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1.
S Afr J Surg ; 62(2): 58-62, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a useful, minimally invasive intervention in managing complicated hepatic cystic echinococcosis (HCE). This study aims to assess the use of ERCP in a South African HCE cohort with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection. METHODS: An analysis was performed of patients with HCE who were assessed for surgery and underwent ERCP at a tertiary hospital in South Africa between 2011 and 2023. Demographics, clinical data, imaging characteristics, operative management, and postoperative complications were compared between HIV-negative (HIV-) and HIV-positive (HIV+) cohorts. RESULTS: Of the 91 patients assessed, 45 (mean age 34.6 years, 73.3% females, 23 HIV+) required ERCP. HIV status did not significantly affect cyst characteristics or surgical outcomes. HIV+ patients had a higher incidence of intraoperative bile leaks (p = 0.025). There were 18 patients who underwent preoperative ERCPs, mainly for biliary-cyst complications primarily causing obstructive jaundice. A total of 40 patients required postoperative ERCPs, mainly for bile leaks. There were no ERCP-related mortalities and only one case of pancreatitis. ERCP success rates were comparable in both cohorts, with an overall success rate of 86.7%. CONCLUSION: HIV co-infection did not significantly impact the clinical course or outcomes of cystic echinococcosis (CE) patients undergoing ERCP. Perioperative ERCP proved effective in managing biliary complications of HCE as well as postoperative complications, regardless of HIV status. This study underscores the importance of endoscopic interventions in the comprehensive management of CE.


Subject(s)
Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Echinococcosis, Hepatic , HIV Infections , Humans , Female , Male , Adult , Retrospective Studies , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/surgery , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/epidemiology , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/complications , HIV Infections/complications , South Africa/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Treatment Outcome , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology
2.
S Afr J Surg ; 62(2): 71, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838129

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on the severity of hepatic cystic echinococcosis (CE) is uncertain. HIV-modulated immune suppression may increase the risk of contracting CE with less self-limiting disease, more rapid progression, and a higher likelihood of complications. A 30-year-old male with concurrent, untreated HIV underwent surgery for two large, complicated hepatic CE cysts, which were replacing the right hemiliver, and innumerable peritoneal daughter cysts. At operation, 30 kg of cystic material was removed from the liver and peritoneal cavity. Despite postoperative complications, including cardiac arrest, respiratory failure, and a bile leak, the patient made a full recovery.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis, Hepatic , HIV Infections , Humans , Male , Adult , HIV Infections/complications , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/complications , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/surgery , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/diagnostic imaging , Coinfection
3.
Trop Biomed ; 41(1): 20-28, 2024 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38852130

