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1.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1314: 342769, 2024 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38876513

ABSTRACT

Echinococcosis and tuberculosis are two common zoonotic diseases that can cause severe pulmonary infections. Early screening and treatment monitoring are of great significance, especially in areas with limited medical resources. Herein, we designed an operation-friendly and rapid magnetic enrichment-silver acetylene chromogenic immunoassay (Me-Sacia) to monitor the antibody. The main components included secondary antibody-modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNP-Ab2) as capture nanoparticles, specific peptide (EG95 or CFP10)-modified silver nanoparticles (AgNP-PTs) as detection nanoparticles, and alkyne-modified gold nanoflowers as chromogenic nanoparticles. Based on the magnetic separation and plasma luminescence techniques, Me-Sacia could completely replace the colorimetric assay of biological enzymes. It reduced the detection time to approximately 1 h and simplified the labor-intensive and equipment-intensive processes associated with conventional ELISA. Meanwhile, the Me-Sacia showed universality for various blood samples and intuitive observation with the naked eye. Compared to conventional ELISA, Me-Sacia lowered the detection limit by approximately 96.8 %, increased the overall speed by approximately 15 times, and improved sensitivity by approximately 7.2 %, with a 100 % specificity and a coefficient of variation (CV) of less than 15 %.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Humans , Animals , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Echinococcosis/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Silver/chemistry , Gold/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Zoonoses/diagnosis , Limit of Detection
2.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 257, 2024 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Echinococcosis, commonly known as hydatid disease, is a zoonotic infection resulting from the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The occurrence of hydatid cysts in the orbital region is uncommon, representing less than 1% of all reported hydatid cases. This report details a unique case of an intramuscular hydatid cyst in the orbital region that led to compressive optic neuropathy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 22-year-old male from Kabul, Afghanistan presented with a five-month history of progressive proptosis in his left eye, associated with a gradual decrease in vision over the past three weeks. The left eye exhibited upward globe dystopia, ocular motility limitation, mild conjunctival injection, and chemosis. Diagnosis was achieved through imaging and histopathological examination. Treatment involves surgical removal of the cyst and prolonged albendazole therapy. The postoperative course showed significant improvement in the patient's condition and restoration of his vision. CONCLUSIONS: Despite its rarity, this case underscores the importance of awareness and knowledge of hydatid disease among physicians, especially those working in endemic areas. It emphasizes the importance of including hydatid disease in the differential diagnosis of orbital masses, particularly in endemic regions.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis , Eye Infections, Parasitic , Optic Nerve Diseases , Orbital Diseases , Humans , Male , Echinococcosis/diagnosis , Echinococcosis/complications , Young Adult , Optic Nerve Diseases/diagnosis , Optic Nerve Diseases/parasitology , Optic Nerve Diseases/surgery , Eye Infections, Parasitic/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Parasitic/parasitology , Eye Infections, Parasitic/surgery , Orbital Diseases/parasitology , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Albendazole/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
Parasite ; 31: 30, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874552

ABSTRACT

The emergence of pandemics with dramatic consequences for human health has obscured endemic diseases that continue to pose a problem for human and animal health in several regions of the world. Among these diseases, cystic echinococcosis, a zoonotic parasitic infection caused by a group of cestodes, Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, remains a real human and animal health problem in several regions of the world, including the Mediterranean Basin. Despite the implementation of a number of governmental control programmes using several tools (dog treatment, meat inspection, etc.), this infection is still highly prevalent in North Africa. Here we present a review of the epidemiology of cystic echinococcosis in Tunisia, an analysis of the constraints limiting the effectiveness of the control programmes implemented, and finally argue for the use of the One Health framework to improve the effectiveness of future programmes.


