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1.
Univ. salud ; 27(1): 1-10, enero-abril 2025.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555921

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) y los estados de ánimo son indicadores cruciales del bienestar en adolescentes, pero su relación con estudiantes de Antioquia, Colombia, no ha sido ampliamente estudiada. Objetivo: Determinar la CVRS y los estados de ánimo en escolares de Antioquia-Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal con 1957 escolares de 9 a 20 años. Se aplicaron mediciones de CVRS, ansiedad, depresión, hostilidad y alegría, actividad física, comportamiento sedentario, apoyo social de padres y nivel socioeconómico. Resultados: La calidad de vida alta (CVA) es más elevada en hombres, personas con alegría, estudiantes con apoyo de padres, activos físicamente y personas de nivel socioeconómico alto y medio. AL aumentar un año de edad, disminuye en un 15 % la CVA, y al aumentar la depresión, la ansiedad y el comportamiento sedentario disminuye la CVA. Además, los niveles de depresión y ansiedad son mayores en mujeres, estudiantes mayores, sin apoyo de los padres y personas sedentarias. Conclusiones: La CVRS se asocia con estados de ánimo, actividad física, comportamiento sedentario y apoyo de los padres; mientras que los estados de ánimo se asocian con el sexo, el apoyo de los padres, la CVS y el sedentarismo.


Introduction: Even though health-related quality of life (HRQL) and mood states are key indicators of the well-being of adolescents, their relationship has not been analyzed in students from Antioquia, Colombia. Objective: To determine HRQL and mood states in schoolchildren from Antioquia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,957 schoolchildren and adolescents aged between 9 and 20 years. Measurements of HRQL, anxiety, depression, hostility and happiness, physical activity, sedentary behavior, parental social support, and socioeconomic status were applied. Results: A high quality of life (HQL) was observed more frequently in male participants, students with parental support, physically active, and those belonging to medium and high socioeconomic status. HQL decreased 15% as their age increased by one year. Also, HQL was reduced when depression, anxiety, and sedentary behavior increased. Furthermore, depression and anxiety levels were higher in women, older students, as well as in those without parental control and with sedentary behavior. Conclusions: HRQL is associated with mood states, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and parental support. In contrast, mood states are related to gender, parental support, HQL, and sedentary lifestyle.


Introdução: A qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (CVRS) e os estados de humor são indicadores cruciais de bem-estar em adolescentes, mas sua relação com estudantes de Antioquia, Colômbia, não foi amplamente estudada. Objetivo: Determinar a CVRS e os estados de humor em escolares de Antioquia-Colômbia. Materiais e métodos: Estudo transversal com 1.957 escolares de 9 a 20 anos. Foram aplicadas medidas de QVRS, ansiedade, depressão, hostilidade e felicidade, atividade física, comportamento sedentário, apoio social dos pais e nível socioeconômico. Resultados: A alta qualidade de vida (CVA) é maior em homens, pessoas com alegria, estudantes com apoio parental, fisicamente ativos e pessoas de nível socioeconômico alto e médio. À medida que a idade aumenta em um ano, diminui em 15% o CVA, e ao aumentar a depressão, a ansiedade e o comportamento sedentário aumentam, o CVA diminui. Além disso, os níveis de depressão e ansiedade são mais elevados nas mulheres, nos estudantes mais velhos, sem apoio dos pais e nas pessoas sedentárias. Conclusões: A QVRS está associada a estados de humor, atividade física, comportamento sedentário e apoio parental; enquanto os estados de humor estão associados ao sexo, apoio parental, CVS e estilo de vida sedentário.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Health , Emotions , Happiness , Hostility
2.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 280-289, May-Sep, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-232722

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: La escala Teacher Emotion Inventory (TEI) es un instrumento que evalúa emociones discretas experimentadas por el profesorado en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. El objetivo de este estudio es examinar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión breve española de la escala Teacher Emotion Inventory (TEI-BSV) en una muestra de 567 profesores (65.5% son mujeres), con edades comprendidas entre 25 y 65 años (M = 46.04; DT = 9.09). Método: Tras su adaptación mediante traducción inversa, el profesorado completó una batería que incluía el TEI-BSV, un cuestionario de inteligencia emocional, dos escalas de bienestar subjetivo, una escala sobre burnout y una escala sobre engagement. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron una consistencia interna adecuada de las subescalas del TEI-BSV. Los análisis factoriales (exploratorio y confirmatorio) proporcionaron pruebas de que el TEI-BSV tiene una estructura de cuatro factores con un buen ajuste, frente a la estructura de cinco factores original. Se han hallado evidencias de validez convergente, así como de validez criterial e incremental del TEI-BSV. Conclusiones: el TEI-BSV podría ser una herramienta útil para la evaluación ecológica de las emociones discretas del profesorado en su contexto laboral.(AU)


