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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2)abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440317

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus), is a tapeworm that spreads between intermediate and definitive hosts through the ingestion of fecal matter contaminated with the parasite's eggs. The life cycle consists of differentiation from eggs to oncospheres to embryos, which eventually form cysts in organs like the liver, lungs and others. Within these cysts are protoscolices, an intermediate stage of the parasite which develop into adult tapeworms once they infect their definitive hosts. When these hydatid cysts form in humans, it is known as Cystic Echinococcosis (CE). This disease is treated through surgical excision of the cysts and or chemotherapy with benzimidazole compounds. Understanding the morphology of the intermediate developmental stage of E. granulosus, protoscolex stage, can allow researchers to identify defining structural changes and protein functions that could be used to develop treatment modalities for CE. Unique characteristics in the tegumental surface during the protoescolex stage and proteins associated with cyst fertility have all been identified in previous research studies and bring researchers closer to understanding the underlying mechanisms of E. granulosus development, and consequently, means to disrupt it to achieve better control of the disease.


El Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus), es un cestodo que se propaga entre huéspedes intermedios y definitivos a través de la ingestión de materia fecal contaminada con los huevos del parásito. El ciclo de vida consiste en la diferenciación de huevos a oncosferas y embriones, que finalmente forman quistes en órganos como el hígado, los pulmones y otros. Dentro de estos quistes hay protoescólices, una etapa intermedia del parásito que se convierte en su forma adulta (tenia), una vez que infectan a sus huéspedes definitivos. Cuando estos quistes hidatídicos se desarrollan en seres humanos, se les conoce como equinococosis quística (EC). Esta enfermedad se trata mediante la extirpación quirúrgica de los quistes o la quimioterapia con compuestos benzimidazólicos. La comprensión de la morfología de la etapa de desarrollo intermedia del E. granulosus y la etapa de protosclex, puede permitir a los investigadores identificar cambios estructurales definidos y funciones de proteínas que podrían usarse para desarrollar modalidades de tratamiento para la CE. Las características únicas en la superficie tegumentaria durante la etapa de protoescolex y las proteínas asociadas con la fertilidad del quiste se han identificado en estudios de investigación anteriores y acercan a los investigadores a la comprensión de los mecanismos subyacentes del desarrollo del E. granulosus y, en consecuencia, los medios para interrumpirlo para lograr un mejor control de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Animals , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Echinococcus granulosus/growth & development , Echinococcus granulosus/pathogenicity , Echinococcosis
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(6): 1630-1640, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421802

ABSTRACT

La equinococosis quística (EQ) a pesar de ser una enfermedad endémica en diversos lugares del planeta, presenta pocos estudios morfológicos y cuantitativos de las estructuras fundamentales del Echinococcus granulosus en humanos, en especial de los protoescólices. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar morfocuantitativamente protoescólices y otras estructuras fundamentales de E. granulosus obtenidos de hospederos humanos. Estudio de corte transversal. Se estudiaron 8 especímenes de EQ hepática humana, aplicando un muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia. Se evaluó las capas quísticas, el líquido y la arenilla hidatídica. Las capas fueron fijadas en formaldehido tamponado a 10 % y procesadas para su inclusión en paraplast. Se realizaron cortes de 5 µm de grosor y fueron teñidas con H-E para su análisis con microscopía óptica. El líquido y arenilla fueron centrifugados y al sedimento obtenido se le realizó análisis directo para determinar las medidas morfométricas de los protoescólices y de los ganchos grandes y pequeños. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva. De los 8 quistes estudiados, 6 eran quistes univesicular, uno multivesicular y un quiste abscedado, cuyas capas laminada y germinativa se encontraban bien definidas. Las vesículas prolígeras presentaban forma redondeada con protoescólices en su interior. Los protoescólices invaginados presentaron un largo y ancho promedio de 140,8 ± 34,3 µm y 106,2 ± 29,5 µm, respectivamente; y los desarrollados un largo de 237,2 ± 53,0 µm y ancho de 128,7 ± 32,0 µm. Los ganchos rostelares presentaron contornos suaves distribuidos en dos filas regulares. El promedio del largo total de los ganchos grandes y pequeños fue 20,1 ± 2,7 µm; el promedio del ancho total fue 7,4 ± 1,2 µm. En conclusión, las características morfocuantitativas de los ganchos de E. granulosus en humanos, son distintos a otras especies hospederas intermediarias y de otros Echinococcus spp. Es posible que el abandono del estado de resistencia de los protoescólices invaginado hasta su desarrollo genere implicancias epidemiológicas de interés.


