Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 47.207
Filter
1.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 350, 2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mass chemical exposure emergencies are infrequent but can cause injury, illness, or loss of life for large numbers of victims. These emergencies can stretch and challenge the available resources of healthcare systems within the community. Political unrest in the Middle East, including chemical terrorist attacks against civilians in Syria and increasing chemical industry accidents, have highlighted the lack of hospital preparedness for chemical incidents in the region. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a course designed to empower frontline healthcare providers involved in mass casualty incidents with the basic knowledge and essential operational skills for mass chemical exposure incidents in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach was used to develop a blended learning, simulation enhanced, competency-based course for major chemical incidents for front line healthcare providers. The course was designed by experts from different disciplines (disaster medicine, poisoning / toxicology, and Hazard Material Threat - HAZMAT team) in four stages. The course was piloted over five days at the Officers Club of the Ministry of Interior (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia). The 41 participants were from different government health discipline sectors in the country. Pre- and post-tests were used to assess learner knowledge while debriefing sessions after the decontamination triage session and simulation-enhanced exercises were used for team performance assessment. RESULTS: The overall knowledge scores were significantly higher in the post-test (69.47%) than the pre-test (46.3%). All four knowledge domains also had significant differences between pre- and post-test results. There were no differences in the pre and post-test scores for healthcare providers from the different health disciplines. A one-year post-event survey demonstrated that participants were satisfied with their knowledge retention. Interestingly, 38.3% had the opportunity to put this knowledge into practice in relation to mass chemical exposure incidents. CONCLUSION: Delivering a foundation level competency-based blended learning course with enhanced simulation training in major chemical incidents for front line healthcare providers may improve their knowledge and skills in response to such incidents. This in turn can improve the level of national preparedness and staff availability and make a crucial difference in reducing the health impacts among victims.


Subject(s)
Chemical Hazard Release , Disaster Planning , Mass Casualty Incidents , Emergencies , Health Personnel , Humans , Pilot Projects , Saudi Arabia
2.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268106, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536838

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Ensuring accessible and quality health care for women and children is an existing challenge, which is further exacerbated during pandemics. There is a knowledge gap about the effect of pandemics on maternal, newborn, and child well-being. This systematic review was conducted to study maternal and child health (MCH) services utilization during pandemics (Zika, Ebola, and COVID-19) and the effectiveness of various interventions undertaken for ensuring utilization of MCH services. METHODOLOGY: A systematic and comprehensive search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, Embase, Epistemonikos, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar. Of 5643 citations, 60 potential studies were finally included for analysis. The included studies were appraised using JBI Critical appraisal tools. Study selection and data extraction were done independently and in duplicate. Findings are presented narratively based on the RMNCHA framework by World Health Organization (WHO). RESULTS: Maternal and child health services such as antenatal care (ANC) visits, institutional deliveries, immunization uptake, were greatly affected during a pandemic situation. Innovative approaches in form of health care services through virtual consultation, patient triaging, developing dedicated COVID maternity centers and maternity schools were implemented in different places for ensuring continuity of MCH care during pandemics. None of the studies reported the effectiveness of these interventions during pandemic-related health emergencies. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that during pandemics, MCH care utilization often gets affected. Many innovative interventions were adopted to ensure MCH services. However, they lack evidence about their effectiveness. It is critically important to implement evidence-based appropriate interventions for better MCH care utilization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Maternal Health Services , Maternal-Child Health Services , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Health , Emergencies , Female , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy
4.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 279, 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418094

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inadequate attention has been given to ensuring ongoing training to improve knowledge, skills and capacity of primary health care providers in low- and middle-income countries. The Hanoi Medical University, Vietnam is providing training sessions for physicians working in commune health stations (CHSs) in three mountainous, remote northern provinces in 2019. This article aims to assess these physicians' knowledge of correct medical responses to emergencies in order to assess their training needs. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study amongst doctors posted to CHSs located in 3 mountainous remote provinces of northern Vietnam. We used a self-administered questionnaire that comprised questions on common medical emergencies, maternal and child care, and non-communicable disease management. We performed Chi-square tests to assess the statistical significance of differences in the mean proportions of correct answers for each health care question category, and for differences in mean proportions of correct answers by doctor characteristics. RESULTS: In total 302 doctors were recruited to the study. More than half of the sample answered 30-50% of the questions correctly, followed by around a third who answered 50-70% correctly. Less than 2% of doctors answered more than 70% correct responses to the entire question set. There were statistically significant differences between question categories, with cardiovascular care questions answered correctly significantly less often than any of the categories (p < 0.00001). CONCLUSION: The findings reported here show that the doctors who participated in the study have relatively low knowledge on common emergencies, particularly to answer cardiovascular care questions. The results also support the need for continuing medical education to improve doctors' knowledge, who are mostly practicing in resource limited remote settings.