ABSTRACT

Echinococcosis is a common zoonotic disease in livestock; the type with the highest incidence is cystic echinococcosis (CE). In clinical management, patients with CE of the liver in which the cyst wall is calcified have been found to have better prognoses than those without calcification. In this study, we collected calcified and uncalcified cyst wall tissue from patients with hepatic CE and observed significant changes in the expression of 2336 messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs), 178 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), 210 microRNAs (miRNAs), and 33 circular RNAs (circRNAs) using high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses of differentially expressed RNAs (DERNAs: DEmRNAs, DElncRNAs, DEmiRNAs, and DEcircRNAs) were performed to explore these RNAs' potential biological functions and signaling pathways. Ultimately, the results of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining confirmed the correlation between calcification and apoptosis of the cyst wall. In summary, this study was an initial exploration of the molecular-biological mechanism underlying spontaneous calcification of the hydatid cyst wall, and it provides a theoretical basis for exploring new targets for drug treatment in CE.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Humans , Calcinosis/genetics , Calcinosis/parasitology , Transcriptome , Echinococcosis/parasitology , Gene Expression Profiling , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Male , MicroRNAs/genetics , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/parasitology , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , RNA, Circular/genetics
4.
Eur J Med Res ; 29(1): 301, 2024 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38812045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore the relevant risk factors associated with biliary complications (BCs) in patients with end-stage hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE) following ex vivo liver resection and autotransplantation (ELRA) and to establish and visualize a nomogram model. METHODS: This study retrospectively analysed patients with end-stage HAE who received ELRA treatment at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University between August 1, 2010 and May 10, 2023. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression model was applied to optimize the feature variables for predicting the incidence of BCs following ELRA. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop a prognostic model by incorporating the selected feature variables from the LASSO regression model. The predictive ability, discrimination, consistency with the actual risk, and clinical utility of the candidate prediction model were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, calibration plots, and decision curve analysis (DCA). Internal validation was performed by the bootstrapping method. RESULTS: The candidate prediction nomogram included predictors such as age, hepatic bile duct dilation, portal hypertension, and regular resection based on hepatic segments. The model demonstrated good discrimination ability and a satisfactory calibration curve, with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.818 (95% CI 0.7417-0.8958). According to DCA, this prediction model can predict the risk of BCs occurrence within a probability threshold range of 9% to 85% to achieve clinical net benefit. CONCLUSIONS: A prognostic nomogram with good discriminative ability and high accuracy was developed and validated to predict BCs after ELRA in patients with end-stage HAE.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Hepatectomy , Nomograms , Transplantation, Autologous , Humans , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/surgery , Male , Female , Transplantation, Autologous/methods , Adult , Retrospective Studies , Hepatectomy/methods , Hepatectomy/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Liver Transplantation/methods , Logistic Models , Risk Factors , Prognosis , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Biliary Tract Diseases/etiology , ROC Curve , Liver/surgery , Liver/pathology
5.
J Proteomics ; 301: 105191, 2024 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697285

ABSTRACT

Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease resulting from infection caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. This study aimed to assess the specific proteins that are potential candidates for the development of a vaccine against E. granulosus. The data-independent acquisition approach was employed to identify differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in E. granulosus samples. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis was employed to identify several noteworthy proteins. Results: The DEPs in E. granulosus samples were identified (245 pericystic wall vs. parasite-free yellowish granuloma (PYG, 1725 PY vs. PYG, 2274 PN vs. PYG). Further examination of these distinct proteins revealed their predominant enrichment in metabolic pathways, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and neurodegeneration-associated pathways. Notably, among these DEPs, SH3BGRL, MST1, TAGLN2, FABP5, UBE2V2, and RARRES2 exhibited significantly higher expression levels in the PYG group compared with the PY group (P < 0.05). The findings may contribute to the understanding of the pathological mechanisms underlying echinococcosis, providing valuable insights into the development of more effective diagnostic tools, treatment modalities, and preventive strategies. SIGNIFICANCE: CE is a major public health hazard in the western regions of China, Central Asia, South America, the Mediterranean countries, and eastern Africa. Echinococcus granulosus is responsible for zoonotic disease through infection Our analysis focuses on the proteins in various samples by data-dependent acquisition (DIA) for proteomic analysis. The importance of this research is to develop new strategies and targets to protect against E. granulosus infections in humans.


Subject(s)
Echinococcus granulosus , Proteomics , Proteomics/methods , Humans , Echinococcus granulosus/metabolism , Animals , Helminth Proteins/metabolism , Helminth Proteins/analysis , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/metabolism , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/parasitology , Proteome/analysis , Proteome/metabolism
6.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 409(1): 168, 2024 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38819706