SUMMARY: Although cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an endemic disease in several parts of the world, few morphological and quantitative studies of the fundamental structures of Echinococcus granulosus in humans, especially protoscolices. The aim of this study was to perform a morphoquantitative analysis of protoescolex and other fundamental structures of E. granulosus from human hosts. Cross- sectional study. Eight human hepatic EQ specimens were studied, applying non-probabilistic convenience sampling. Cystic layers, fluid and hydatid grit were evaluated. The layers were fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde and processed for embedding in paraplast. Slices of 5 µm thickness were made and stained with H-E for light microscopic analysis. The liquid and grit were centrifuged and the sediment obtained was analyzed directly to determine the morphometric measurements of the protoscolices and the large and small hooks. Descriptive statistics were used. Of the 8 cysts studied, 6 were univesicular cysts, one multivesicular and one abscessed cyst, whose lamellar and germinative layers were well defined. The proligerous vesicles had a rounded shape with protoscolices inside. The invaginated protoscolices had an average length and width of 140.8 ± 34.3 µm and 106.2 ± 29.5 µm, respectively; and the developed ones had a length of 237.2 ± 53.0 µm and width of 128.7 ± 32.0 µm. The rostellar hooks presented smooth contours distributed in two regular rows. The average total length of the large and small hooks was 20.1 ± 2.7 µm; the average total width was 7.4 ± 1.2 µm. In conclusion, the morphoquantitative characteristics of E. granulosus hooks in humans are distinct from other intermediate host species and from other Echinococcus spp. It is possible that the abandonment of the resistance state of the invaginated protoscolices until their development generates epidemiological implications of interest.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Echinococcosis/parasitology , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
Vet Parasitol ; 282: 109132, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417601

ABSTRACT

Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease and the second most common foodborne parasitic infection worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate genetic variations in G1 and G3 genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and determine the morphological differences between two genotypes. In total, 119 cystic samples were collected from 48 cattle and 71 sheep in slaughterhouses in four cities in three geographical regions of Turkey regions (Ankara, Central Anatolio region; Ordu, Black Sea region; and Adana, Mersin, Mediterranean region). For molecular characterization of the G1 and G3 genotypes, two gene regions (the complete mt-cox1 gene sequence and partial mt-nad5 gene sequence) were amplified. Haplotype analysis was conducted to determine the nucleotide differences between the complete sequences of the mt-cox1 gene for 47 samples. In addition, morphological parameters in protoscoleces of fertile cysts were measured to determine the relationship between the genotypes and morphometry. According to the obtained genotype and morphometry results, there were no statistically significant differences between the genotypes in terms of the number of hooks, total lengths of large and small hooks, blade lengths of large and small hooks, and widths of small hooks, although there was a statistically significant difference in large hook width (p > 0.05).


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Echinococcosis/veterinary , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Echinococcus granulosus/genetics , Haplotypes , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Animals , Cattle , Echinococcosis/parasitology , Sheep , Sheep, Domestic , Turkey
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 190, 2020 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276648

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis, caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus, is a neglected tropical disease with remarkable morbidity in humans and a problem of worldwide economic importance in livestock industry. Understanding the molecular basis of the parasite growth and development is essential for the disease diagnosis, management and control. The tetraspanin (TSP) family of proteins are transmembrane proteins with a role in many physiological processes of eukaryotic organisms. TSPs present in the tegumental surface of platyhelminths play pivotal roles in host-parasite interaction. However, little is known about the role of TSPs in growth and development in the Platyhelminthes. To understand the role of TSP1 in the growth and development of E. granulosus we investigated the effect of EgTSP1-specific long dsRNA in different in vitro stages of the parasite. METHODS: Different stages of E. granulosus, protoscoleces and strobilated worms, were cultivated In vitro in di-phasic media. Using long dsRNA and two delivery methods, i.e. electroporation and electro-soaking, EgTSP1 silencing was performed with an EgTSP1-specific dsRNA. The TSP1 expression profile was assessed as well as the biological and ultrastructural properties of the parasites. RESULTS: After three days of dsRNA treatment, EgTSP1 expression was significantly reduced in both stages of E. granulosus as compared to irrelevant/unrelated dsRNA and untreated controls. Silencing expression of EgTSP1 in different stages of E. granulosus resulted in reduced viability and body contractions, inhibition of protoscoleces evagination and distinctive tegumental changes. Ultrastructural morphology of the strobilated worms treated with EgTSP1-specific dsRNA was indicative of the microtriches impairments and vacuolated tegument compared to the control helminths. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the present study suggest that EgTSP1 plays important structural roles in tegument configuration in E. granulosus. EgTSP1 is proved to be a potential target for the development of vaccines and RNAi-based drugs.