Title: L'échinococcose kystique (infection par Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato) en Tunisie, une perspective « Une seule santé ¼ pour un futur programme de contrôle. Abstract: L'émergence de pandémies affectant de manière très importante la santé humaine a occulté les maladies endémiques qui continuent de représenter un problème de santé animale et humaine dans plusieurs régions du monde. Parmi ces maladies, l'échinococcose kystique, une parasitose zoonotique provoquée par un groupe de cestodes, Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, reste un réel problème de santé humaine et animale dans plusieurs régions du monde, incluant le Bassin méditerranéen. Malgré la mise en place de nombreux programmes de lutte utilisant plusieurs outils (traitement des chiens, inspection des viandes, etc.), cette infection est encore hautement prévalente en Afrique du Nord. Nous présentons ici une revue de l'épidémiologie de l'échinococcose kystique en Tunisie, une analyse des contraintes limitant l'efficacité des programmes de lutte mis en place, et finalement nous argumentons l'utilisation du concept « Une seule santé ¼ pour améliorer l'efficacité des programmes futurs.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis , Echinococcus granulosus , One Health , Zoonoses , Tunisia/epidemiology , Humans , Animals , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Echinococcosis/prevention & control , Echinococcus granulosus/isolation & purification , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Dogs , Prevalence , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control
4.
Trop Biomed ; 41(1): 20-28, 2024 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38852130

ABSTRACT

Echinococcosis is a common zoonotic disease in livestock; the type with the highest incidence is cystic echinococcosis (CE). In clinical management, patients with CE of the liver in which the cyst wall is calcified have been found to have better prognoses than those without calcification. In this study, we collected calcified and uncalcified cyst wall tissue from patients with hepatic CE and observed significant changes in the expression of 2336 messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs), 178 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), 210 microRNAs (miRNAs), and 33 circular RNAs (circRNAs) using high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses of differentially expressed RNAs (DERNAs: DEmRNAs, DElncRNAs, DEmiRNAs, and DEcircRNAs) were performed to explore these RNAs' potential biological functions and signaling pathways. Ultimately, the results of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining confirmed the correlation between calcification and apoptosis of the cyst wall. In summary, this study was an initial exploration of the molecular-biological mechanism underlying spontaneous calcification of the hydatid cyst wall, and it provides a theoretical basis for exploring new targets for drug treatment in CE.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Humans , Calcinosis/genetics , Calcinosis/parasitology , Transcriptome , Echinococcosis/parasitology , Gene Expression Profiling , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Male , MicroRNAs/genetics , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/parasitology , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , RNA, Circular/genetics
5.
Parasitol Res ; 123(6): 236, 2024 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38856927

ABSTRACT

Echinococcosis is a worldwide disease endemic to the western region of China. In 2023, echinococcosis was detected in one of 27 wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Yili Prefecture, Xinjiang, northwestern China. Histopathological staining and full sequence mitochondrial (mt) analysis were used to determine the infection genotype. Echinococcus granulosus was detected in the wild boar liver, and the cystic lesion characteristics indicated the E. granulosus genotype (G1). This case is the first confirmation of wild boar serving as a transmitter for the G1 genotype of E. granulosus within China. These findings suggest that surveillance is needed to assess the risk of E. granulosus sensu lato transmission to humans and wild animals.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis , Echinococcus granulosus , Genotype , Sus scrofa , Swine Diseases , Animals , China , Echinococcus granulosus/genetics , Echinococcus granulosus/isolation & purification , Echinococcus granulosus/classification , Sus scrofa/parasitology , Swine Diseases/parasitology , Swine , Echinococcosis/veterinary , Echinococcosis/parasitology , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Liver/parasitology , Liver/pathology , Sequence Analysis, DNA , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , DNA, Helminth/genetics , Phylogeny
6.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 36(2): 169-173, 2024 May 09.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857961