Background: The Teacher Emotion Inventory (TEI) scale is an instrument that evaluates discrete emotions experienced by teachers in the teaching-learning process. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the brief Spanish version of the Teacher Emotion Inventory scale (TEI-BSV) using a sample of 567 teachers (65.5% women), aged between 25 and 65 years (M= 46.04; SD= 9.09). Methods: After adaptation through back-translation, the teachers com-pleted a battery of tests included in the TEI-BSV: an emotional intelli-gence questionnaire, two subjective well-being scales, a burnout scale and a scale on engagement. Results: The data revealed adequate internal consistency of the TEI-BSV subscales, and exploratory and confirma-tory factor analyses provided evidence that the TEI-BSV has a four-factor structure with good adjustment, as opposed to the original five-factor structure proposed. There was evidence of convergent validity of the TEI-BSV, as well as criterion and incremental validity. Conclusions: The TEI-BSV could be a useful instrument for the ecological assess-ment of teachers' discrete emotions in the context of their workplace.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychometrics , Emotions , Stress, Psychological , Burnout, Psychological , Emotional Intelligence
3.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 300-309, May-Sep, 2024. ilus
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-232724

ABSTRACT

En el presente artículo analizamos y discutimos la dimension emocional que las personas LGBT asocian al ejercicio de la maternidad/paternidad. Basadas en las teorías feministas y las contribuciones de la subalternidad y la interseccionalidad, aplicamos el método biográfico, en un proceso de investigación dialógico-recursivo. Las personas participantes fueron 21 personas LGBT e informantes clave, pertenecientes a la academia, la psicoterapia, la política, y el activismo de la diversidad, de Chile (16), Mexico (4), y Colombia (1); entre 21 y 57 años, con una media de edad de 37.19 y una desviación estándar de 10.03. Encontramos emociones relacionadas al mandato social de “ser una buena madre/un buen padre”; emociones resultantes de la situación de desprotección social y legal; y emociones devenidas de la experiencia de parentalidad. Concluimos que las dinámicas de represión/resistencia atraviesan los cuerpos y las emociones son un aspecto fundamental de esta encarnación; dado ello, el desarrollo de investigaciones enfocadas en emociones puede abrir caminos para alcanzar sociedades más justas a través del cultivo de la sentimentalidad como elemento base de las relaciones que nos mantienen como miembros dignos de la sociedad y considerando el efecto performativo de las demandas emocionales.(AU)


In this article, we analyze and discuss the emotional dimension that LGBT people associate with the exercise of motherhood/fatherhood. Based on feminist theory and subalternity and intersectionality theory con-tributions, we applied the biographical method to a dialogical-recursive in-vestigative process. Participants were 21 LGBT people and key informants, belonging to academia, psychotherapy, politics, and diversity activism, over 18 years old, from Chile (16), Mexico (4), and Colombia (1); the partici-pantswere people between 21 and 57 years of age, with a mean age of 37.19 and a standard deviation of 10.03. We found emotions related to the social mandate to "be a good mother/father"; emotions resulting from so-cial situations such as discrimination and legal lack of protection, and emo-tions derived from the parenting experience. We conclude that repres-sion/resistance dynamics go through the bodies, and emotions are funda-mental to this incarnation. Given this, the development of research fo-cused on emotion can open ways to achieve more just societies through cultivated sentimentality, societies aware of the type of bonds that keep us as worthy members of a society and the performative effect of our emo-tional demands.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Emotions , Parenting , Paternity , Sexual and Gender Minorities
4.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 335-343, May-Sep, 2024. tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-232726

ABSTRACT

El presente estudio investigó si la satisfacción con la vida se predice a partir de la felicidad subjetiva, afectos positivos y negativos, alteración psicológica y emociones de gratitud y si la emoción de gratitud está mediando la relación con la felicidad subjetiva, los afectos y la satisfacción con la vida. Se hicieron correlación de Pearson, pruebas de regresión lineal múltiple y modelos de mediación en una muestra de 1537 adultos españoles, 73.6% mujeres y 26.4% hombres, edad 18-88 años (M = 42.56 años; DT = 16.29). Se halló que las emociones de gratitud median la relación entre felicidad subjetiva y satisfacción con la vida y entre los afectos positivos y la satisfacción con la vida. Los afectos positivos son los que más se relacionan con la satisfacción con la vida, seguidos por la felicidad subjetiva y las emociones de gratitud. Los hombres están más satisfechos con la vida cuando sienten menos afecto negativo. Además, las emociones de gratitud median la relación entre felicidad subjetiva y satisfacción con la vida y entre los afectos positivos y la satisfacción con la vida. La diferencia principal radica en que las emociones de gratitud son más fuertes en las mujeres que en los hombres.(AU)