Subject(s)
Echinococcus granulosus/genetics , Tetraspanins/genetics , Animals , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Echinococcus granulosus/metabolism , Echinococcus granulosus/ultrastructure , Growth and Development , Host-Parasite Interactions , RNA Interference , RNA, Double-Stranded/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Tetraspanins/metabolism
5.
Acta Trop ; 199: 105122, 2019 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398313

ABSTRACT

Echinococcus granulosus is a cestode parasite whose cytoskeleton plasticity allows it to enter and develop inside its hosts, completing thus its life cycle. We focused our attention on F-actin organization and distribution in E. granulosus protoscoleces (PSC) in order to contribute to the knowledge of the parasite cytoskeleton. In particular, we addressed some aspects of F-actin rearrangements in PSC at different stages of the evagination/invagination process. The use of light microscopy allowed us to identify different PSC structures and phalloidin staining displayed a parasite's highly organized F-actin cytoskeleton. Suckers exhibit an important musculature composed of a set of radial fibers. At the rostellum, the F-actin filaments are arranged in a bulbar shape with perforations that appear to be the attachment places for the hooks. Also, "circular" structures of F-actin were identified, which remind the flame cells. Furthermore, parasite F-actin filaments, unevenly distributed, seem to have remained substantially unchanged during the evagination/invagination process. Finally, we showed that the scolex of an evaginated E. granulosus PSC reinvaginates in vitro without any treatment.


Subject(s)
Actin Cytoskeleton/physiology , Actins/analysis , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Echinococcus granulosus/physiology , Abattoirs , Actin Cytoskeleton/ultrastructure , Animals , Cattle , Echinococcus granulosus/growth & development , Life Cycle Stages , Lung/parasitology , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Phalloidine , Staining and Labeling , Uruguay
6.
Korean J Parasitol ; 54(1): 55-60, 2016 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26951979

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study is to determine the characteristics of genotype and phenotype of Echinococcus granulosus derived from wild sheep and to compare them with the strains of E. granulosus sensu stricto (sheep-dog) and E. granulosus camel strain (camel-dog) in Iran. In Khojir National Park, near Tehran, Iran, a fertile hydatid cyst was recently found in the liver of a dead wild sheep (Ovis orientalis). The number of protoscolices (n=6,000) proved enough for an experimental infection in a dog. The characteristics of large and small hooks of metacestode were statistically determined as the sensu stricto strain but not the camel strain (P=0.5). To determine E. granulosus genotype, 20 adult worms of this type were collected from the infected dog. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase 1 subunit (COX1) of the mitochondrial DNA were amplified from individual adult worm by PCR. Subsequently, the PCR product was sequenced by Sanger method. The lengths of ITS2 and COX1 sequences were 378 and 857 bp, respectively, for all the sequenced samples. The amplified DNA sequences from both ribosomal and mitochondrial genes were highly similar (99% and 98%, respectively) to that of the ovine strain in the GenBank database. The results of the present study indicate that the morpho-molecular features and characteristics of E. granulosus in the Iranian wild sheep are the same as those of the sheep-dog E. granulosus sensu stricto strain.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis/veterinary , Echinococcus granulosus/physiology , Genotype , Phenotype , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Animals , DNA, Helminth/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Dogs , Echinococcosis/parasitology , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Echinococcus granulosus/classification , Echinococcus granulosus/genetics , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Iran , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Sheep , Species Specificity
7.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wpr-36483