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of Echinococcus infections in small rodents around human residential areas in Yushu City, Qinghai Province in 2023, so as to provide insights into precision echinococcosis control. METHODS: One or two quadrats, each measuring 50 m × 50 m, were randomly assigned in Shanglaxiu Township and Longbao Township, Yushu City, Qinghai Province on June 2023, respectively, and 300 plate-type mouse traps, each measuring 12.0 cm × 6.5 cm, were assigned in each quadrat. Small rodents were captured during the period between 10 : 00 and 18 : 00 each day for 4 days. Then, all captured small rodents were identified and dissected, and liver specimens with suspected Echinococcus infections were subjected to pathological examinations. The Echinococcus cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1) gene was amplified using PCR assay, and the sequence of the amplified product was aligned to that was recorded in the GenBank to characterize the parasite species. In addition, a phylogenetic tree of Echinococcus was generated based on the cox1 gene sequence using the neighbor-joining method. RESULTS: A total of 236 small rodents were captured in Shanglaxiu and Longbao townships, Yushu City, including 65 Qinghai voles and 51 plateau pikas in Shanglaxiu Township, and 62 Qinghai voles and 58 plateau pikas in Longbao Township, and there was no significant difference in the constituent ratio of small rodents between the two townships (χ2 = 0.294, P > 0.05). Seven plateau pikas and 12 Qinghai voles were suspected to be infected with Echinococcus by dissection, and pathological examinations showed unclear structure of hepatic lobules and disordered hepatocyte arrangement in livers of small rodents suspected of Echinococcus infections. PCR assay identified E. shiquicus DNA in 7 Qinghai voles, which were all captured from Shanglaxiu Township. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the cox1 gene sequence of Echinococcus in small rodents was highly homologous to the E. shiquicus cox1 gene sequence reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: Plateau pika and Qinghai vole were predominant small rodents around human residential areas in Yushu City, Qinghai Province in 2023, and E. shiquicus infection was detected in Qinghai voles.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis , Echinococcus , Phylogeny , Rodentia , Animals , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Echinococcosis/veterinary , Echinococcosis/parasitology , China/epidemiology , Echinococcus/genetics , Echinococcus/isolation & purification , Echinococcus/classification , Rodentia/parasitology , Prevalence , Humans
7.
Parasitol Res ; 123(6): 239, 2024 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38860991

ABSTRACT

Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a species complex with the potential to cause cystic echinococcosis (CE). Contact with the feces of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) fed with raw viscera of intermediate livestock hosts is a risk factor for this infection in the southern region of Brazil. Although the region has been considered endemic to CE for many years, molecular data regarding the species of the complex causing CE in humans are scarce. This study aimed to perform a molecular analysis of the biological fluid from a human liver cyst to investigate the species responsible for CE. Genetic material obtained from the hydatid fluid of a hepatic cyst from a human with CE was subjected to PCR to amplify mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed the human infection by Echinococcus canadensis G7 in the state of Paraná, Brazil. This is the first molecular record of E. canadensis G7 infecting a human in Brazil, and it is important to reiterate the risk of human CE caused by this species in South America, as reported by a previous study in Patagonia, Argentina. From the epidemiological point of view, this finding is of great relevance for the southern region of Brazil, since this parasite has previously only been detected in pigs in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, neighboring Paraná. The finding points to the importance of this identification in the molecular epidemiology of E. granulosus s.l., especially in South America.


Subject(s)
DNA, Helminth , Echinococcus , Phylogeny , Animals , Brazil/epidemiology , Echinococcus/genetics , Echinococcus/classification , Echinococcus/isolation & purification , Humans , DNA, Helminth/genetics , Echinococcosis/veterinary , Echinococcosis/parasitology , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Male
9.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 51: 101021, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772638

ABSTRACT

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) causes significant losses in Andean livestock production and affects Andean food security. However, more studies are needed to understand the epidemiology of the disease. In addition, the potential contribution of Andean cattle to the transmission of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato needs to be known. This study aimed to determine the CE-prevalence and its association with risk factors, such as age and sex of the animals, the parasite load (number of cysts/organ) of condemned organs, and the viability and fertility of Echinococcus cysts from cattle in the Andes. The prevalence was examined in 348 cattle from an authorized slaughterhouse of Huancayo at 3300 m altitude. Cyst burden was determined by extracting all cysts from the total of the CE-infected organs. Cyst fertility and protoscolices viability were analysed from 90 randomly selected CE-infected organs. The CE prevalence was 35.6% (124/348; 95% CI: 30.6%-40.6%). There was no significant effect of age and sex on CE prevalence. CE was significantly more prevalent (p < 0.05) in lungs than livers, 34.8% (121/348; 95% CI: 29.8%-39.8%) vs 8.9% (31/348; 95% CI: 5.9%-11.9%). Most (75%) infected organs had one to five cysts. The mean cyst burden was significantly (p = 0.018) higher in the lungs than livers, 6.4 ± 4.9 vs 3.7 ± 2.9. Cyst fertility was 1.6% (10/608; 95% CI: 0.6%-2.6%). Despite the high CE prevalence, infected organs from Andean cattle play a minor role in CE transmission to dogs in the central Peruvian Andes.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Echinococcosis , Echinococcus granulosus , Animals , Cattle , Peru/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/transmission , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Echinococcosis/veterinary , Echinococcosis/transmission , Male , Prevalence , Female , Echinococcus granulosus/isolation & purification , Risk Factors , Endemic Diseases/veterinary , Liver/parasitology , Lung/parasitology
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11957, 2024 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38796499