This study aims to examine the predictability of satisfaction with life on the basis of subjective happiness, positive and negative affect, psy-chological disturbance and emotion of gratitude. It also seeks to assess whether the emotion of gratitude is a mediating variable withsubjective happiness, affect, and satisfaction with life. Statistical analyses of Pearson'scorrelation, multiple linear regression tests, and mediation models were conducted on asample of 1537 Spanish adults, 73.6% were females, 26.4% males, age between 18-88 yearsold (M = 42.56; SD = 16.29). The emo-tions of gratitude were found to mediate therelationship between subjec-tive happiness and satisfaction with life and between positiveaffect and satisfaction with life. Of the variables studied, positive affect is the most related tosatisfaction with life, followed by subjective happiness and emo-tions of gratitude. Maleparticipants are more satisfied with life when they feel the less negative affect. Regardingmediation models, emotions of grat-itude mediate the relationship between subjectivehappiness and satisfac-tion with life and between positive affect and satisfaction with life. Themaindifferenceis thatemotions of gratitudearestronger infemalesthan in males.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Personal Satisfaction , Happiness , Emotions , Affective Symptoms , Spain
5.
Dev Psychobiol ; 66(6): e22522, 2024 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38967122

ABSTRACT

Witnessing emotional expressions in others triggers physiological arousal in humans. The current study focused on pupil responses to emotional expressions in a community sample as a physiological index of arousal and attention. We explored the associations between parents' and offspring's responses to dynamic facial expressions of emotion, as well as the links between pupil responses and anxiety/depression. Children (N = 90, MAge = 10.13, range = 7.21-12.94, 47 girls) participated in this lab study with one of their parents (47 mothers). Pupil responses were assessed in a computer task with dynamic happy, angry, fearful, and sad expressions, while participants verbally labeled the emotion displayed on the screen as quickly as possible. Parents and children reported anxiety and depression symptoms in questionnaires. Both parents and children showed stronger pupillary responses to negative versus positive expressions, and children's responses were overall stronger than those of parents. We also found links between the pupil responses of parents and children to negative, especially to angry faces. Child pupil responses were related to their own and their parents' anxiety levels and to their parents' (but not their own) depression. We conclude that child pupils are sensitive to individual differences in parents' pupils and emotional dispositions in community samples.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Depression , Emotions , Facial Expression , Parents , Pupil , Humans , Female , Male , Depression/physiopathology , Child , Anxiety/physiopathology , Adult , Pupil/physiology , Emotions/physiology , Facial Recognition/physiology
6.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 28(7): 3872-3881, 2024 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954558

ABSTRACT

Electroencephalogram (EEG) has been widely utilized in emotion recognition due to its high temporal resolution and reliability. However, the individual differences and non-stationary characteristics of EEG, along with the complexity and variability of emotions, pose challenges in generalizing emotion recognition models across subjects. In this paper, an end-to-end framework is proposed to improve the performance of cross-subject emotion recognition. A novel evolutionary programming (EP)-based optimization strategy with neural network (NN) as the base classifier termed NN ensemble with EP (EPNNE) is designed for cross-subject emotion recognition. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated on the publicly available DEAP, FACED, SEED, and SEED-IV datasets. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed method is superior to state-of-the-art cross-subject emotion recognition methods. The proposed end-to-end framework for cross-subject emotion recognition aids biomedical researchers in effectively assessing individual emotional states, thereby enabling efficient treatment and interventions.


Subject(s)
Electroencephalography , Emotions , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted , Humans , Electroencephalography/methods , Emotions/physiology , Neural Networks, Computer , Machine Learning , Algorithms , Pattern Recognition, Automated/methods , Databases, Factual , Adult , Female , Male
7.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 59(4)2024 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38953742