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study is to determine the characteristics of genotype and phenotype of Echinococcus granulosus derived from wild sheep and to compare them with the strains of E. granulosus sensu stricto (sheep-dog) and E. granulosus camel strain (camel-dog) in Iran. In Khojir National Park, near Tehran, Iran, a fertile hydatid cyst was recently found in the liver of a dead wild sheep (Ovis orientalis). The number of protoscolices (n=6,000) proved enough for an experimental infection in a dog. The characteristics of large and small hooks of metacestode were statistically determined as the sensu stricto strain but not the camel strain (P=0.5). To determine E. granulosus genotype, 20 adult worms of this type were collected from the infected dog. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase 1 subunit (COX1) of the mitochondrial DNA were amplified from individual adult worm by PCR. Subsequently, the PCR product was sequenced by Sanger method. The lengths of ITS2 and COX1 sequences were 378 and 857 bp, respectively, for all the sequenced samples. The amplified DNA sequences from both ribosomal and mitochondrial genes were highly similar (99% and 98%, respectively) to that of the ovine strain in the GenBank database. The results of the present study indicate that the morpho-molecular features and characteristics of E. granulosus in the Iranian wild sheep are the same as those of the sheep-dog E. granulosus sensu stricto strain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , DNA, Helminth/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Echinococcosis/parasitology , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Genotype , Iran , Phenotype , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Species Specificity
8.
J Helminthol ; 89(1): 1-8, 2015 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23842071

ABSTRACT

Cystic echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is one of the most important helminth zoonoses in the world; it affects both humans and livestock. The disease is endemic in Argentina and highly endemic in the province of Neuquén. Considerable genetic and phenotypic variation has been demonstrated in E. granulosus, and ten different genotypes (G1-G10) have been identified using molecular tools. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato may be considered a species complex, comprised of E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3), E. equinus (G4), E. ortleppi (G5) and E. canadensis (G6-G10). In endemic areas, the characterization of cystic echinococcosis molecular epidemiology is important in order to apply adequate control strategies. A cut-off value for larval large hook total length to distinguish E. granulosus sensu stricto isolates from those produced by other species of the complex was defined for the first time. Overall, 1780 larval hooks of 36 isolates obtained from sheep (n= 11, G1), goats (n= 10, G6), cattle (n= 5, G6) and pigs (n= 10, G7) were analysed. Validation against molecular genotyping as gold standard was carried out using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The optimum cut-off value was defined as 26.5 µm. The proposed method showed high sensitivity (97.8%) and specificity (91.1%). Since in most endemic regions the molecular epidemiology of echinococcosis includes the coexistence of the widely distributed E. granulosus sensu stricto G1 strain and other species of the complex, this technique could be useful as a quick and economical tool for epidemiological and surveillance field studies, when fertile cysts are present.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis/veterinary , Echinococcus granulosus/isolation & purification , Parasitology/methods , Animal Structures/anatomy & histology , Animal Structures/growth & development , Animals , Argentina , Camelus/parasitology , Cattle/parasitology , Echinococcosis/parasitology , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Echinococcus granulosus/classification , Echinococcus granulosus/growth & development , Genotype , Goats/parasitology , Horses/parasitology , Larva/anatomy & histology , Larva/classification , Larva/genetics , Larva/growth & development , Organ Size , Sheep/parasitology , Swine/parasitology
9.
Int J Parasitol ; 43(8): 647-59, 2013 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23639266

ABSTRACT

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important neuroactive and morphogenetic molecule in several metazoan phyla, including flatworms. Serotoninergic nervous system studies are incomplete and 5-HT function/s are unknown in Echinococcus spp., the flatworm parasites that cause hydatid disease. In the present work, we searched for genes of the serotoninergic pathway and performed immunocytochemical and functional analyses of 5-HT in Echinococcus spp. Bioinformatic analysis using the recently available Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus genomes suggests the presence of genes encoding enzymes, receptors and transporters participating in 5-HT synthesis, sensing and transport in these parasites. However, some components of the pathway could not be identified, suggesting loss or divergence of parasite homologous genes. The serotoninergic neuroanatomy study performed by confocal scanning laser microscopy on different E. granulosus stages showed an increasing level of complexity when the protoscolex develops towards the adult stage and a progressive diminution when the parasite develops towards the metacestode stage. The role of 5-HT as a neurotransmitter in E. granulosus was evaluated by determining the effect of this substance on protoscolex motility. The addition of 5-HT to protoscoleces induced a significant increase in motility for short time periods. Preincubation with 100 µM citalopram, a known 5-HT transporter inhibitor, abolished the 5-HT-induced increase in motility, indicating that the effect could be mediated by a 5-HT transporter. Incubation of protoscoleces with 5-HT for time periods of several days induced a progressive differentiation towards the metacestode stage. The results indicate that 5-HT could have nervous and prenervous roles during Echinococcus spp. development. Taking into account the important roles of 5-HT in parasite biology and the divergence of 5-HT pathway genes with respect to human counterparts, the serotoninergic system could be considered as an amenable drug target against hydatid disease.