Subject(s)
Education, Medical, Continuing , Physicians, Primary Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergencies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Needs Assessment , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vietnam
5.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(4)2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35487675

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Prompt access to emergency obstetrical care (EmOC) reduces the risk of maternal mortality. We assessed institutional maternal mortality by distance and travel time for pregnant women with obstetrical emergencies in Lagos State, Nigeria. METHODS: We conducted a facility-based retrospective cohort study across 24 public hospitals in Lagos. Reviewing case notes of the pregnant women presenting between 1 November 2018 and 30 October 2019, we extracted socio-demographic, travel and obstetrical data. The extracted travel data were exported to Google Maps, where driving distance and travel time data were extracted. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine the relative influence of distance and travel time on maternal death. FINDINGS: Of 4181 pregnant women with obstetrical emergencies, 182 (4.4%) resulted in maternal deaths. Among those who died, 60.3% travelled ≤10 km directly from home, and 61.9% arrived at the hospital ≤30 mins. The median distance and travel time to EmOC was 7.6 km (IQR 3.4-18.0) and 26 mins (IQR 12-50). For all women, travelling 10-15 km (2.53, 95% CI 1.27 to 5.03) was significantly associated with maternal death. Stratified by referral, odds remained statistically significant for those travelling 10-15 km in the non-referred group (2.48, 95% CI 1.18 to 5.23) and for travel ≥120 min (7.05, 95% CI 1.10 to 45.32). For those referred, odds became statistically significant at 25-35 km (21.40, 95% CI 1.24 to 36.72) and for journeys requiring travel time from as little as 10-29 min (184.23, 95% CI 5.14 to 608.51). Odds were also significantly higher for women travelling to hospitals in suburban (3.60, 95% CI 1.59 to 8.18) or rural (2.51, 95% CI 1.01 to 6.29) areas. CONCLUSION: Our evidence shows that distance and travel time influence maternal mortality differently for referred women and those who are not. Larger scale research that uses closer-to-reality travel time and distance estimates as we have done, rethinking of global guidelines, and bold actions addressing access gaps, including within the suburbs, will be critical in reducing maternal mortality by 2030.


Subject(s)
Maternal Death , Maternal Mortality , Emergencies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Retrospective Studies
6.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409599

ABSTRACT

Disasters disrupt communication channels, infrastructure, and overburden health systems. This creates unique challenges to the functionality of surveillance tools, data collection systems, and information sharing platforms. The WHO Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM) framework highlights the need for appropriate data collection, data interpretation, and data use from individual, community, and global levels. The COVID-19 crisis has evolved the way hazards and risks are viewed. No longer as a linear event but as a protracted hazard, with cascading and compound risks that affect communities facing complex risks such as climate-related disasters or urban growth. The large-scale disruptions of COVID-19 show that disaster data must evolve beyond mortality and frequency of events, in order to encompass the impact on the livelihood of communities, differentiated between population groups. This includes relative economic losses and psychosocial damage. COVID-19 has created a global opportunity to review how the scientific community classifies data, and how comparable indicators are selected to inform evidence-based resilience building and emergency preparedness. A shift into microlevel data, and regional-level information sharing is necessary to tailor community-level interventions for risk mitigation and disaster preparedness. Real-time data sharing, open governance, cross-organisational, and inter-platform collaboration are necessary not just in Health-EDRM and control of biological hazards, but for all natural hazards and man-made disasters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disaster Planning , Disasters , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies , Humans , Risk Management
7.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409637