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Reward processing and regulation of emotions are thought to impact the development of addictive behaviors. In this study, we aimed to determine whether neural responses during reward anticipation, threat appraisal, emotion reactivity, and cognitive reappraisal predicted the transition from low-level to hazardous alcohol use over a 12-month period. METHODS: Seventy-eight individuals aged 18-22 with low-level alcohol use [i.e. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) score <7] at baseline were enrolled. They completed reward-based and emotion regulation tasks during magnetic resonance imaging to examine reward anticipation, emotional reactivity, cognitive reappraisal, and threat anticipation (in the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, superior frontal gyrus, and insula, respectively). Participants completed self-report measures at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up time points to determine if they transitioned to hazardous use (as defined by AUDIT scores ≥8). RESULTS: Of the 57 participants who completed follow-up, 14 (24.6%) transitioned to hazardous alcohol use. Higher baseline AUDIT scores were associated with greater odds of transitioning to hazardous use (odds ratio = 1.73, 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.66, P = .005). Brain activation to reward, threat, and emotion regulation was not associated with alcohol use. Of the neural variables, the amygdala response to negative imagery was numerically larger in young adults who transitioned to hazardous use (g = 0.31), but this effect was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline drinking levels were significantly associated with the transition to hazardous alcohol use. Studies with larger samples and longer follow-up should test whether the amygdala response to negative emotional imagery can be used to indicate a future transition to hazardous alcohol use.


Subject(s)
Emotional Regulation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Reward , Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Emotional Regulation/physiology , Adolescent , Alcoholism/psychology , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Alcoholism/diagnostic imaging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcohol Drinking/physiopathology , Amygdala/diagnostic imaging , Amygdala/physiopathology , Emotions/physiology , Adult
8.
Ann Med ; 56(1): 2373199, 2024 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine and metabolic disorders in women of reproductive age. It is frequently comorbid with obesity and negative emotions. Currently, there are few reports on the relationship between obesity and negative emotions in patients with PCOS. Here we performed both basic and clinical studies to study the relationship between obesity and negative emotions in PCOS. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study including 608 patients with PCOS and 184 healthy participants to assess the mental health status of people with different body mass indices (BMI). Self-rated anxiety, depression, and perceived stress scales were used for subjective mood evaluations. Rat PCOS models fed 45 and 60% high-fat diets were used to confirm the results of the clinical study. Elevated plus maze and open field tests were used to assess anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats. RESULTS: We observed overweight/obesity, increased depression, anxiety, and perceived stress in women with PCOS, and found that anxiety and depression were negatively correlated with BMI in patients with severe obesity and PCOS. Similar results were confirmed in the animal study; the elevated plus maze test and open field test demonstrated that only 60% of high fat diet-induced obesity partly reversed anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in PCOS rats. A high-fat diet also modulated rat hypothalamic and hippocampal luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels. CONCLUSION: These results reveal a potential relationship between obesity and negative emotions in PCOS and prompt further investigation. The interactions between various symptoms of PCOS may be targeted to improve the overall well-being of patients.


Obesity was negatively correlated with negative emotions in patients with PCOS.Obesity may affect the downregulation of LH and testosterone and participate in the regulation of emotions.Increased BMI may be beneficial for patients with PCOS in terms of the psychological aspects.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Body Mass Index , Depression , Diet, High-Fat , Obesity , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/psychology , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications , Female , Animals , Humans , Obesity/psychology , Rats , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/etiology , Depression/psychology , Depression/etiology , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Young Adult , Emotions , Stress, Psychological/psychology
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15409, 2024 07 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965387

ABSTRACT

Autistic youth experience several behavioral and emotional characteristics that can predispose them to emotion dysregulation (ED). Current literature examining ED in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited to parent- and self-reported measures, indicating a need for biological or physiological methods to better assess emotion regulation in ASD. Utilizing the autonomic nervous system, specifically heart rate variability (HRV), may be a promising method to objectively measure ED in ASD, given it is one of the body's primary means of regulating physiological arousal. Our pilot study is one of the first to examine the feasibility, utility, and construct validity of HRV along with clinical measures within an intervention targeting ED-specific symptoms in ASD. Participants included 30 autistic youth ages 8-17 years who participated in the pilot study of Regulating Together, a group-based intervention targeting emotion regulation. We demonstrate HRV is feasible, demonstrates adequate test-retest reliability, and is complimentary to clinician- and parent-reported measures. Our preliminary findings also point to certain HRV profiles being indicative of long-term outcomes after receiving treatment. HRV may be a useful, objective tool in determining differential needs of long-term follow-up care for treatment maintenance at screening or baseline stages.