Subject(s)
Echinococcus granulosus/physiology , Serotonin/metabolism , Animals , Computational Biology , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Echinococcus granulosus/genetics , Echinococcus granulosus/growth & development , Echinococcus multilocularis/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Locomotion/drug effects , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Microscopy, Confocal , Neuroanatomy
10.
Parasitol Res ; 112(1): 385-91, 2013 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23086446

ABSTRACT

Echinococcus granulosus, the etiologic agent of cystic echinococcosis in humans and other animal hosts, is distributed worldwide. Echinococcosis is an increasing public health and socioeconomic concern. The present work evaluated whether or not a superabsorbent polymer (SAP) could enhance the damage efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on the viability of E. granulosus protoscolices in vitro. HIFU of 100 W acoustic power and 0.01 g superabsorbent polymer were used to treat 5,000 protoscolices in 2-ml protoscolices suspension. After different HIFU exposure time (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 s, respectively), the temperature of protoscolices suspension was taken, and the treated protoscolices were stained by trypan-blue exclusion assay, and their structures were observed by light microscopy. To better understand the biological mechanisms responsible for the deaths of protoscolices, the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) of the protoscolices treated with HIFU was examined. The temperature of protoscolices suspension treated with HIFU rose slowly, and the death rate of protoscolices was 73.7 % in the group of HIFU treatment time of 40 s; however, with the same HIFU treatment time of 40 s, the temperature of protoscolices suspension in the group of HIFU combined with SAP rose quickly, and the death rate of protoscolices was 100 %. The same protoscolicidal effect (100 %) of HIFU of 100 W acoustic power combined with SAP was also observed in the groups of HIFU treatment time of 50 and 60 s, respectively. The dead protoscolices were stained to blue, shrunken and black calcareous corpuscles, and disordered and decreasing hooks though of intact membrane, as well as some protoscolices lost hooks and tore open on membrane were observed. In the group of HIFU combined with SAP, it was found that the superabsorbent polymer was surrounded by the spoiled, and the destruction of protoscolices was much stronger than in the group of HIFU. The dead protoscolices exhibited the reduction or absence of SDH staining intensity in the parenchymal cell and calcareous corpuscles after HIFU irradiation, where a large number of necrotic cells were evident. These results suggested that HIFU could induce the damage and loss of viability of protoscolices; SAP could enhance the HIFU energy focused and cause more severe destruction efficacy on protoscolices; and mitochondrial energetic function is involved in the regulation of cell-death pathways of protoscolices.


Subject(s)
Anthelmintics/toxicity , Echinococcus granulosus/drug effects , Echinococcus granulosus/physiology , Polymers/toxicity , Sound , Animals , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Microscopy , Succinate Dehydrogenase/analysis , Survival Analysis , Temperature
11.
Parasitol Res ; 112(2): 707-17, 2013 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23160895

ABSTRACT

Cystic echinococcosis, caused by the metacestode stage of Echincoccus granulosus, remains endemic in many regions around the world. The present work evaluated whether or not a superabsorbent polymer (SAP) and ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) alone or in combination could enhance damage efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on hydatid cysts in vitro. HIFU of 100 W acoustic power, with the aid of 0.1 ml UCA and 0.1 g SAP alone or in combination, was used to ablate hydatid cysts in vitro. The comparison of ultrasound image for each layer of hydatid cyst before and after HIFU ablation was made immediately, and the protoscolices of the cysts were stained by eosin exclusion assay, and the structures of protoscolices were observed by light microscopy. To understand the destructive effects of HIFU, the pathological changes in cyst walls of hydatid cyst ablated with HIFU were examined. The results demonstrated that HIFU had some lethal effect on hydatid cysts: echo enhancement of ultrasound image, increase of mortality rate of protoscolices, serious structural damage of protoscolices, and complete destruction or even disappearance of laminated layer and germinal layer was observed in the group of HIFU combined with UCA and SAP alone or in combination. It was found that the destructive effect of HIFU aided with a combination of UCA and SAP to hydatid cysts was more effective than that of HIFU just aided with UCA or SAP alone. These results suggested that UCA and SAP might be used as a HIFU enhancing agent to improve the efficacy of HIFU ablation to hydatid cysts, which could be a possible therapeutic option for cystic echinococcosis.


