alternatives for bvFTD available so far. Methods: We conducted a narrative review of bvFTD treatment options. We used PubMed and Lilacs databases with the terms "frontotemporal dementia" or "behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia" combined with "treatment," "pharmacological treatment," or "disease-modifying drugs." Results: The articles retrieved and selected in the research pointed out that there is no specific treatment approved for bvFTD so far. The current proposals are limited to handle the cardinal behavioral symptoms of the disorder. Disease-modifying drugs are under development and may be promising, especially in the monogenic presentations of FTD. Conclusions: There are numerous approaches to treat the core symptoms of bvFTD, most of them based on low-quality research. To date, there are no drugs with a disease-specific therapeutic recommendation for bvFTD. Treatments are often investigated guided by primary psychiatric disorders with similar symptoms and should be chosen by the predominant symptom profile.


RESUMO A demência frontotemporal (DFT) é um transtorno neurodegenerativo progressivo acompanhado de deterioração do comportamento e da personalidade e/ou da linguagem. A variante comportamental (DFTvc) é a principal apresentação clínica. Objetivos: Investigar as alternativas de tratamento disponíveis para a DFTvc até o momento. Métodos: Realizou-se uma revisão narrativa das opções de tratamento da DFTvc. Os bancos de dados PubMed e Lilacs foram utilizados com os termos "demência frontotemporal" ou "variante comportamental da demência frontotemporal" combinados com "tratamento", "tratamento farmacológico" ou "drogas modificadoras de doença". Resultados: Os artigos recuperados e selecionados na pesquisa indicaram que não há nenhum tratamento específico aprovado até o momento para DFTvc. As propostas atuais são limitadas ao tratamento dos sintomas comportamentais cardinais do transtorno. As drogas modificadoras de doença estão em desenvolvimento e podem ser promissoras, especialmente nas apresentações monogênicas da DFT. Conclusões: Há inúmeras abordagens para tratar os principais sintomas DFTvc, a maioria delas baseada em pesquisas de baixa qualidade. Até o momento, não existem medicamentos com uma recomendação terapêutica específica para a DFTvc. Os tratamentos são frequentemente investigados guiados por distúrbios psiquiátricos primários com sintomas semelhantes e devem ser escolhidos pelo perfil de sintomas predominante.


Subject(s)
Humans , Behavior Control , Drug Therapy , Frontotemporal Dementia , Review
9.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4417-4422, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475063

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Ovarian carcinoma is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women in the United States. Serous papillary carcinoma is the most common histological type of ovarian carcinoma that often goes undetected until it has spread within the pelvis and abdomen leading to poor prognosis. Translation of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology into personalized medicine and identification of new potential targets for therapeutic applications may be helpful. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 59-year-old female who initially presented in the emergency department with increasing abdominal girth, and bloating. Computed tomography showed ascites and omental and pelvic masses. Fine needle biopsy of the omental mass showed high-grade papillary adenocarcinoma consistent with high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma. She was treated with chemotherapy followed by debulking surgery. Primary ovarian serous carcinoma and synchronous primary fallopian tube serous carcinoma with multiple leiomyomas were identified in the surgical specimen. Pleural biopsy was also positive for carcinoma. NGS and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression testing were performed in the ovarian serous carcinoma. The results showed mutations of breast cancer type 1 (BRCA1) and type 2 (BRCA2), tumor protein p53 (TP53) (c.524G>A at pR175H), and heat shock protein 90 alpha family class B member 1 (HSP90AB1) (p.R456C), as well as low RNA expression score of PD-L1. CONCLUSION: Identification of these mutations and PD-L1 abnormality at the diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma may shed light for clinicians to provide targeted therapy with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors for ovarian serous carcinoma. This is the first documented case of ovarian serous carcinoma to have found a HSP90AB1 (p.R456C) mutation.


Subject(s)
Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous/genetics , Fallopian Tube Neoplasms/genetics , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Leiomyomatosis/genetics , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/genetics , Ovarian Neoplasms/genetics , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous/drug therapy , Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous/surgery , Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures , Drug Therapy , Fallopian Tube Neoplasms/drug therapy , Fallopian Tube Neoplasms/surgery , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Leiomyomatosis/drug therapy , Leiomyomatosis/pathology , Leiomyomatosis/surgery , Middle Aged , Mutation , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/drug therapy , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/surgery , Ovarian Neoplasms/drug therapy , Ovarian Neoplasms/surgery , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , United States
10.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4535-4542, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475080