Subject(s)
Emotional Regulation , Feasibility Studies , Heart Rate , Humans , Child , Heart Rate/physiology , Adolescent , Male , Female , Emotional Regulation/physiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/physiopathology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/therapy , Pilot Projects , Autonomic Nervous System/physiopathology , Autistic Disorder/physiopathology , Autistic Disorder/psychology , Autistic Disorder/therapy , Emotions/physiology , Treatment Outcome
10.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 488, 2024 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The present longitudinal investigation had two major goals. First, we intended to clarify whether depressed patients are characterized by impairments of emotional awareness for the self and the other during acute illness and whether these impairments diminish in the course of an inpatient psychiatric treatment program. Previous research based on the performance measure Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) provided inconsistent findings concerning emotional self-awareness in clinical depression. Second, we investigated whether cognitive and affective empathic abilities change from acute illness to recovery in depressed patients. METHODS: Fifty-eight depressed patients were tested on admission and after 6-8 weeks of inpatient psychiatric treatment. A sample of fifty-three healthy individuals were also examined twice at an interval of 6-8 weeks. The LEAS and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) were administered to assess emotional awareness and empathic abilities. Written texts were digitalized and then analyzed using the electronic scoring program geLEAS, the German electronic Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale. RESULTS: Depressed patients reported more depressive symptoms than healthy controls and less severe depressive symptomatology at time 2 compared to time 1. Independent of time, depressed individuals tended to show lower geLEAS self scores and had lower geLEAS other scores than healthy individuals. Depressed patients showed higher personal distress scores than healthy individuals at both measurement times. No group differences were observed for the cognitive empathy scales of the IRI (perspective taking and fantasy) and empathic concern, but empathic concern decreased significantly in depressed patients from time 1 to time 2. Empathic abilities as assessed by the IRI were not significantly correlated with emotional awareness for others, neither in the whole sample, nor in the patient and control subsample. CONCLUSIONS: Depressed patients seem to be characterized by impairments in emotional awareness of others during acute illness and recovery, but they also tend to show deficits in emotional self-awareness compared to healthy individuals. Self-reported cognitive empathic abilities seem to be at normal levels in depressed patients, but their heightened self-focused affective empathy may represent a vulnerability factor for depressive disorders.


Subject(s)
Awareness , Emotions , Empathy , Humans , Empathy/physiology , Male , Female , Adult , Emotions/physiology , Middle Aged , Acute Disease , Awareness/physiology , Longitudinal Studies , Self Concept , Depression/psychology
11.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0306338, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954699

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Auditory-verbal hallucinatory experiences (AVH) have a 12% prevalence in the general pediatric population. Literature reports a higher risk of developing AVH in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The persistence of AVHs during adolescence represents a risk of evolution into psychotic disorders. Social cognition and emotional markers could be considered prodromes markers of this evolution. The objectives of this prospective observational study are to observe social cognition and emotional markers correlation with the presence and persistence of AVH over two years and with the evolution of PTSD and psychotic diagnosis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This prospective case-control study, longitudinal over two years (with an interim reassessment at six months and one year), will include 40 participants aged 8 to 16 years old with a diagnosis of PTSD and without a diagnosis of psychosis according to the criteria of DSM-5 (K-SADS-PL). Subjects included are divided into two groups with AVH and without AVH matched by gender, age and diagnosis. The primary outcome measure will be the correlation between social cognition and emotional makers and the presence of AVH in the PTSD pediatric population without psychotic disorders. The social cognition marker is assessed with the NEPSY II test. The emotional marker is assessed with the Differential Emotion Scale IV and the Revised Beliefs About Voices Questionnaire. The secondary outcome measures are the correlation of these markers with the persistence of AVH and the evolution of the patient's initial diagnosis two years later. DISCUSSION: The originality of our protocol is to explore the potential progression to psychosis from PTSD by cognitive biases. This study supports the hypothesis of connections between PTSD and AVH through sensory, emotional and cognitive biases. It proposes a continuum model from PTSD to psychotic disorder due to impaired perception like AVH. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03356028.


Subject(s)
Emotions , Hallucinations , Social Cognition , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Adolescent , Child , Case-Control Studies , Male , Female , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Hallucinations/psychology , Hallucinations/epidemiology , Psychotic Disorders/psychology , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis
12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 271, 2024 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956031