ABSTRACT

Hydatidosis causes a serious health hazard to humans and animals leading to significant economic and veterinary and public health concern worldwide. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro and ex vivo protoscolicidal effects of synthesized poly(amidoamine), PAMAM, nanoemulsion. In this study, PAMAM was characterized through dynamic light scattering technique to investigate the particle size and zeta potential of nanoemulsified polymer. For the in vitro and ex vivo assays, we used eosin dye exclusion test and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to evaluate the effects of the prepared and characterized PAMAM nanoemulsion against protoscoleces from Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato G6 (GenBank: OQ443068.1) isolated from livers of naturally infected camels. Various concentrations (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mg/mL) of PAMAM nanoemulsion at different exposure times (5, 10, 20 and 30 min) were tested against protoscolices. Our findings showed that PAMAM nanoemulsion had considerable concentration- and time-dependent protoscolicidal effect at both in vitro and ex vivo experiments. Regarding in vitro assay, PAMAM nanoemulsion had a potent protoscolicidal effect when compared with the control group with a highest protoscolicidal activity observed at the concentration of 2 mg/mL at all exposure times, such that 100% of protoscolices were killed after 20 min of exposure. Also, the mortality of protoscolices was 100% after 30 min of exposure to 1 and 1.5 mg/mL of PAMAM nanoemulsion, in vitro. Concerning ex vivo assay PAMAM nanoemulsion recorded the highest mortality rates at the concentration of 2 mg/mL (55, 99.4 and 100% at 10, 20, 30 min, respectively). Ultrastructure examination of examined protoscolices after 20 min of exposure to PAMAM nanoemulsion showed a complete loss of rostellar hooks, disruption of suckers with disorganization of hooks with partial or complete loss of them, and damage of protoscolices tegument with loss of their integrity in the form of holes and contraction of the soma region were observed in 1.5 and 2 mg/mL of PAMAM, in vitro and ex vivo, showing more damage in the in vitro conditions. It can be concluded that PAMAM nanoemulsion is a promising protoscolicidal agent offering a high protoscolicidal effect at a short exposure time. Further in vivo studies and preclinical animal trials are required to evaluate its efficacy and clinical applications against hydatid cysts.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis , Echinococcus granulosus , Emulsions , Animals , Echinococcus granulosus/drug effects , Echinococcus granulosus/ultrastructure , Echinococcosis/drug therapy , Echinococcosis/parasitology , Polyamines/pharmacology , Polyamines/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Particle Size , Camelus/parasitology
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(5): e0012131, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743784

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Echinococcosis is a natural focal, highly prevalent disease in China. Factors influencing the spread of echinococcosis are not only related to personal exposure but also closely related to the environment itself. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of environmental factors on the prevalence of human echinococcosis and to provide a reference for prevention and control of echinococcosis in the future. METHODS: Data were collected from 370 endemic counties in China in 2018. By downloading Modis, DEM and other remote-sensing images in 2018. Data on environmental factors, i.e., elevation, land surface temperature (LST) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were collected. Rank correlation analysis was conducted between each environmental factor and the prevalence of echinococcosis at the county level. Negative binomial regression was used to analyze the impact of environmental factors on the prevalence of human echinococcosis at the county level. RESULTS: According to rank correlation analysis, the prevalence of human echinococcosis in each county was positively correlated with elevation, negatively correlated with LST, and negatively correlated with NDVI in May, June and July. Negative binomial regression showed that the prevalence of human echinococcosis was negatively correlated with annual LST and summer NDVI, and positively correlated with average elevation and dog infection rate. The prevalence of human cystic echinococcosis was inversely correlated with the annual average LST, and positively correlated with both the average elevation and the prevalence rate of domestic animals. The prevalence of human alveolar echinococcosis was positively correlated with both NDVI in autumn and average elevation, and negatively correlated with NDVI in winter. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of echinococcosis in the population is affected by environmental factors. Environmental risk assessment and prediction can be conducted in order to rationally allocate health resources and improve both prevention and control efficiency of echinococcosis.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis , China/epidemiology , Humans , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Animals , Prevalence , Dogs , Environment , Regression Analysis
12.
Virol J ; 21(1): 116, 2024 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38783310