Subject(s)
Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Contrast Media/pharmacology , Echinococcosis/diagnostic imaging , Echinococcus granulosus/drug effects , Sonication/methods , Animals , Echinococcosis/pathology , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , High-Energy Shock Waves , Microscopy , Survival Analysis , Ultrasonography
12.
Acta Trop ; 123(2): 67-71, 2012 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22484229

ABSTRACT

Hydatidosis is considered to be an important economic and human public health problem in Iran, where a variety of animals act as intermediate hosts. There is limited information about the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus in goats. In this study, 20 isolates of E. granulosus obtained from goats were characterised by mitochondrial DNA sequencing and morphology of the metacestode. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 sequences were evaluated, and the sequence analysis indicated two genotypes within the isolates. 17 samples were identified as G1 strain, and 3 isolates were identified as G6 strain. The results of the morphological studies support the findings of the molecular studies. Two types of rostellar hooks were observed in the goat isolates, in agreement with the strain identification. Type 1 hooks were morphologically similar to those of the common sheep strains, whereas the dimensions of the hooks in type 2 were similar to those normally found in the camel strain. The morphological results suggest that Echinococcus of goat origin is phenotypically similar to either the sheep (G1) or the camel (G6) strains. Further, these results suggest that the transmission of the G1 genotype between sheep and goats seems to be the predominant mode of transmission, but further work is required to verify this.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis/veterinary , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Echinococcus granulosus/genetics , Goat Diseases/parasitology , Goats/parasitology , Animals , Camelus/parasitology , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Echinococcosis/parasitology , Echinococcus granulosus/classification , Echinococcus granulosus/isolation & purification , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Host-Parasite Interactions , Humans , Iran , Sequence Analysis, DNA
13.
Parasitology ; 139(1): 103-9, 2012 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21996421

ABSTRACT

Cystic echinococcosis is a significant parasitic disease in Iran, where a variety of animals act as intermediate hosts. In this study, 25 isolates of Echinococcus granulosus obtained from water buffalo from various parts of Iran were characterized on the basis of the morphology of the metacestode and the adult worm. The characteristics of protoscoleces from the different studied areas were nearly similar. They showed 2 rows of alternating large and small hooks and their shapes were smooth in outline. In contrast to the protoscoleces, the adult rostellar hooks showed a rough outline. The results showed that the total length, the blade lengths of the large and small hooks and the number of hooks are almost similar to those isolated from sheep but significantly different from those isolated from camels. The growth rates of adult E. granulosus (total worm length, segmentation and maturation) of buffalo origin, at 35 and 41 days post-infection of dogs, were nearly comparable to the common sheep strain. The form of the strobila and the morphology of the reproductive system were also similar to those of sheep origin. This suggests that the common sheep strain (G1) of E. granulosus may also use buffaloes as its intermediate host.


Subject(s)
Buffaloes/parasitology , Echinococcosis/veterinary , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Animals , Dogs , Echinococcosis/parasitology , Echinococcus granulosus/growth & development , Echinococcus granulosus/isolation & purification , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Iran
14.
Asian Pac J Trop Med ; 5(1): 58-61, 2012 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22182645

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To find importance of morphometric criterion of larval rostellar hook of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) and the easy and reliable method for distinguish sheep and camel strains in epidemiologic studies. METHODS: Larval rostellar hooks (n=1860) of 31 camel and sheep isolates in Iran, which already had been characterized by PCR, were carefully processed by computerized imagime analysis system (CIAS) and acquired data about rostellar hooks were analyzed using software SPSS. RESULTS: Measurement analysis of rostellar hooks [mean length (24.23±3.12) µ m] indicated that length of the large hook was a remarkable parameter for strain differentiation. Data analysis demonstrated that CIAS could be used as a reliable tool to distinguish camel from sheep strains with high sensitivity (95.2%) and specificity (91.5%). CONCLUSIONS: CIAS as a specific, sensitive, economic, fast, and reliable means might be used for differentiation of E. granulosus strains. Although perimeter and area were measured by digital technology, they were not shown as discriminative criterion as total hook length did.