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lightning strikes are a risk during mountain-sport activities. Yet little is known about the prevalence of injuries related to lightning strikes during mountain hiking, backcountry skiing, or high-altitude mountaineering. This study therefore examined the occurrence and characteristics of lightning-strike-related emergencies during mountain-sport activities in the Swiss Alps. METHODS: We analyzed 11,221 alpine emergencies during mountain hiking, 4687 during high-altitude mountaineering, and 3044 during backcountry skiing in the observational period from 2009 to 2020. Identified cases were analyzed in detail regarding age, sex, the time of occurrence, altitude, location, the severity of the injury as quantified by its NACA Score (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Score), and injury pattern. RESULTS: We found no cases related to backcountry skiing. Eight cases of lightning strikes during mountain hiking (four female and four male) were identified. The mean age was 32.5 ± 17.5 years, the mean NACA Score was 2.5 ± 1.9, and the mean altitude was 1883.8 ± 425.7 m. None of these cases were fatal, and only one victim was seriously injured. Fifteen cases were identified during high-altitude mountaineering (four female and 11 male). The mean age was 38.7 ± 5.2 years, the mean NACA Score was 3.1 ± 2.5, and the mean altitude was 3486.4 ± 614.3 m. Two lightning strikes were fatal. In these two cases, rope partners were injured by a lightning strike (NACA Score = 4). Most cases were on relatively exposed terrain, such as the Matterhorn Hörnligrat or the Eiger Mittellegigrat. DISCUSSION: The typical victims were 30-40-year-old men. It is possible that the lightning strikes are a consequence of a lower risk aversion among these alpinists, which is be supported by the fact that most of the events occurred on famous mountains such as the Matterhorn or Eiger. Furthermore, since most of the locations were on relatively exposed terrain where one could not quickly find shelter, we recommend careful tour planning with serious consultation of the weather forecast and the likelihood of thunderstorms before climbing exposed sections to prevent emergencies related to lightning strikes.


Subject(s)
Lightning Injuries , Mountaineering , Skiing , Adolescent , Adult , Emergencies , Female , Humans , Lightning Injuries/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Mountaineering/injuries , Switzerland/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Global Health ; 18(1): 39, 2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413844

ABSTRACT

Global threats to health and health security are growing. Fragile and failed states, armed groups, ungoverned spaces, outbreaks and potential unknown "Disease X" threats, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), hybrid and gray zone conflict all exacerbate complex medical emergencies. These growing threats increase preventable morbidity and mortality of the most vulnerable populations. In an effort to promote best practices, standardize responses, and prevent excess death and disability in these contexts, The Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre (KAIPTC), with support from multiple international partners and a volunteer facilitator faculty, administered the pilot course for military and civilian health officers involved in U.N. peacekeeping missions entitled, "Comprehensive Medical Support in Complex Emergencies (CMSCE 19)." This brief review paper provides a description of the process in designing and delivering an interdisciplinary course for providers and decision makers responding to complex emergencies. We conclude with best practices and next steps for course evolution.


Subject(s)
Emergencies , Humans
9.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35376977

ABSTRACT

Risk communication of public institutions should support the population in the decision-making process in the event of existing risks. It plays a particularly important role in health emergencies such as the SARS-CoV­2 pandemic. After the SARS outbreak in 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) revised its International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) and called for risk communication to be established as a core area of health policy in all member countries. While the emphasis on health policy was welcomed, the potential for risk communication in this area has not yet been fully exploited. Reasons include discrepancies in the understanding of risk communication and the large number of available methods.This discussion article is intended to help establish a new understanding of risk communication in public health emergencies (emergency risk communication - ERC). It is suggested that, in addition to the risks, the opportunities of the crisis should be included more and that risk communication should be understood more as a continuous process that can be optimized at various points. The "Earlier-Faster-Smoother-Smarter" approach and in particular the earlier detection of health risks ("Earlier") could support the management of public health emergencies in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communication , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Emergencies , Germany , Global Health , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
10.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(4)2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35414567