ABSTRACT

The Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment (ANA) is a neurobiologically-informed framework designed to understand the etiology and heterogeneity of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD). Previous studies validated the three neurofunctional domains of ANA: Incentive Salience (IS), Negative Emotionality (NE) and Executive Function (EF) using secondary data. The present cross-sectional observational study assessed these domains in an independent, prospective clinical sample. Adults across the drinking spectrum (N = 300) completed the ANA battery, a standardized collection of behavioral tasks and self-report assessments. Factor analyses were used to identify latent factors underlying each domain. Associations between identified domain factors were evaluated using structural equation models. Receiver operating characteristics analyses were used to determine factors with the strongest ability to classify individuals with problematic drinking and AUD. We found (1) two factors underlie the IS domain: alcohol motivation and alcohol insensitivity. (2) Three factors were identified for the NE domain: internalizing, externalizing, and psychological strength. (3) Five factors were found for the EF domain: inhibitory control, working memory, rumination, interoception, and impulsivity. (4) These ten factors showed varying degrees of cross-correlations, with alcohol motivation, internalizing, and impulsivity exhibiting the strongest correlations. (5) Alcohol motivation, alcohol insensitivity, and impulsivity showed the greatest ability in classifying individuals with problematic drinking and AUD. Thus, the present study identified unique factors underlying each ANA domain assessed using a standardized assessment battery. These results revealed additional dimensionality to the ANA domains, bringing together different constructs from the field into a single cohesive framework and advancing the field of addiction phenotyping. Future work will focus on identifying neurobiological correlates and identifying AUD subtypes based on these factors.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Executive Function , Motivation , Neuropsychological Tests , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Alcoholism/psychology , Executive Function/physiology , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Impulsive Behavior/physiology , Young Adult , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , Behavior, Addictive/physiopathology , Emotions/physiology , Factor Analysis, Statistical
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14724, 2024 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956070

ABSTRACT

Across vertebrates, adaptive behaviors, like feeding and avoiding predators, are linked to lateralized brain function. The presence of the behavioral manifestations of these biases are associated with increased task success. Additionally, when an individual's direction of bias aligns with the majority of the population, it is linked to social advantages. However, it remains unclear if behavioral biases in humans correlate with the same advantages. This large-scale study (N = 313-1661, analyses dependent) examines whether the strength and alignment of behavioral biases associate with cognitive and social benefits respectively in humans. To remain aligned with the animal literature, we evaluate motor-sensory biases linked to motor-sequencing and emotion detection to assess lateralization. Results reveal that moderate hand lateralization is positively associated with task success and task success is, in turn, associated with language fluency, possibly representing a cascade effect. Additionally, like other vertebrates, the majority of our human sample possess a 'standard' laterality profile (right hand bias, left visual bias). A 'reversed' profile is rare by comparison, and associates higher self-reported social difficulties and increased rate of autism and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We highlight the importance of employing a comparative theoretical framing to illuminate how and why different laterization profiles associate with diverging social and cognitive phenotypes.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Functional Laterality , Humans , Cognition/physiology , Male , Female , Functional Laterality/physiology , Adult , Young Adult , Adolescent , Social Skills , Middle Aged , Emotions/physiology
14.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1277929, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38978617

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Stress-related diseases pose significant health risks and show wide prevalence. Empirical evidence suggests that contemplative practices, such as socio-emotional dyadic mental exercises, hold promise in mitigating the adverse effects of stress and promoting psychosocial well-being. This study aimed to investigate the differential effects of two online contemplative mental training programs on the psychosocial stress response: the first involved classic mindfulness practices, while the second incorporated a socio-emotional dyadic approach known as Affect Dyad. Methods: The study was conducted as part of the longitudinal CovSocial project's phase 2 in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. 140 individuals participated in the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST), where the psychosocial stress response was assessed with cortisol saliva samples and subjective stress questionnaires in a cross-sectional design after the active training groups finished their intervention period. Participants were randomly assigned to the socio-emotional training group, mindfulness-based training group, or a control group that did not receive any training. Both training programs consisted of a ten-week intervention period with a daily 12-minute app-based mental training practice and weekly 2-hour online coaching sessions led by mental training teachers. Results: Results showed that the socio-emotional Dyad group but not the mindfulness-based group exhibited significantly lower cortisol levels at 10, 20, 30, and 40 minutes after the stressor as well as lower total cortisol output compared to the control group during the TSST, indicating a reduced hormonal stress response to a social stressor. Subjective markers did not show differences between the three groups. Discussion: These findings indicate that the daily socio-emotional dyadic practice, which emphasizes non-judgmental and empathic listening as well as the acceptance of challenging emotions in the presence of others within one's daily life context, may serve as a protective factor against the adverse effects of psychosocial stress triggered by the fear of negative social judgments. Given the high prevalence of stress-related diseases, such online mental training programs based on dyadic practices may thus represent an efficient and scalable approach for stress reduction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydrocortisone , Mindfulness , Saliva , Stress, Psychological , Humans , Mindfulness/methods , Male , Female , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , Hydrocortisone/metabolism , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Saliva/metabolism , Saliva/chemistry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Young Adult , Emotions/physiology , Neurosecretory Systems
15.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1375850, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38989127