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) represents a profoundly perilous zoonotic disease. The advent of viral macrogenomics has facilitated the exploration of hitherto uncharted viral territories. In the scope of this investigation, our objective is to scrutinize disparities in the intestinal microbiotic ecosystems of canines dwelling in elevated terrains and those afflicted by Echinococcus infection, employing the tool of viral macrogenomics. METHODS: In this study, we collected a comprehensive total of 1,970 fecal samples from plateau dogs infected with Echinococcus, as well as healthy control plateau dogs from the Yushu and Guoluo regions in the highland terrain of China. These samples were subjected to viral macrogenomic analysis to investigate the viral community inhabiting the canine gastrointestinal tract. RESULTS: Our meticulous analysis led to the identification of 136 viral genomic sequences, encompassing eight distinct viral families. CONCLUSION: The outcomes of this study hold the potential to enhance our comprehension of the intricate interplay between hosts, parasites, and viral communities within the highland canine gut ecosystem. Through the examination of phage presence, it may aid in early detection or assessment of infection severity, providing valuable insights into Echinococcus infection and offering prospects for potential treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases , Echinococcosis , Echinococcus , Feces , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Animals , Dogs , Echinococcosis/veterinary , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dog Diseases/microbiology , Dog Diseases/virology , China , Feces/parasitology , Feces/microbiology , Feces/virology , Echinococcus/genetics , Echinococcus/isolation & purification , Genome, Viral , Viruses/classification , Viruses/isolation & purification , Viruses/genetics
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(5): e0012183, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38814859

ABSTRACT

Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, primarily affecting the liver and lungs. Although the heart is affected in only 0.02-2% of all CE cases, a considerable number of cases have been, and continue to be, published. However, due to the rare occurrence of cardiac CE and the resulting lack of clinical trials, knowledge about various aspects of the disease remains limited. To obtain a clearer picture of anatomical, clinical, diagnostic as well as therapeutic aspects of cardiac CE, we systematically reviewed the literature published between 1965 and 2022. The anatomical pattern of the affected cardiac structures follows the extension of the supplying capillary bed. The majority of patients (82.7%) are symptomatic and present with prolonged non-specific symptoms such as dyspnoea, chest pain and palpitations. Acute complications generally derive from cyst rupture, occur in 18.3% of cases and manifest as embolism, pericardial tamponade, or anaphylactic reaction in 83.2%, 17.8% and 10.9% of these cases, respectively. As for CE cysts localized in other organs, the diagnosis of cardiac CE is made by imaging. Serology plays a minor role due to its limited sensitivity. Unlike abdominal CE cysts, cardiac CE cysts are usually resected independent of their stage (active/inactive), because their presence impairs cardiac performance and carries the risk of long-term sequelae. More than 80% of patients are treated with a single surgical intervention. We found a disease-related case fatality rate of 11.1%. Since local recurrence was reported up to 108 months and secondary CE up to 72 months after surgery, patients should be followed up for a minimum of 10 years.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis , Humans , Echinococcosis/diagnosis , Echinococcosis/surgery , Animals , Heart Diseases/parasitology , Heart Diseases/surgery , Echinococcus granulosus , Heart/parasitology
14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1334211, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38817444