ABSTRACT

Social media can be both a source of information and misinformation during health emergencies. During the COVID-19 pandemic, social media became a ubiquitous tool for people to communicate and represents a rich source of data researchers can use to analyse users' experiences, knowledge and sentiments. Research on social media posts during COVID-19 has identified, to date, the perpetuity of traditional gendered norms and experiences. Yet these studies are mostly based on Western social media platforms. Little is known about gendered experiences of lockdown communicated on non-Western social media platforms. Using data from Weibo, China's leading social media platform, we examine gendered user patterns and sentiment during the first wave of the pandemic between 1 January 2020 and 1 July 2020. We find that Weibo posts by self-identified women and men conformed with some gendered norms identified on other social media platforms during the COVID-19 pandemic (posting patterns and keyword usage) but not all (sentiment). This insight may be important for targeted public health messaging on social media during future health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Emergencies , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 748236, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392466

ABSTRACT

Information disclosure is crucial in China's official response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Since the early phase of the pandemic, the government's method of communication has relied heavily upon its analysis of information disclosed during past public health emergencies. This approach was proposed to better inform and prepare citizens during the crisis. This study aimed to study the effectiveness of China's information disclosure by examining themes, interconnection, and timeliness of information as posted on the Weibo microblogging platform between January and April 2020. The Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic model analysis for social networks revealed six main characteristics including a shift from 'scattered' to 'focused' communication. Three main themes surrounding experience were highlighted, namely social governance, medical expertise, and encouragement, although experiential knowledge disclosure was timelier than other topics. This study broadens the dimension and scope of empirical theory by examining government information disclosure practices and provides a reference for further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Emergencies , Government , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Tomography ; 8(2): 1041-1051, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35448718

ABSTRACT

Since the first report of the outbreak in Wuhan, China in December 2019, as of 1 September 2021, the World Health Organization has confirmed more than 239 million cases of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infectious disease named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with more than 4.5 million deaths. Although SARS-CoV-2 mainly involves the respiratory tract, it is considered to be a systemic disease. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of all manifestations of COVID-19 disease, as well as its related complications. The figure of the radiologist is fundamental in the management and treatment of the patient. The authors try to provide a systematic approach based on an imaging review of major multi-organ manifestations of this infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Emergencies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
13.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-04-27.
Non-conventional in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55938

ABSTRACT

En el 2018, más de 29 millones de niños nacieron en zonas afectadas por conflictos, y se estima que 43% de los niños menores de 5 años en países de ingresos bajos y medianos, incluidos los contextos humanitarios, están actualmente en riesgo de no alcanzar un desarrollo óptimo. En la Región de las Américas, las situaciones humanitarias son múltiples e incluyen las emergencias causadas por desastres naturales, la migración y las epidemias, entre otras. A pesar de las circunstancias difíciles, es posible brindar protección, mitigar los efectos negativos y construir resiliencia tanto en los niños como en sus cuidadores. Este resumen temático resalta la necesidad de proteger a los niños que viven en entornos humanitarios y asegurar que reciban un cuidado cariñoso que responda a sus necesidades, y ofrece orientaciones sobre lo que los planificadores y ejecutores de programas pueden hacer para minimizar el impacto de las emergencias en la vida de los niños pequeños y sus familias. Además, facilita información sobre las intervenciones y las prácticas que podrían ser incorporadas a la respuesta de las situaciones de emergencia en la actualidad, y sobre todo, aquellas que podrían ser parte de la estrategia de preparación y respuesta ante las situaciones de emergencia en el futuro.


Subject(s)
Empathy , Child , Child, Foster , Child Health , Child Protective Services , Emergencies
14.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-04-25.
in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55923

ABSTRACT

La prevención y control de infecciones (PCI) es una estrategia fundamental para reducir las infecciones asociadas a la atención de salud, hacer frente a la propagación de microorganismos resistentes a los antimicrobianos, y mitigar las epidemias y pandemias futuras. En esta publicación sobre el estado actual de la aplicación de los componentes básicos de PCI en la Región de las Américas, se muestra un panorama de la aplicación de programas de control de infecciones en los últimos años y, principalmente, su evolución como respuesta a la pandemia de COVID-19. Como parte del ejercicio de mapeo, se analizaron 299 iniciativas de PCI validadas de manera oficial por 30 países y territorios de las Américas. Entre ellas se incluyen programas de PCI, directrices de PCI, políticas o programas de formación y capacitación del personal de salud, y directrices para la vigilancia y contención de las infecciones asociadas a la atención de salud. La búsqueda se realizó hasta diciembre del 2020 a través de diferentes fuentes de información y en los sitios web oficiales de las autoridades normativas competentes, que validaron las iniciativas durante el primer cuatrimestre del 2021. La pandemia ha puesto de manifiesto las brechas presentes en este ámbito a nivel nacional y en los establecimientos de salud. Si se logra eliminarlas, la Región de las Américas garantizará no solo la seguridad de las personas usuarias de los servicios de salud sino también de quienes proveen su cuidado. Este informe forma parte del empeño continuo de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud para fortalecer la PCI en los países y facilitará la reflexión sobre las medidas requeridas para construir sistemas de salud más resilientes.  