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of two-step vascular exclusion and in situ hypothermic portal perfusion in patients with end-stage hepatic hydatidosis. METHODS: This study involved patients with advanced hepatic hydatid disease undergoing surgical treatment between 2022 and 2023, which included resection and reconstruction of the hepatic veins, inferior vena cava (IVC), and portal vein (PV). We described the technical details of liver resection and vascular reconstruction, as well as the use of two-step vascular exclusion and in situ hypothermic portal perfusion techniques during the vascular reconstruction process. RESULT: We included 7 patients with advanced hepatic hydatid disease who underwent surgical resection using two-step vascular exclusion and in situ hypothermic portal perfusion. The mean duration of surgery was 12.5 h (range, 7.5-15.0 h). The average hepatic ischemia time was 45 min (range, 25-77 min), while the occlusion time of the IVC was 87 min (range, 72-105 min). The total blood loss was 1000 milliliters (range, 500-1250 milliliters). Postoperatively, patients exhibited good recovery of liver and renal function. The mean ICU stay was 2 days (range, 1-3 days), and the mean postoperative hospital stay was 13 days (range, 9-16 days), with no Grade III or above complications observed during a mean follow-up period of 15 months (range, 9-24 months), CONCLUSION: two-step vascular exclusion and in situ hypothermic portal perfusion for surgical resection of end-stage hepatic hydatid disease is safe and effective. This significantly reduces the anhepatic time.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Hepatectomy , Portal Vein , Vena Cava, Inferior , Humans , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/surgery , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/diagnostic imaging , Male , Female , Hepatectomy/methods , Adult , Middle Aged , Portal Vein/surgery , Vena Cava, Inferior/surgery , Hypothermia, Induced , Treatment Outcome , Perfusion/methods , Retrospective Studies , Hepatic Veins/surgery , Aged
7.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 207, 2024 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although ultrasonography (US) has been widely used in the diagnosis of human diseases to monitor the progress of cystic echinococcosis (CE) control, the screening method for hepatic CE in sheep flocks requires adjustment. In this study, we used a US scanner to screen sheep flocks and evaluated the efficacy of dosing dogs once a year with praziquantel for 7 years from 2014 to 2021. METHODS: All sheep in the three flocks were screened using an ultrasound scanner in 2014 and compared with the prevalence of infection in 2021 in Bayinbuluke, Xinjiang, China. Sheep age was determined using incisor teeth. Cyst activity and calcification were determined using US images. The dogs were dewormed with praziquantel once a year to control echinococcosis in the community. RESULTS: Three flocks had 968 sheep in 2014, with 13.22%, 22.62%, 18.7%, 27.27%, 11.88%, and 6.3% of sheep aged 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and ≥ 6 years old, respectively. US scanning revealed that the overall CE prevalence was 38.43% (372/968), with active cysts and calcified cysts present in 9.40% (91/968) and 29.02% (281/968) of the sheep, respectively. For the young sheep aged 1 and 2 years, the prevalence of active and calcified cysts was: 1.56% and 0.91%, and 10.94% and 18.72%, respectively. Approximately 15.15% and 16.52% of the 4- and 5-year-old sheep, respectively, harbored active cysts. There was no significant difference in the infection rates of sheep between 2014 and 2021 (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: US is a practical tool for the field screening of CE in sheep flocks. One-third of the sheep population in the flocks was 1-2 years old, and these sheep played a very limited role in CE transmission, as most of the cysts were calcified. Old sheep, especially culled aged sheep, play a key role in the transmission of CE. Dosing dogs once a year did not affect echinococcosis control.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Sheep Diseases , Ultrasonography , Animals , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Sheep Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Sheep , China/epidemiology , Ultrasonography/veterinary , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/veterinary , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/epidemiology , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/diagnostic imaging , Prevalence , Dogs , Praziquantel/therapeutic use , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Female
8.
Rev Med Interne ; 45(6): 382-386, 2024 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760184

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Alveolar echinococcosis is an endemic parasitic disease prevalent in certain cold regions of the Northern Hemisphere, including Eastern France, Switzerland, Germany, Canada, and the United States. Widely underdiagnosed, it is associated with infection by Echinococcus multilocularis, a small tapeworm belonging to the cestode class, capable of causing multi-systemic involvement, particularly in elderly or immunocompromised patients. CASE REPORT: We present the case of an 82-year-old patient, immunocompromised due to prolonged corticosteroid therapy and treatment with dupilumab. She was referred to our department for a diagnostic assessment of atypical hepatic and pulmonary lesions, initially suspected of tuberculosis or an IgG4-related disease. The hypothesis of alveolar echinococcosis caused by E. multilocularis was eventually considered based on a set of arguments, further confirmed by molecular diagnosis. We discuss the role of dupilumab in the systemic evolution and atypical presentation of the disease, through the induction of a specific immunosuppression. CONCLUSION: Alveolar echinococcosis should be systematically considered in case of systemic disease with prominent hepatic and pulmonary involvement, especially in immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Echinococcosis , Echinococcus multilocularis , Immunocompromised Host , Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Female , Echinococcosis/diagnosis , Echinococcosis/drug therapy , Aged, 80 and over , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/diagnosis , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/drug therapy , Animals
9.
Cir Cir ; 92(2): 267-270, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38782397