Subject(s)
Camelus/parasitology , Echinococcosis/veterinary , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Sheep Diseases/diagnosis , Sheep/parasitology , Animals , Echinococcosis/diagnosis , Echinococcus granulosus/isolation & purification , Iran , Larva , Observer Variation , Species Specificity
15.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 124(18): 2806-12, 2011 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22040484

ABSTRACT

The terminology related to the hydatid cyst is sometimes inappropriate and wrong designations are used, based on incorrect concepts. "Hydatid cyst" is the larval form of the tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus granulosus, a parasite found in the small intestine of carnivores. The disease, called cystic echinococcosis, is among the most neglected parasitic diseases despite the development of new drugs and other treatment modalities. Although all of us know the vital cycle of the parasite and the different aspects of the disease, the designations around the parasite, its evolution and some therapeutic procedures are not uniform. It would be useful, for all of us, to use the same nomenclature and it is absolutely necessary that the nomenclature is correct and universally accepted. In this paper I remember the correct terms related to all aspects of the hydatid cyst's nomenclature, including especially the anatomical and surgical terminology, as well as the criteria to define the cyst inactivity and the way to know when the cyst range the inactive stage after therapy.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis/pathology , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Echinococcus granulosus/classification , Animals , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Echinococcosis/metabolism , Echinococcosis/surgery , Humans
16.
J Helminthol ; 85(3): 239-45, 2011 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20815974

ABSTRACT

Isolates of Echinococcus granulosus from the Indian buffalo and Iranian sheep, cattle and camels were characterized on the basis of rostellar hook morphology of the protoscolices. Results obtained indicated phenotypic polymorphism among parasites isolated from different host species. Isolates from buffalo are morphologically quite different from those of the more common sheep and cattle isolates and may represent a different strain, adapted to buffalo. In the Sari region of northern Iran, two morphologically distinct forms of E. granulosus, one in sheep and one in camels, were identified. Total length and handle length of both large and small hooks were considered the most variable characteristics which could be used not only for differentiating parasite isolates from different host species but also the origin of infection in the definitive host. We therefore suggest that larval hook morphology may be considered as a valid criterion for the identification of E. granulosus strains in Iran.


Subject(s)
Buffaloes/parasitology , Camelus/parasitology , Cattle/parasitology , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Echinococcus granulosus/isolation & purification , Sheep/parasitology , Animals , India , Iran , Microscopy
17.
Ann Trop Med Parasitol ; 103(7): 593-604, 2009 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19825281

ABSTRACT

Echinococcosis/hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus has a widespread distribution in the human population of Tunisia, particularly in the north-west and centre-west of the country. In a recent study, the morphological features, fertility and viability of hydatid cysts that had been excised from patients in Tunis were explored, and the E. granulosus strain or genotype involved in each case was identified from morphology of the protoscolex hooks and the results of molecular genotyping. The hepatic cysts investigated came from 41 patients [31 women and 10 men, with a mean (S.E.) age of 43.41 (14.25) years] who were treated for cystic echinococcosis, by surgery but rarely with chemotherapy, at the La Rabta Hospital in Tunis, in the 12 months ending in June 2008. Most (56%) of these patients originated from rural areas in endemic governorates. Of the 60 hepatic cysts that were studied, 38.3% were located in the right lobe of the liver and 35.0% each involved both hepatic lobes. Almost a third (31.7%) of the excised cysts were degenerating, with the rest considered viable and either multivesicular (38.3%) or univesicular (30.0%). Almost all (93.3%) of the cysts were categorized as fertile, with a mean protoscolex viability of 21.8%. Protoscolex viability was relatively high in the viable univesicular cysts with a visible cyst wall and in the multivesicular and multiseptate cysts with daughter cysts, and lowest in the cysts that appeared to be solid calcified masses. The observed variation in protoscolex viability with cyst type, in cysts excised from patients before any chemotherapy, supports the cyst classification recommended by the World Health Organization but could also be compatible with the imaging-based 'Gharbi' classification. The results of the molecular genotyping showed that all 23 cysts investigated (which came from 20 of the patients) were caused by E. granulosus of the G1 genotype (also known as the 'sheep' or 'sheep-dog' strain).