ABSTRACT

Objective: The present study investigates what may influence individuals to experience their religiosity/spirituality as either subjectively positive [religious or spiritual (r/s) wellbeing] or as negative (r/s struggles). Drawing on existing literature attachment insecurity and the seven primary emotions as outlined by Jaak Panksepp in Affective Neuroscience are identified as likely influences. Methods: The final sample consisted of 340 participants (age: M = 36, SD = 14.2; 68.5% = female), among which 65% self-identified as religious/spiritual. A path analysis was conducted to test a proposed mediation model in which the expected effects of primary emotions (B-ANPS) on r/s wellbeing (MI-RSWB) and r/s struggles (RSSS) were mediated through attachment insecurity (ECR-RD8). Results: The data indicated that attachment insecurity fully mediated the relationships between the primary emotions SADNESS and LUST with r/s struggles. Furthermore, the primary emotions FEAR and ANGER displayed small direct effects on both r/s struggles and r/s wellbeing. Overall, the model, which demonstrated excellent model fit, was able to explain 30% of the variance of r/s struggles, 24% of attachment insecurity and 5% of r/s wellbeing. Conclusions: The findings suggest that primary emotions such as SADNESS and LUST substantially explain r/s struggles and that these relationships seem to be mediated through attachment. Moreover, r/s struggles seem to be qualitatively distinct from r/s wellbeing. Finally, a moderate link between LUST and attachment suggests that sexuality plays a significant role in (adult) attachment processes.


Subject(s)
Emotions , Object Attachment , Spirituality , Humans , Female , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e49422, 2024 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38986127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Retrospecting the trust gaps and their dynamics during the pandemic is crucial for understanding the root causes of postpandemic challenges and offers valuable insights into preparing for future public health emergencies. The COVID-19 pandemic eroded people's trust in strangers and acquaintances, while their trust in family members remained relatively stable. This resulted in 2 trust gaps, namely, the family members-strangers trust gap and the family members-acquaintances trust gap. Widening trust gaps impede social integration and undermine the effective management of public health crises. However, little is known about how digital media use shaped trust gaps during a pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the relationships between digital media use, negative emotions, the family members-strangers trust gap, and the family members-acquaintances trust gap during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. We test the mediating role of negative emotions between digital media use and 2 trust gaps and compare the indirect effect of digital media use on 2 trust gaps through negative emotions. METHODS: A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted in China between January 31, 2020, and February 9, 2020. A total of 1568 adults participated in the survey. Questions related to digital media use, negative emotions, trust in family members, trust in acquaintances, and trust in strangers during the pandemic were asked. Regression analyses were performed to test the associations between the examined variables. We used a 95% bootstrap CI approach to estimate the mediation effects. RESULTS: Digital media use was positively associated with negative emotions (B=0.17, SE 0.03; P<.001), which in turn were positively associated with the family members-strangers trust gap (B=0.15, SE 0.03; P<.001). Likewise, digital media use was positively associated with negative emotions (B=0.17, SE 0.03; P<.001), while negative emotions were positively associated with the family members-acquaintances trust gap (B=0.08, SE 0.03; P=.01). Moreover, the indirect effect of digital media use on the family members-strangers trust gap (B=0.03, SE 0.01; 95% CI 0.01-0.04) was stronger than that on the family members-acquaintances trust gap (B=0.01, SE 0.01; 95% CI 0.003-0.027). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that negative emotions resulting from the frequent use of digital media are a key factor that accounts for the widening trust gaps. Considering the increasing reliance on digital media, the findings indicate that the appropriate use of digital media can prevent the overamplification of negative emotions and curb the enlargement of trust gaps. This may help restore social trust and prepare for future public health crises in the postpandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emotions , Pandemics , Trust , Humans , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Trust/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , China/epidemiology , Adult , Male , Female , Family/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Middle Aged , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult , SARS-CoV-2 , Internet
17.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 163: 105780, 2024 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955311

ABSTRACT

In this review, we consider the definitions and experimental approaches to emotional contagion and prosocial behaviour in mammals and explore their evolutionary conceptualisation for studying their occurrence in the evolutionarily divergent vertebrate group of ray-finned fish. We present evidence for a diverse set of fish phenotypes that meet definitional criteria for prosocial behaviour and emotional contagion and discuss conserved mechanisms that may account for some preserved social capacities in fish. Finally, we provide some considerations on how to address the question of interdependency between emotional contagion and prosocial response, highlighting the importance of recognition processes, decision-making systems, and ecological context for providing evolutionary explanations.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Animal , Biological Evolution , Emotions , Fishes , Social Behavior , Animals , Fishes/physiology , Emotions/physiology , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Humans
18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38976471