ABSTRACT

Hilar cavernous transformation is the formation of venous structures rich in collateral around the portal vein. Portal vein thrombosis is a rare entity. Although there are many reasons for its etiology, few cases have been reported secondary to hydatid cysts in the liver. Here, we present a 24-year-old patient with complaints of abdominal pain and swelling. Her CT and MRI scans show cholelithiasis with portal vein thrombosis and hilar cavernous transformation due to giant hydatid cyst compression in the lateral liver sector.


La transformación cavernosa hiliar es la formación de estructuras venosas ricas en colaterales alrededor de la vena porta. La trombosis de la vena porta es una afección poco frecuente. Aunque existen muchas razones en su etiología, se han descrito pocos casos secundarios a quiste hidatídico en el hígado. Aquí se presenta el caso de una paciente de 24 años con quejas de dolor abdominal e hinchazón. La tomografía computarizada y la resonancia magnética mostraron colelitiasis con trombosis de la vena porta y transformación cavernosa hiliar por compresión del quiste hidatídico gigante en el sector lateral del hígado.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Portal Vein , Humans , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/complications , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/diagnostic imaging , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/surgery , Female , Portal Vein/diagnostic imaging , Young Adult , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Cholelithiasis/complications , Cholelithiasis/surgery , Cholelithiasis/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Liver/parasitology , Liver/diagnostic imaging
10.
Am J Case Rep ; 25: e943893, 2024 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Hydatid disease is a common parasitic infection in many areas of Asia, South America, and Africa. It can affect any organ, most commonly the liver. The hydatid is often asymptomatic and the diagnosis is made when complications arise. The most common complication of this disease is opening in the bile ducts, which is a life-threatening condition causing serious acute cholangitis. We report a case of acute cholangitis caused by hydatid cyst rupture into the right bile duct. CASE REPORT A 33-year-old woman, with no medical or surgical history, presented to our Emergency Department with abdominal pain, jaundice, and fever for 3 days prior to admission. The patient was hemodynamically stable. In the examination, we noticed right upper-quadrant tenderness with guarding, icterus sclera, and negative Murphy sign. A CT scan showed a liver hydatid cyst of the 4th and 8th of segments, with intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary duct dilation. The cyst communicated with the right hepatic bile duct via a large fistula. A diagnosis of acute cholangitis was made and she underwent conservative treatment with external drainage of the pericystic cavity through the biliary duct. The postoperative course was uncomplicated and she was discharged 15 days later. CONCLUSIONS The surgical approach to hepatic hydatid must be customized based on the specific characteristics of the cyst and associated complications. Acute hydatid cholangitis is a rare but serious complication of a hydatid cyst, which requires early diagnosis and adequate surgical management.