ABSTRACT

Parasites possess remarkable abilities to evade and manipulate the immune response of their hosts. Echinococcus granulosus is a parasitic tapeworm that causes cystic echinococcosis in animals and humans. The hydatid fluid released by the parasite is known to contain various immunomodulatory components that manipulate host´s defense mechanism. In this study, we focused on understanding the effect of hydatid fluid on dendritic cells and its impact on autophagy induction and subsequent T cell responses. Initially, we observed a marked downregulation of two C-type lectin receptors in the cell membrane, CLEC9A and CD205 and an increase in lysosomal activity, suggesting an active cellular response to hydatid fluid. Subsequently, we visualized ultrastructural changes in stimulated dendritic cells, revealing the presence of macroautophagy, characterized by the formation of autophagosomes, phagophores, and phagolysosomes in the cell cytoplasm. To further elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in hydatid fluid-induced autophagy, we analyzed the expression of autophagy-related genes in stimulated dendritic cells. Our results demonstrated a significant upregulation of beclin-1, atg16l1 and atg12, indicating the induction of autophagy machinery in response to hydatid fluid exposure. Additionally, using confocal microscopy, we observed an accumulation of LC3 in dendritic cell autophagosomes, confirming the activation of this catabolic pathway associated with antigen presentation. Finally, to evaluate the functional consequences of hydatid fluid-induced autophagy in DCs, we evaluated cytokine transcription in the splenocytes. Remarkably, a robust polyfunctional T cell response, with inhibition of Th2 profile, is characterized by an increase in the expression of il-6, il-10, il-12, tnf-α, ifn-γ and tgf-ß genes. These findings suggest that hydatid fluid-induced autophagy in dendritic cells plays a crucial role in shaping the subsequent T cell responses, which is important for a better understanding of host-parasite interactions in cystic echinococcosis.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Dendritic Cells , Echinococcosis , Echinococcus granulosus , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Animals , Echinococcus granulosus/immunology , Autophagy/immunology , Echinococcosis/immunology , Echinococcosis/parasitology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Mice , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Autophagosomes/immunology , Autophagosomes/metabolism
15.
J Parasitol ; 110(3): 210-217, 2024 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38811020

ABSTRACT

Alveolar echinococcosis is considered to be one of the most potentially lethal parasitic zoonotic diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Echinococcus multilocularis interacts with hosts are poorly understood, hindering the prevention and treatment of this disease. Due to the great advantages of cell culture systems for molecular research, numerous attempts have been made to establish primary cell cultures for E. multilocularis. In this study we developed a simple, rapid, and economical method that allows E. multilocularis metacestode tissue blocks to generate daughter vesicles without the continuous presence of host feeder cells in a regular medium. We performed anaerobic, hypoxic (1% O2), normoxic, and semi-anaerobic (in sealed tubes) cultures and found that E. multilocularis metacestode tissues can produce daughter vesicles only in the sealed tubes after 4 wk of incubation. The daughter vesicles cultivated in this system were remarkably enlarged under anaerobic conditions after 8 days of culture, whereas vesicles cultured under hypoxic (1% O2) and normoxic conditions showed only a mild increase in volume. Our in vitro cultivated vesicles showed strong viability and could be used to test antiparasitic drugs, isolate primary cells, and infect animals.


Subject(s)
Echinococcus multilocularis , Animals , Echinococcus multilocularis/growth & development , Echinococcosis/parasitology , Mice , Anaerobiosis , Cell Culture Techniques
16.
FASEB J ; 38(10): e23708, 2024 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38805151