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, many scientific committees proposed neoadjuvant therapy (NACT) bridging treatment as a novel strategy and indication. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on breast cancer patients undergoing NACT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All breast cancer patients referred to two Breast Units during COVID-19-pandemic were enrolled. RESULTS: Out of 814 patients, 43(5.3%) were enrolled in the COVID-19-group and compared with 94 (7.9%) similar Pre-COVID-19 patients. We observed a reduction in the number of patients undergoing NACT, p=0.0019. No difference was reported in terms of clinical presentation, indications, and tumor response. In contrast, a higher number of vascular adverse events was reported (6.9% vs. 0% p=0.029). Immediate breast cancer reconstructions following invasive surgery suffered a significant slowdown (5.9% vs. 47.7%, p=0.019). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 caused a reduction in the number of patients undergoing NACT, with no changes in terms of indications, clinical presentation, and tumor response. Furthermore, there was an increased incidence of vascular events.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mammaplasty/statistics & numerical data , Neoadjuvant Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Drug Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy/adverse effects , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
11.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4637-4644, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate frailty as a prognostic factor in patients with colorectal liver metastasis undergoing hepatectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-seven patients who underwent hepatectomy at our institution were enrolled. Frailty was defined as a score of ≥4 on a clinical frailty scale. Patients were divided into frailty (n=29) and non-frailty (n=58) groups. RESULTS: Overall and cancer-specific survival rates were significantly worse in the frailty group compared with the non-frailty group, and multivariate analysis revealed frailty as an independent prognostic factor. Disease-free survival tended to be worse in the frailty group. Fifty-eight patients relapsed after the first hepatectomy. Twenty-one of 58 recurrent patients were allocated to the frailty group. After recurrence, chemotherapy was significantly more frequently performed in the non-frailty group compared with the frailty group. CONCLUSION: Frailty can predict the prognosis of patients with colorectal liver metastasis undergoing hepatectomy.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Frailty/epidemiology , Hepatectomy/methods , Liver Neoplasms/secondary , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Drug Therapy , Female , Frailty/complications , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17882, 2021 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504141

ABSTRACT

The in-silico development of a chemotherapeutic dosing schedule for treating cancer relies upon a parameterization of a particular tumour growth model to describe the dynamics of the cancer in response to the dose of the drug. In practice, it is often prohibitively difficult to ensure the validity of patient-specific parameterizations of these models for any particular patient. As a result, sensitivities to these particular parameters can result in therapeutic dosing schedules that are optimal in principle not performing well on particular patients. In this study, we demonstrate that chemotherapeutic dosing strategies learned via reinforcement learning methods are more robust to perturbations in patient-specific parameter values than those learned via classical optimal control methods. By training a reinforcement learning agent on mean-value parameters and allowing the agent periodic access to a more easily measurable metric, relative bone marrow density, for the purpose of optimizing dose schedule while reducing drug toxicity, we are able to develop drug dosing schedules that outperform schedules learned via classical optimal control methods, even when such methods are allowed to leverage the same bone marrow measurements.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Learning/drug effects , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Reinforcement, Psychology , Drug Therapy/methods , Humans , Learning/physiology , Treatment Outcome
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502383

ABSTRACT

Chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis, a painful debilitating condition affecting up to 40-100% of patients undergoing chemotherapy, can reduce the patients' quality of life, add health care costs and even postpone cancer treatment. In recent years, the relationships between intestinal microbiota dysbiosis and mucositis have drawn much attention in mucositis research. Chemotherapy can shape intestinal microbiota, which, in turn, can aggravate the mucositis through toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways, leading to an increased expression of inflammatory mediators and elevated epithelial cell apoptosis but decreased epithelial cell differentiation and mucosal regeneration. This review summarizes relevant studies related to the relationships of mucositis with chemotherapy regimens, microbiota, TLRs, inflammatory mediators, and intestinal homeostasis, aiming to explore how gut microbiota affects the pathogenesis of mucositis and provides potential new strategies for mucositis alleviation and treatment and development of new therapies.