Subject(s)
Cholangitis , Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Humans , Female , Adult , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/complications , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/diagnosis , Cholangitis/parasitology , Cholangitis/etiology , Rupture, Spontaneous , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Acta Trop ; 255: 107203, 2024 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Alveolar Echinococcosis (AE) is a malignant zoonotic disease caused by Echinococcus multilocularis infection. Considering whether the lesion is accompanied by vascular invasion (VI) is crucial for treatment strategies. A cost-effective and convenient clinical diagnostic method is urgently needed to supplement current techniques. Consequently, we detected soluble CD155 (sCD155) as a potential biomarker for diagnosing VI in hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE). METHODS: Blood samples were from 42 AE patients and 49 healthy controls (HCs). Based on the computed tomography (CT) and contrast-enhanced CT, AE patients were further categorized into HAE with VI (VIAE; 27 cases) and HAE without VI (NVAE; 15 cases). The sCD155 concentration was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Correlations between sCD155 expression levels and clinicopathological features of AE patients were analyzed using SPSS and GraphPad Prism software. RESULTS: The sCD155 concentrations in AE patients were significantly higher than in HCs. The serum sCD155 level significantly differed between the VIAE and NVAE groups. The univariate analysis showed that VI of AE was significantly correlated with the sCD155 level when the sCD155 was greater than 11 ng/mL. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the multivariable analysis showed that sCD155 had an independent effect on VI of HAE. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed that sCD155 could differentially diagnose VI of HAE at the cut-off value of 11.08 ng/mL with an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.75. The sensitivity and specificity were 74.07 % and 66.67 %, respectively; the positive and negative predictive values were 74.07 % and 60.00 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: The sCD155 could be a VI biomarker for HAE. Elevated sCD155 levels are indicative of an increased likelihood of concomitant VI in HAE patients, necessitating a thorough evaluation of vascular impairment and the formulation of individualized management strategies.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/diagnosis , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/blood , Echinococcus multilocularis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , ROC Curve , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
Ann Ital Chir ; 95(2): 213-219, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38684490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hydatid cyst of the liver induced by Echinococcus granulosus is a pervasive zoonotic disease in our region. Its incidence varies across age groups, contingent on community lifespans and hygiene standards. Therapeutic modalities include Puncture, Aspiration, Injection, Re-aspiration (PAIR), and surgery. Due the limited feasability of PAIR, we suggest that surgery represents the optimal treatment in all stages, especially in endemic regions, depending on patient-specific variables. METHOD: Patients with hydatid cyst of the liver treated with PAIR and surgery in our center between January 2016 and January 2022 were analyzed retrospectively. PAIR or cystectomy were applied in treatment. These were then compared in terms of efficacy, feasibility, and complications. RESULTS: A single hydatid cyst of the liver was detected in 184 of the 225 cases, two cysts in 33, and three or more cysts in eight. The largest cyst diameter was 233 × 124 mm in the surgery group and 100 × 90 mm in the PAIR group. One hundred thirty-three of the 225 patients underwent open surgery, and no recurrence was encountered in these. However, recurrence was observed 19 patients treated with PAIR. Allergic reaction developed in one case during surgery, postoperative abscess in two cases, biliary fistula in five, and pneumonia in one. CONCLUSION: Surgical treatment should represent the standard procedure since it is safe and effective, ensures complete elimination of the parasite, involves no intraoperative shedding, preserves healthy tissues, and minimizes the risk of long-term recurrence and cavity-related complications.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Endemic Diseases , Humans , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/surgery , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/complications , Retrospective Studies , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Young Adult , Adolescent , Recurrence , Suction , Treatment Outcome
14.
Ann Transplant ; 29: e942358, 2024 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Hepatic cystic echinococcosis (HCE) is a frequently overlooked parasitic liver disease, for which the commonly recommended treatment is radical resection. However, this approach is often associated with severe comorbidities such as HBV/HCV, cirrhosis, and hepatic carcinoma, among others. CASE REPORT In this report, we present a case successfully managed by ex vivo liver resection and autologous liver transplantation (ELRA). In the described case, ex vivo resection was not feasible due to recurrent lesions and infections invading the portal vein, which resulted in portal vein cavernous transformation. CONCLUSIONS Through this paper, we aim to detail the treatment process, showcasing the feasibility and advantages of ELRA. Additionally, we propose a novel approach for the treatment of this disease, while emphasizing the importance of radical resection surgery to prevent long-term complications.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Echinococcosis , Humans , Transplantation, Autologous , Portal Vein/surgery , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/complications , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/diagnostic imaging , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/surgery , Hepatectomy/methods , Echinococcosis/surgery , Echinococcosis/complications , Echinococcosis/pathology
15.
Am J Case Rep ; 25: e943687, 2024 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38676296