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis, Hepatic/parasitology , Echinococcus granulosus , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dogs , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/surgery , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/veterinary , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Echinococcus granulosus/genetics , Echinococcus granulosus/physiology , Female , Fertility , Genotype , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Tunisia , Young Adult
18.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 33(3): 199-202, 2009.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19851963

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to determine the morphometrical characteristics of the larval hooks of Echinococcus granulosus in Turkey. The number of rostellar hooks (NH) and the total length of long blades, length of the blade of the long hooks, the total length of small blades and the length of the blade of the small hooks were measured in sheep and cattle isolates. The principal component and discriminant function analyses were used to analyze the data. Rostellar structure of protoscoleces was very similar in the sheep and cattle samples. According to the correlation matrix, the hook number and the hook length was negatively correlated. However, the correlation between the hook lengths was positive. It was found that the morphometric characteristics of the samples from the sheep and cattle closely resembled each other.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Echinococcosis/veterinary , Echinococcus granulosus/isolation & purification , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Discriminant Analysis , Echinococcosis/diagnosis , Echinococcosis/parasitology , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Principal Component Analysis , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/diagnosis , Turkey
19.
J Helminthol ; 82(4): 309-11, 2008 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18519006

ABSTRACT

In the present study viable protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus were exposed to in vitro anthelmintic treatment to observe efficacy against Indian buffalo isolates. Evaluation criteria included morphological changes, viability scores and expression of peptides as a product of prestressed protoscoleces. Protoscolex changes included presence of bladder-like structure and morphological distortion. Two peptides of relative molecular weight (Mr) 40 and 70 kDa were visualized when proteins were separated by discontinuous gel electrophoresis. These two peptides seemed to be products of prestressed protoscoleces.


Subject(s)
Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Buffaloes/parasitology , Echinococcosis/drug therapy , Echinococcosis/veterinary , Echinococcus granulosus/drug effects , Helminthiasis, Animal/drug therapy , Albendazole/therapeutic use , Animals , Drug Therapy, Combination , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Echinococcus granulosus/physiology , Helminth Proteins/analysis , Helminth Proteins/metabolism , India , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Life Cycle Stages
20.
J Cell Physiol ; 216(2): 498-506, 2008 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18348165

ABSTRACT

Hydatidosis, caused by the larval stage of the platyhelminth parasite Echinococcus granulosus, affects human and animal health. Hydatid fertile cysts are formed in intermediate hosts (human and herbivores) producing protoscoleces, the infective form to canines, at their germinal layers. Infertile cysts are also formed, but they are unable to produce protoscoleces. The molecular mechanisms involved in hydatid cysts fertility/infertility are unknown. Nevertheless, previous work from our laboratory has suggested that apoptosis is involved in hydatid cyst infertility and death. On the other hand, fertile hydatid cysts can resist oxidative damage due to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. On these foundations, we have postulated that when oxidative damage of DNA in the germinal layers exceeds the capability of DNA repair mechanisms, apoptosis is triggered and hydatid cysts infertility occurs. We describe a much higher percentage of nuclei with oxidative DNA damage in dead protoscoleces and in the germinal layer of infertile cysts than in fertile cysts, suggesting that DNA repair mechanisms are active in fertile cysts. rad9, a conserved gene, plays a key role in cell cycle checkpoint modulation and DNA repair. We found that RAD9 of E. granulosus (EgRAD9) is expressed at the mRNA and protein levels. As it was found in other eukaryotes, EgRAD9 is hyperphosphorylated in response to DNA damage. Our results suggest that molecules involved in DNA repair in the germinal layer of fertile hydatid cysts and in protoscoleces, such as EgRAD9, may allow preserving the fertility of hydatid cysts in the presence of ROS and RNS.


Subject(s)
Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , DNA Damage , Echinococcosis , Echinococcus granulosus/physiology , Fertility/physiology , Helminth Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , DNA Repair , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Helminth Proteins/genetics , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Molecular Sequence Data , Oxidants/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress , Phylogeny , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Sequence Alignment
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