Subject(s)
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/microbiology , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Drug Therapy/methods , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/physiopathology , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Dysbiosis/physiopathology , Fluorouracil/pharmacology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Homeostasis , Humans , Intestines/microbiology , Microbiota/drug effects , Mucositis/chemically induced , Quality of Life , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptors/physiology
14.
Washington, D.C; PAHO; Sept. 7, 2021. 60 p.
Monography in English | BIGG - GRADE guidelines | ID: biblio-1291054

ABSTRACT

The larval stage of the parasite Taenia solium can encyst in the central nervous system causing neurocysticercosis, which is the main cause of acquired epilepsy in the countries in which the parasite is endemic. Endemic areas are those with the presence (or likely presence) of the full life cycle of Taenia solium. The parasite is most prevalent in poor and vulnerable communities in which pigs roam free, open defecation is practiced, basic sanitation is deficient, and health education is absent or limited. Several tools are available for the control of Taenia solium. Preventive chemotherapy for Taenia solium taeniasis, which is directed at the adult tapeworm, is one of them. Other tools focus on pig management, pig vaccination and treatment, sanitation and hygiene, and community education. Three potential drugs­niclosamide, praziquantel, and albendazole­have been considered for use for preventive chemotherapy in Taenia solium taeniasis control programs through mass drug administration or targeted chemotherapy. In this Guideline, we provide recommendations for preventive chemotherapy in Taenia solium-endemic areas using niclosamide, praziquantel, or albendazole, including at which dose and in which population groups. The development of this Guideline is based on the latest standard World Health Organization methods for guideline development, including the use of systematic search strategies, synthesis, quality assessment of the available evidence to support the recommendations, and participation of experts and stakeholders in the Guideline Development Group and External Review Group. The recommendations are intended for a wide audience, including policymakers and their expert advisers, and technical and program staff at governmental institutions and organizations involved in the planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of preventive chemotherapy programs for the control of Taenia solium.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Taeniasis/drug therapy , Taenia solium/drug effects , Drug Therapy , Praziquantel/administration & dosage , Taeniasis/complications , Albendazole/administration & dosage , Niclosamide/analogs & derivatives
15.
Dev Cell ; 56(17): 2440-2454.e6, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352223

ABSTRACT

Mitotic errors lead to aneuploidy, a condition of karyotype imbalance, frequently found in cancer cells. Alterations in chromosome copy number induce a wide variety of cellular stresses, including genome instability. Here, we show that cancer cells might exploit aneuploidy-induced genome instability and the resulting gene copy-number changes to survive under conditions of selective pressure, such as chemotherapy. Resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs was dictated by the acquisition of recurrent karyotypes, indicating that gene dosage might play a role in driving chemoresistance. Thus, our study establishes a causal link between aneuploidy-driven changes in gene copy number and chemoresistance and might explain why some chemotherapies fail to succeed.


Subject(s)
Aneuploidy , Chromosomal Instability/genetics , Drug Resistance/genetics , Drug Therapy , Gene Dosage/genetics , Drug Therapy/methods , Genomic Instability/genetics , Humans , Karyotype
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26547, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397686

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The main purpose of this study was to investigate current state of constipation for lung cancer (LC) patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy. The relationships between social demography, clinical variables, psychological status, and constipation were analyzed. In addition, quality of life (QoL) in LC patients with constipation was also analyzed. One hundred LC patients participated in this cross-sectional study. Under the guidance of the researchers, Functional Living Index-Emesis, Piper Fatigue Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 (version 3.0), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, General Well-being Scale, Social Support Rate Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and other related questionnaires were completed. The result showed the symptom of constipation was observed in 41 (41%) LC patients. The occurrence and development of constipation were associated with gender, food intake, exercise, nausea, fatigue, anxiety, depression, sleep disorders, and happiness. The study also found patients with constipation had significant lower QoL scores, especially the score in the general state. Constipation was very common in LC patients undergoing platinum-based chemotherapy. Reduced food intake and fatigue were the independent factors. Constipation significantly affects the QoL of the patients. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the risk factors of constipation in LC patients undergoing platinum-based chemotherapy, the earlier intervention was done to these patients, the better to improve their QoL.


Subject(s)
Constipation/complications , Platinum/pharmacology , Quality of Life/psychology , Aged , Constipation/etiology , Constipation/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Therapy/methods , Drug Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/psychology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire/statistics & numerical data , Platinum/therapeutic use
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4755, 2021 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362890

ABSTRACT

Some specific chemotherapeutic drugs are able to enhance tumor immunogenicity and facilitate antitumor immunity by inducing immunogenic cell death (ICD). However, tumor immunosuppression induced by the adenosine pathway hampers this effect. In this study, E-selectin-modified thermal-sensitive micelles are designed to co-deliver a chemotherapeutic drug (doxorubicin, DOX) and an A2A adenosine receptor antagonist (SCH 58261), which simultaneously exhibit chemo-immunotherapeutic effects when applied with microwave irradiation. After intravenous injection, the fabricated micelles effectively adhere to the surface of leukocytes in peripheral blood mediated by E-selectin, and thereby hitchhiking with leukocytes to achieve a higher accumulation at the tumor site. Further, local microwave irradiation is applied to induce hyperthermia and accelerates the release rate of drugs from micelles. Rapidly released DOX induces tumor ICD and elicits tumor-specific immunity, while SCH 58261 alleviates immunosuppression caused by the adenosine pathway, further enhancing DOX-induced antitumor immunity. In conclusion, this study presents a strategy to increase the tumor accumulation of drugs by hitchhiking with leukocytes, and the synergistic strategy of chemo-immunotherapy not only effectively arrested primary tumor growth, but also exhibited superior effects in terms of antimetastasis, antirecurrence and antirechallenge.