ABSTRACT

In recent years, there has been a surge in interest regarding the intricate physiological interplay between the brain and the heart, particularly during emotional processing. This has led to the development of various signal processing techniques aimed at investigating Brain-Heart Interactions (BHI), reflecting a growing appreciation for their bidirectional communication and influence on each other. Our study contributes to this burgeoning field by adopting a network physiology approach, employing time-delay stability as a quantifiable metric to discern and measure the coupling strength between the brain and the heart, specifically during visual emotional elicitation. We extract and transform features from EEG and ECG signals into a 1 Hz format, facilitating the calculation of BHI coupling strength through stability analysis on their maximal cross-correlation. Notably, our investigation sheds light on the critical role played by low-frequency components in EEG, particularly in the δ , θ , and α bands, as essential mediators of information transmission during the complex processing of emotion-related stimuli by the brain. Furthermore, our analysis highlights the pivotal involvement of frontal pole regions, emphasizing the significance of δ - θ coupling in mediating emotional responses. Additionally, we observe significant arousal-dependent changes in the θ frequency band across different emotional states, particularly evident in the prefrontal cortex. By offering novel insights into the synchronized dynamics of cortical and heartbeat activities during emotional elicitation, our research enriches the expanding knowledge base in the field of neurophysiology and emotion research.


Subject(s)
Brain , Electrocardiography , Electroencephalography , Emotions , Heart , Humans , Emotions/physiology , Male , Brain/physiology , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Heart/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Algorithms , Nerve Net/physiology , Photic Stimulation , Healthy Volunteers
19.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5531, 2024 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982092

ABSTRACT

In everyday life, people need to respond appropriately to many types of emotional stimuli. Here, we investigate whether human occipital-temporal cortex (OTC) shows co-representation of the semantic category and affective content of visual stimuli. We also explore whether OTC transformation of semantic and affective features extracts information of value for guiding behavior. Participants viewed 1620 emotional natural images while functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired. Using voxel-wise modeling we show widespread tuning to semantic and affective image features across OTC. The top three principal components underlying OTC voxel-wise responses to image features encoded stimulus animacy, stimulus arousal and interactions of animacy with stimulus valence and arousal. At low to moderate dimensionality, OTC tuning patterns predicted behavioral responses linked to each image better than regressors directly based on image features. This is consistent with OTC representing stimulus semantic category and affective content in a manner suited to guiding behavior.


Subject(s)
Emotions , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Occipital Lobe , Semantics , Temporal Lobe , Humans , Female , Male , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Temporal Lobe/physiology , Temporal Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Occipital Lobe/physiology , Occipital Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Young Adult , Emotions/physiology , Brain Mapping , Photic Stimulation , Affect/physiology , Arousal/physiology
20.
Med J Aust ; 221(1): 55-60, 2024 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38946642

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of the Cultural, Social and Emotional Wellbeing Program for reducing psychological distress and enhancing the social and emotional wellbeing of Aboriginal women preparing for release from prison. STUDY DESIGN: Mixed methods; qualitative study (adapted reflexive thematic analysis of stories of most significant change) and assessment of psychological distress. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women at the Boronia Pre-release Centre for Women, Perth, Western Australia, May and July 2021. INTERVENTION: Cultural, Social and Emotional Wellbeing Program (two days per week for six weeks). The Program involves presentations, workshops, activities, group discussions, and self-reflections designed to enhance social and emotional wellbeing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Themes and subthemes identified from reflexive thematic analysis of participants' stories of most significant change; change in mean psychological distress, as assessed with the 5-item Kessler Scale (K-5) before and after the Program. RESULTS: Fourteen of 16 invited women completed the Program; ten participated in its evaluation. They reported improved social and emotional wellbeing, reflected as enhanced connections to culture, family, and community. Mean psychological distress was lower after the Program (mean K-5 score, 11.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.0-13.6) than before the Program (9.0; 95% CI, 6.5-11.5; P = 0.047). CONCLUSION: The women who participated in the Program reported personal growth, including acceptance of self and acceptance and pride in culture, reflecting enhanced social and emotional wellbeing through connections to culture and kinship. Our preliminary findings suggest that the Program could improve the resilience of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander in contact with the justice system.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander , Humans , Female , Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander/psychology , Adult , Mental Health/ethnology , Western Australia , Program Evaluation , Psychological Distress , Qualitative Research , Middle Aged , Emotions , Prisoners/psychology , Stress, Psychological/ethnology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Young Adult
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