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Hepatic hydatid cyst disease, caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus, is endemic in certain rural areas of the world, but not in most of East Asia outside Mainland China. In Taiwan, only one autochthonous case has been reported over the past 40 years. We present the case of an urban 91-year-old female patient without international travel history for more than 40 years. CASE REPORT The 91-year-old woman who used a wheelchair came to the Emergency Department reporting melena for 2 days and 1 episode of coffee-grounds vomitus. Epigastric tenderness was present. An incidental finding of elevated liver enzymes along with the clinical picture prompted further survey. Computed tomography revealed a 14×10×12 cm homogeneous cystic lesion in the right hepatic lobe with a partially calcified wall. On sonograms, a similar lesion was found, and the pathognomic "water-lily" sign was visualized along with the isoechoic-to-hypoechoic internal septa, fulfilling the diagnosis despite the patient's refusal to undergo magnetic resonance imaging studies and invasive definite diagnostic procedures. Although anthelmintic chemotherapy and invasive therapeutic measures were also refused, her symptoms improved and was not recurrent under supportive measures. However, the cyst was still present 12 months after discharge. CONCLUSIONS The case highlights that in areas with few cases of hepatic hydatid disease, the accurate diagnosis could be missed in patients without a significant epidemiological history. However, once imaging findings, especially those that are pathognomic, are appropriately interpreted on at least 2 imaging modalities, such cases could be diagnosed without further definitive studies.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Humans , Female , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/diagnosis , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/diagnostic imaging , Taiwan , Aged, 80 and over , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 50(7): 1034-1044, 2024 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38679514

ABSTRACT

To properly treat and care for hepatic cystic echinococcosis (HCE), it is essential to make an accurate diagnosis before treatment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of computer-aided diagnosis techniques in classifying HCE ultrasound images into five subtypes. METHODS: A total of 1820 HCE ultrasound images collected from 967 patients were included in the study. A multi-kernel learning method was developed to learn the texture and depth features of the ultrasound images. Combined kernel functions were built-in Support Vector Machine (MK-SVM) for the classification work. The experimental results were evaluated using five-fold cross-validation. Finally, our approach was compared with three other machine learning algorithms: the decision tree classifier, random forest, and gradient boosting decision tree. RESULTS: Among all the methods used in the study, the MK-SVM achieved the highest accuracy of 96.6% on the fused feature set. CONCLUSION: The multi-kernel learning method effectively learns different image features from ultrasound images by utilizing various kernels. The MK-SVM method, which combines the learning of texture features and depth features separately, has significant application value in HCE classification tasks.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Machine Learning , Ultrasonography , Humans , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Male , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Support Vector Machine , Reproducibility of Results , Algorithms , Aged , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods
17.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604682

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and phagocytic function in the peripheral blood of patients with hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE), and to examine their correlations with clinical inflamma tory indicators and liver functions. METHODS: A total of 50 patients with HAE admitted to Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qinghai University from August 2022 to June 2023 were enrolled, while 50 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals from the Centre for Healthy Examinations of the hospital during the same period served as controls. The levels of NETs markers neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neutrophil elastase (NE) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Peripheral blood neutrophils were isolated using density gradient centrifugation, stimulated in vitro using phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA), and the levels of MPO and citrullination histone H3 (CitH3) released by neutrophils were quantified using flow cytometry. The phagocytic functions of neutrophils were examined using flow cytometry. In addition, the correlations of MPO and NE levels with clinical inflammatory indicators and liver biochemical indicators were examined using Spearman correlation analysis among HAE patients. RESULTS: The peripheral blood plasma MPOï¼»(417.15 ± 76.08) ng/mL vs. (255.70 ± 80.84) ng/mL; t = 10.28, P < 0.05ï¼½, NEï¼»(23.16 ± 6.75) ng/mL vs. (11.92 ± 3.17) ng/mL; t = 10.65, P < 0.05ï¼½and CitH3 levelsï¼»(33.93 ± 18.93) ng/mL vs. (19.52 ± 13.89) ng/mL; t = 4.34, P < 0.05ï¼½were all significantly higher among HAE patients than among healthy controls, and a lower phagocytosis rate of neutrophils was detected among HAE patients than among healthy controlsï¼»(70.85 ± 7.32)% vs. (94.04 ± 3.90)%; t = 20.18, P < 0.05ï¼½, and the ability to produce NETs by neutrophils was higher among HAE patients than among healthy controls following in vitro PMA stimulation. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the phagocytosis rate of neutrophils correlated negatively with platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), interleukin-6 (IL-6) level and C-reactive protein (CRP) level (rs = -0.515 to -0.392, all P values < 0.05), and the MPO and NE levels positively correlated with inflammatory markers NLR, PLR, CRP and IL-6 (rs = 0.333 to 0.445, all P values < 0.05) and clinical liver biochemical indicators aspartic transaminase, alanine aminotransferase, direct bilirubin and total bilirubin among HAE patients (rs = 0.290 to 0.628, all P values < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Excessive formation of NETs is found among HAE patients, which affects the phagocytic ability of neutrophils and results in elevated levels of inflammatory indicators. NETs markers may be promising novel biomarkers for early diagnosis, monitoring, and severity assessment of liver disease.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Extracellular Traps , Humans , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Neutrophils , Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate/metabolism , Bilirubin/metabolism
18.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1358361, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605966