Subject(s)
Drug Therapy , Immunotherapy , Leukocytes/drug effects , Micelles , Neoplasms/therapy , Animals , Doxorubicin/pharmacology , Drug Carriers/administration & dosage , Drug Liberation , Female , Hyperthermia/therapy , Immunity , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microwaves/therapeutic use , Phototherapy
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(33): e27018, 2021 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414995

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the leading type of cancer among women worldwide, and a high number of breast cancer patients are suffering from psychological and cognitive disorders. This cross-sectional study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and clinical neuropsychological tests to evaluate the possible underlying mechanisms.We enrolled 32 breast cancer patients without chemotherapy (BC), 32 breast cancer patients within 6 to 12 months after the completion of chemotherapy (BC_CTx) and 46 healthy controls. Participants underwent neuropsychological tests and rs-fMRI with mean fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation and mean regional homogeneity analyses. Between groups whole-brain voxel-wise rs-fMRI comparisons were calculated using two-sample t test. rs-fMRI and neuropsychological tests correlation analyses were calculated using multiple regression. Age and years of education were used as covariates. A false discovery rate-corrected P-value of less than .05 was considered statistically significant.We found significantly alteration of mean fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation and mean regional homogeneity in the frontoparietal lobe and occipital lobe in the BC group compared with the other 2 groups, indicating alteration of functional dorsal attention network (DAN). Furthermore, we found the DAN alteration was correlated with neuropsychological impairment.The majority of potential underlying mechanisms of DAN alteration in BC patients may due to insufficient frontoparietal lobe neural activity to drive DAN and may be related to the effects of neuropsychological distress. Further longitudinal studies with comprehensive images and neuropsychological tests correlations are recommended.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/etiology , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Drug Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Drug Therapy/methods , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Taiwan
19.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361852

ABSTRACT

Our cells and organs are threatened and, in most cases, constantly subjected to the aggression of numerous situations, both endogenous, characterized by unfavorable genetics, and exogenous, by deficient or inadequate nutrition, and even by a hostile environment; in most cases, they ultimately cause a cascade of degenerative and cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and infections, as well as those related to the metabolic syndrome, all of which eventually generate irreversible damage to the organism and, consequently, a significant deterioration in its survival [...].


Subject(s)
Drug Therapy/history , Pharmaceutical Preparations/history , History, Medieval , Humans
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(29): e26629, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398019

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Currently, the impact of chemotherapy (CT) on survival outcomes in elderly patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) receiving radiation therapy (RT) remains controversial. This retrospective study aims to investigate survival outcomes in a cohort of elderly NPC patients receiving RT alone or together with CT.Clinical data on 529 NPC patients aged 65 years and older extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry (2004-2015) was collected and retrospectively reviewed. In this cohort, 74 patients were treated with RT alone and 455 individuals received RT and CT. We used propensity score matching with a 1:3 ratio to identify correlations between patients based on 6 different variables. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate overall (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). The differences in OS and CSS between the 2 treatment groups were compared using the Log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards models.The estimated 5-year OS and CSS rates for all patients were 49.5% and 59.3%, respectively. The combination of RT and CT provided longer OS than RT alone (53.7% vs 36.9%, P = .002), while no significant difference was observed in CSS (61.8% vs 51.7%, P = .074) between the 2 groups. Moreover, multivariate analysis demonstrated that the combination of CT and RT correlated favorably with OS and CSS. Subgroup analyses showed that the combination of RT and CT correlated better with both OS and CSS in patients with stage T3 or N2 or stage III.Among NPC patients aged 65 years and older, treatment with RT and CT provided longer OS than RT alone. Furthermore, the combination of RT and CT showed a better correlation with OS and CSS in NPC patients with stage T3 or N2 or stage III.


Subject(s)
Drug Therapy/standards , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/therapy , Radiotherapy/standards , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Drug Therapy/methods , Drug Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Female , Geriatrics/methods , Humans , Male , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/physiopathology , Proportional Hazards Models , Radiotherapy/methods , Radiotherapy/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SEER Program
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...