ABSTRACT

Metacestodiasis is an infectious disease caused by the larval stage of cestode parasites. This disease poses a serious health hazard to wildlife, livestock, and humans, and it incurs substantial economic losses by impacting the safety of the livestock industry, the quality of meat production, and public health security. Unfortunately, there is currently no available molecular diagnostic method capable of distinguishing cysticercus- and Echinococcus-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) from other helminthes and hosts in the plasma of metacestode-infected animals. This study aims to develop a specific, sensitive, and cost-efficient molecular diagnostic method for cysticercosis and echinococcosis, particularly for early detection. The study developed a rolling circular amplification (RCA)-assisted CRISPR/Cas9 detection method based on parasite-derived miRNA let-7-5p. Using a series of dilutions of the let-7 standard, the limit of detection (LOD) of the qPCR, RCA, and RCA-assisted CRISPR/Cas9 methods was compared. The specificity of qPCR and CRISPR/Cas9 was evaluated using four artificially synthesized let-7 standards from different species. A total of 151 plasma samples were used to evaluate the diagnostic performance. Additionally, the study also assessed the correlation between plasma levels of let-7-5p, the number of Taenia pisiformis cysticerci, and the weight of Echinococcus multilocularis cysts. The results demonstrated that the RCA-assisted CRISPR/Cas9 assay could significantly distinguish let-7 from cestodes and other species, achieving a LOD of 10 aM; the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for rabbit cysticercosis and mouse E. multilocularis were 100% and 97.67%, and 100% and 100%, respectively. Notably, let-7-5p gradually increased in the plasma of T. pisiformis-infected rabbits from 15 days post infection (dpi), peaked at 60 dpi, and persisted until 120 dpi. In E. multilocularis-infected mice, let-7-5p gradually increased from 15 dpi and persisted until 90 dpi. Furthermore, the expression of let-7-5p positively correlated with the number of cysticerci and cyst weight. These results indicated that the let-7-5p-based RCA-assisted CRISPR/Cas9 assay is a sensitive and specific detection method that can be used as a universal diagnostic method for metacestodiasis, particularly for early diagnosis (15 dpi).


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems , Cysticercosis , MicroRNAs , Animals , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/blood , Mice , Cysticercosis/diagnosis , Cysticercosis/veterinary , Cysticercosis/parasitology , Echinococcosis/diagnosis , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Humans
17.
Parasite Immunol ; 46(5): e13040, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38801355

ABSTRACT

Cystic echinococcosis is caused by the tissue-dwelling larva (hydatid) of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. A salient feature is that this larva is protected by the acellular laminated layer (LL). As the parasite grows, the LL sheds abundant particles that can accumulate in the parasite's vicinity. The potential of LL particles to induce inflammation in vivo has not been specifically analysed. It is not known how each of its two major components, namely highly glycosylated mucins and calcium inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) deposits, impacts inflammation induced by the LL as a whole. In this work, we show that LL particles injected intraperitoneally cause infiltration of eosinophils, neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages as well as the disappearance of resident (large peritoneal) macrophages. Strikingly, the absence of calcium InsP6 enhanced the recruitment of all the inflammatory cell types analysed. In contrast, oxidation of the mucin carbohydrates caused decreased recruitment of neutrophils. The carbohydrate-oxidised particles caused cell influx nonetheless, which may be explained by possible receptor-independent effects of LL particles on innate immune cells, as suggested by previous works from our group. In summary, LL particles can induce acute inflammatory cell recruitment partly dependent on its mucin glycans, and this recruitment is attenuated by the calcium InsP6 component.


Subject(s)
Echinococcus granulosus , Phytic Acid , Animals , Echinococcus granulosus/immunology , Phytic Acid/pharmacology , Phytic Acid/metabolism , Echinococcosis/immunology , Echinococcosis/parasitology , Inflammation , Neutrophils/immunology , Mucins/metabolism , Mice , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Eosinophils/immunology , Female , Larva/immunology
18.
Acta Trop ; 255: 107240, 2024 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705342