ABSTRACT

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the infection of Echinococcus multilocularis (E. multilocularis) larvae. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) produces inhibitory signals and induces T cell exhaustion, thereby inhibiting the parasiticidal efficacy of the liver immune system. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore how T-cell exhaustion contributes to AE and whether blocking CTLA-4 could reverse T cell exhaustion. Here we discovered that the expression of CTLA-4 was increased in the infiltrating margin around the lesion of the liver from AE patients by using western blot and immunohistochemistry assay. Multiple fluorescence immunohistochemistry identified that CTLA-4 and CD4/CD8 molecules were co-localized. For in vitro experiments, it was found that the sustained stimulation of E. multilocularis antigen could induce T cell exhaustion, blocking CTLA-4-reversed T cell exhaustion. For in vivo experiments, the expression of CTLA-4 was increased in the liver of E. multilocularis-infected mice, and the CTLA-4 and CD4/CD8 molecules were co-localized. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that the percentages of both CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells in the liver and peripheral blood were significantly increased and induced T exhaustion. When the mice were treated with anti-CTLA-4 antibodies, the number and weight of the lesions decreased significantly. Meanwhile, the flow cytometry results suggested that blocking CTLA-4 could effectively reverse T cell exhaustion and reactivate immune function. Our work reveals that blocking CTLA-4 could effectively reverse the T cell exhaustion caused by E. multilocularis and could be used as a novel target for the treatment of AE.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Animals , Humans , Mice , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CTLA-4 Antigen , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/parasitology , Echinococcus multilocularis , T-Cell Exhaustion
19.
Vet Parasitol ; 328: 110180, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626652

ABSTRACT

The Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato species complex is responsible for the neglected zoonotic disease known as cystic echinococcosis (CE). Humans and livestock are infected via fecal-oral transmission. CE remains prevalent in Western China, Central Asia, South America, Eastern Africa, and the Mediterranean. Approximately one million individuals worldwide are affected, influencing veterinary and public health, as well as social and economic matters. The infection causes slow-growing cysts, predominantly in the liver and lungs, but can also develop in other organs. The exact progression of these cysts is uncertain. This study aimed to understand the survival mechanisms of liver and lung CE cysts from cattle by determining their metabolite profiles through metabolomics and multivariate statistical analyses. Non-targeted metabolomic approaches were conducted using quadrupole-time-of-flight liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) to distinguish between liver and lung CE cysts. Data processing to extract the peaks on complex chromatograms was performed using XCMS. PCA and OPLS-DA plots obtained through multiple statistical analyses showed interactions of metabolites within and between groups. Metabolites such as glutathione, prostaglandin, folic acid, and cortisol that cause different immunological reactions have been identified both in liver and lung hydatid cysts, but in different ratios. Considering the differences in the metabolomic profiles of the liver and lung cysts determined in the present study will contribute research to enlighten the nature of the cyst and develop specific therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Liver , Lung , Metabolomics , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Liver/parasitology , Lung/parasitology , Echinococcus granulosus/physiology , Echinococcus granulosus/immunology , Echinococcosis, Pulmonary/veterinary , Echinococcosis/veterinary , Echinococcosis/parasitology , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/veterinary , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/parasitology , Chromatography, Liquid , Mass Spectrometry/veterinary
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