Subject(s)
Surveillance , Emergencies , Infection Control , Disease Prevention , Americas , Caribbean Region
15.
Adv Emerg Nurs J ; 44(2): 84-102, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476684

ABSTRACT

Patients with hematological malignancies, both treated and untreated, or solid tumors undergoing treatment are at risk of life-threatening complications, which may present in the emergency department (ED). Such emergencies are diverse in etiology and often require prompt treatment. Traditional complications, such as febrile neutropenia, have had recent guideline updates, which incorporate new evidence and a new validated risk stratification tool. In addition, newer approaches to treatment, such as chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, are becoming more widely available and have unique associated toxicities. This review discusses the management of the following hematological and oncological emergencies likely to be encountered in the ED: febrile neutropenia, CAR T-cell toxicities, differentiation syndrome, tumor lysis syndrome, hypercalcemia of malignancy, and hyponatremia.


Subject(s)
Febrile Neutropenia , Neoplasms , Emergencies , Febrile Neutropenia/etiology , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/adverse effects , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/therapy , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , T-Lymphocytes/pathology
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(4)2022 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35454392

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) recommend the use of telematic methods in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, allowing for transtelephonic electrocardiography (TTECG) from the emergency scene to centers performing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI center). It has been proven that such a procedure has a beneficial effect on the survival of patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Fewer data can be found on the correct use of these methods in everyday clinical practice. The aim of this study was to indicate potential indications and contraindications for the use of the TTECG system, and provide recommendations for proper collaboration between emergency medical systems (EMS) teams and PCI centers. Materials and Methods: The article is a systematic review of cardiological emergencies, with an assessment of indications for the use of the TTECG system. The authors introduced their own grading of the validity of indications for transmission of the TTECG, similar to those used in the official ESC guidelines.: Results:: The authors described individual cardiological emergencies occurring in the practice of EMS, considering specific indications or contraindications for the transmission of the TTECG. The article also discusses individual practical recommendations for proper cooperation between EMS teams and PCI centers in detail. All of the recommendations are compiled in a handy table to facilitate its use in everyday clinical practice. Conclusions: The summary presents a comparison of the realities of the functioning of the telematic support system in Poland in the field of STEMI diagnostics, with the model's recommendations. The necessity of further educating the members of individual teams included in the network dealing with STEMI treatment was indicated, as well as the necessity of introducing legal regulations sanctioning the functioning of telematic systems in modern medicine.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Electrocardiography , Emergencies , Humans , Poland , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
17.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 1912272, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35463288

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, the rapid construction and operation of Wuhan Vulcan Mountain Hospital and Raytheon Hospital have attracted positive responses from local and international observers. At the same time, it has also highlighted the urgency for the construction of emergency medical facilities for public health emergencies. Before construction, the practical location of medical facilities is the basis for improving the city's emergency management ability. Based on the classic susceptible, exposed, infected, and recovered (SEIR) epidemic model and epidemic data in Guangzhou, we established a multi-stage time-delay SEIR epidemic model that is suitable for epidemic research in Guangzhou. According to the results of the model, the five areas with the highest number of infected patients were identified, which included Baiyun District, Panyu District, Haizhu District, Tianhe District, and Zengcheng District. We then centralized infected individuals at five demand points. Based on the distribution of these points and by combining the characteristics of the emergency medical facilities, we built and solved the set covering location decision model, and considered the economy, society, and environment as the starting points to optimize the site location. Finally, based on simulations, we concluded that appropriate site selection can increase the time required to reach the maximum number of patients and reduce the proportion of infected and exposed people by 11.3% and 1.11%, respectively. This is indicative of the effectiveness of the site selection model and the rational selection of facility points in this study. It solves the optimization problem of the location decision of emergency medical facilities for public health emergencies in China, and also provides some valuable references for site selection decisions of emergency medical facilities in other areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cities , Emergencies , Humans , Public Health
18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(15): 17826-17836, 2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380790