ABSTRACT

Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, is a zoonotic parasitic disease that still represents a serious threat to human and animal health worldwide. The Mediterranean basin is recognized as one of the major hotspots of CE due to several factors, including the presence of diverse intermediate host species as well as socio-economic and cultural conditions of local communities. This study aims to take a closer look at epidemiological data on CE in the Mediterranean area and assess the knowledge attitudes and practices of shepherds towards this disease in four countries (Algeria, Greece, Italy and Tunisia), highly endemic for CE, with the final goal of identifying highly endemic risk areas and practices in use which might potentially allow the persistence of E. granulosus infection in these areas. To update the epidemiological scenario of CE in Mediterranean areas, a comprehensive review of peer-reviewed literature on CE prevalence data published during the 2017-2023 period was carried out and, through a geographical information system (GIS), a map displaying the current CE distribution in the Mediterranean area was generated. In addition, a questionnaire survey was conducted through in-depth interviews of the farmers to collect information on their management system as well as knowledge attitudes and practices towards CE. From the farmer-participatory survey some risky practices emerged including the non-regular deworming of dogs or the use of ineffective drugs or dosing, as well as the provision of uncooked animal viscera to dogs. Finally, lower levels of knowledge and awareness of the disease was observed among farmers from North Africa compared with those of European countries. In conclusion, the results obtained highlight that CE is still a very serious problem in Mediterranean areas and increased efforts are needed to promote awareness among farmers and to turn research results into policy in order to reduce the spread of this disease, according to the One Health perspective.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis , Echinococcus granulosus , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Livestock , Animals , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Echinococcosis/veterinary , Echinococcosis/prevention & control , Livestock/parasitology , Dogs , Mediterranean Region/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Greece/epidemiology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/parasitology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cattle , Tunisia/epidemiology , Algeria/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sheep , Farmers/statistics & numerical data
19.
Rev Med Interne ; 45(6): 382-386, 2024 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760184

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Alveolar echinococcosis is an endemic parasitic disease prevalent in certain cold regions of the Northern Hemisphere, including Eastern France, Switzerland, Germany, Canada, and the United States. Widely underdiagnosed, it is associated with infection by Echinococcus multilocularis, a small tapeworm belonging to the cestode class, capable of causing multi-systemic involvement, particularly in elderly or immunocompromised patients. CASE REPORT: We present the case of an 82-year-old patient, immunocompromised due to prolonged corticosteroid therapy and treatment with dupilumab. She was referred to our department for a diagnostic assessment of atypical hepatic and pulmonary lesions, initially suspected of tuberculosis or an IgG4-related disease. The hypothesis of alveolar echinococcosis caused by E. multilocularis was eventually considered based on a set of arguments, further confirmed by molecular diagnosis. We discuss the role of dupilumab in the systemic evolution and atypical presentation of the disease, through the induction of a specific immunosuppression. CONCLUSION: Alveolar echinococcosis should be systematically considered in case of systemic disease with prominent hepatic and pulmonary involvement, especially in immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Echinococcosis , Echinococcus multilocularis , Immunocompromised Host , Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Female , Echinococcosis/diagnosis , Echinococcosis/drug therapy , Aged, 80 and over , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/diagnosis , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/drug therapy , Animals
20.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 273: 110775, 2024 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776648

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hydatid disease is caused by the larval stages of the canine tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. It is one of the most critical helminthic diseases, representing worldwide public health and socio-economic concern. AIM: This study aimed to investigate the expression of apoptosis and immune response within hepatic tissues of humans and sheep infected with the Hydatid cyst. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded tissue was prepared from each tissue sample and used for histopathological examination by Haematoxylin- Eosin. Also, toluidine blue staining was used for mast cell detection, while an immunohistochemical study was performed to assess CD3 T lymphocytes, CD4 helper T lymphocytes, CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes, CD20 memory B lymphocytes, CD68 macrophage, and caspase-3 antibodies. RESULTS: The histological examination revealed significant changes, including the infiltration of inflammatory cells, predominantly lymphocytes with scattered giant cells, necrotic hepatic tissue, and fibrosis. Toluidine blue stain revealed a higher number of mast cells (5 cells/field) in humans compared to sheep (3.6 cells/field). The immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that the CD3 were the most predominant inflammatory cell in the hepatic tissue of humans (intensive 70%), and sheep (moderate 38.47%). Caspase-3 was observed in all samples in different grades and mostly in human liver tissue. CONCLUSION: This data could aid in recognizing immunological markers for differentiating disease progression, as well as enhance the understanding of local immune responses to cystic Echinococcosis (CE). The findings could provide preliminary data for future studies on immune responses associated with Hydatid cysts.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Sheep Diseases , Animals , Sheep/immunology , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/immunology , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/veterinary , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/parasitology , Sheep Diseases/immunology , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Humans , Liver/parasitology , Liver/immunology , Liver/pathology , Male , Female , Echinococcosis/immunology , Echinococcosis/veterinary , Echinococcus granulosus/immunology , Apoptosis/immunology , Caspase 3/immunology , Adult
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