ABSTRACT

In recent years, natural disasters such as hurricanes and floods have become more frequent, which usually leads to the pollution of drinking water. Drinking contaminated water may cause public health emergencies. The demand for healthy drinking water in disaster-affected areas is huge and urgent. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a simple water treatment technology suitable for emergencies. Inspired by nature, a fractional spray method was used to prepare graded purification material under mild conditions. The material consists of a calcium alginate isolation layer and a functional layer composed of calcium alginate, polyethylenimine, and water-based polyurethane, which can purify complex pollutants in water such as heavy metals, oils, pathogens, and micro/nano plastics through percolation. It does not require additional energy and can purify polluted water only under gravity. A disposable paper cup model was also designed, which can be used to obtain purified water by immersing in polluted water directly without other filtering devices. The test report shows that the water obtained from the paper cup was deeply purified. This design makes the material user-friendly and has the potential as a strategic material. This discovery can effectively improve the safety of drinking water after disasters and improve people's quality of life.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Water Purification , Alginates , Emergencies , Humans , Polyethyleneimine , Polyurethanes , Quality of Life
19.
Hum Resour Health ; 20(1): 33, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35410336

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Improving the epidemiological response to emergencies requires an understanding of who the responders are, their role and skills, and the challenges they face during responses. In this paper, we explore the role of the epidemiologist and identify challenges they face during emergency response. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey to learn more about epidemiologists who respond to public health emergencies. The online survey included open and closed-ended questions on challenges faced while responding, the roles of epidemiology responders, self-rating of skills, and support needed and received. We used purposive sampling to identify participants and a snowballing approach thereafter. We compared data by a number of characteristics, including national or international responder on their last response prior to the survey. We analysed the data using descriptive, content, and exploratory factor analysis. RESULTS: We received 166 responses from individuals with experience in emergency response. The most frequently reported challenge was navigating the political dynamics of a response, which was more common for international responders than national. National responders experienced fewer challenges related to culture, language, and communication. Epidemiology responders reported a lack of response role clarity, limited knowledge sharing, and communication issues during emergency response. Sixty-seven percent of participants reported they needed support to do their job well; males who requested support were statistically more likely to receive it than females who asked. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified that national responders have additional strengths, such as better understanding of the local political environment, language, and culture, which may in turn support identification of local needs and priorities. Although this research was conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the results are even more relevant now. This research builds on emerging evidence on how to strengthen public health emergency response and provides a platform to begin a global conversation to address operational issues and the role of the international epidemiology responder.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leadership , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communication , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergencies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Politics , Workforce
20.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266093, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377910

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: At present, there are some no-notice drill mode evaluation systems for public health emergencies in Chinese hospitals, which are the subjects of assessment in this study. However, there is a lack of CDC. This study builds a set of no-notice drill mode evaluation systems for public health emergencies that involve the CDC. METHODS: The indexes for these systems were based on the performance of two no-notice drills for public health emergencies in Guangdong Province. Twenty experts were invited to screen the indicators during two rounds of the Delphi method to determine the weight of first- and second-level indexes through the analytic hierarchy process, and the weight of the third-level index was calculated using the percentage method. RESULTS: After two rounds of expert consultation, we obtained four first-level indicators, twenty-six second-level indicators and eighty-six third-level indicators. According to the weight calculated by analytic hierarchy process, the weights of the first-level indicators are emergency preparation (0.2775), verification and consultation regarding an epidemic situation (0.165), field investigation and control (0.3925) and summary report (0.165). Sensitivity analysis shows that the stability of the index is good. CONCLUSION: The no-notice drill mode evaluation system for public health emergencies constructed in this study can be applied to public health departments such as the CDC. Through promotion, it can provide a scientific basis for epidemiological investigation assessment.


Subject(s)
Emergencies , Public Health , Delphi Technique , Hospitals , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...