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PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280048, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662745

ABSTRACT

MAIN OBJECTIVE: Sickness absence duration for shoulder lesion patients is difficult to prognosticate, and scientific evidence for the sick-listing practice is lacking. Our objective was to develop a clinically implementable prediction model for the duration of a sickness absence spell due to shoulder lesions. METHODS: All new sickness absence spells due to shoulder lesions (ICD-10-code: M75) issued in the period January 2010-June 2012 that were longer than 14 days were identified through the nationwide sickness absence insurance register. Information on predictors was linked from four other nationwide registers. Piecewise-constant hazards regression models were fitted to predict duration of sickness absence. The model was developed and validated using split sample validation. Variable selection was based on log-likelihood loss ranking when excluding a variable from the model. The model was evaluated using calibration plots and the c-statistic. RESULTS: 20 049 sickness absence spells were identified, of which 34% lasted >90 days. Predictors included in the model were age, sex, geographical region, occupational status, educational level, birth country, specialized healthcare at start of the spell, number of sickness absence days in the last 12 months, and specialized healthcare the last 12 months, before start date of the index sickness absence spell. The model was satisfactorily specified and calibrated. Overall c-statistic was 0.54 (95% CI 0.53-0.55). C-statistic for predicting durations >90, >180, and >365 days was 0.61, 0.66, and 0.74, respectively. SIGNIFICANCE: The model can be used to predict the duration of sickness absence due to shoulder lesions. Covariates had limited predictive power but could discriminate the very long sickness absence spells from the rest.


Subject(s)
Employment , Shoulder , Humans , Prognosis , Sweden/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Sick Leave
3.
J Occup Health ; 65(1): e12380, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694993

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between maternal occupational status and adverse pregnancy outcomes in the general South Korean population. METHODS: We analyzed 1 825 845 employed and non-employed women with a diagnostic code for pregnancy in the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database (2010-2019) of South Korea. Based on their employment status and type of occupation, we calculated risk ratios for three adverse outcomes: early abortive outcomes (miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, and molar pregnancy), stillbirth, and no live birth (diagnosis of pregnancy with no record of live birth thereafter, which include early abortive outcomes and stillbirth) with adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: Overall, 18.0%, 0.7%, and 39.8% ended in early abortive outcomes, stillbirths, and no live births, respectively. The risk of early abortive outcomes and stillbirths was higher in non-employed women than in employed women, while no live births were more frequent in employed women. Those in the health and social work industry showed the highest risk of no live births. Manufacturing jobs (1.030, 95% CI: 1.013, 1.047) and health/social work (1.029, 95% CI: 1.012, 1.046) were associated with an increased risk of early abortive outcomes compared with financial and insurance jobs. Consistently higher risks of no live births were observed in the manufacturing, wholesale/retail trade, education, health/social work, and public/social/personal service occupation. CONCLUSION: Employment during pregnancy and several occupation types were associated with a higher risk of pregnancy loss. Additional research using detailed job activity data is needed to determine specific occupational causes of adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy Outcome , Stillbirth , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Occupations , Industry , Employment
4.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1103, 2023 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670140

ABSTRACT

The live streaming platform Twitch underwent in recent years an impressive growth in terms of viewership and content diversity. The platform has been the object of several studies showcasing how streamers monetize their content via a peculiar system centered around para-sociality and community dynamics. Nonetheless, due to scarcity of data, lots is still unknown about the platform-wide relevance of this explanation as well as its effect on inequalities across streamers. In this paper, thanks to the recent availability of data showcasing the top 10,000 streamers revenue between 2019 and 2021, as well as viewership data from different sources, we characterized the popularity and audience monetization dynamics of the platform. Using methods from social physics and econometrics, we analyzed audience building and retention dynamics and linked them to observed inequalities. We found a high level of inequality across the platform, as well as an ability of top streamers to diversify their revenue sources, through audience renewal and diversification in monetization systems. Our results demonstrate that, even if the platform design and affordance favor monetization for smaller creators catering to specific niches, its non-algorithmic design still leaves room for classical choice biases allowing a few streamers to emerge, retain and renew a massive audience.


Subject(s)
Employment , Physics
5.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674394

ABSTRACT

Although previous studies have examined the impact of long working hours on mental health in China, they have not addressed the initial value and reverse causality issues. To bridge this gap in the literature, I conducted a dynamic longitudinal analysis to investigate the association between long working hours and the risk of mental illness nationwide. Using three-wave longitudinal data from the China Family Panel Studies conducted in 2014, 2016, and 2018, I adopted dynamic regression models with lagged long working hours variables to examine their association with the risk of mental illness. The results indicate that long working hours have positive and significant (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05) associations with the risk of mental illness (OR: 1.12~1.22). The effect is more significant for women, white-collar workers, and employees in micro-firms, compared with their counterparts (i.e., men, pink- and blue-collar workers, employees of large firms, and self-employed individuals). The results provide empirical evidence of the effects of long working hours on mental health in China, confirming the need to enforce the regulations regarding standard working hours and monitor regulatory compliance by companies, as these factors are expected to improve mental health.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Mental Health , Male , Humans , Female , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Employment , China/epidemiology
6.
Am J Public Health ; 113(S1): S65-S71, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36696609

ABSTRACT

In 2010, the federal government and several state governments began using the social determinants of health (SDOH) framework to highlight contributing factors of health inequities and, in 2022, recognized that structural racism was associated with health inequities. Yet, efforts to eliminate health inequities have disproportionately focused on individualized solutions instead of addressing structural racism. Many racial/ethnic-minority workers have been segregated to low-wage occupations that lack access to paid sick leave, such as agricultural work, which has been associated with health inequities. Research shows these inequities are attributable to structural racism enforced through laws that structure the employment system to disadvantage agricultural workers, who are disproportionately racial/ethnic-minority individuals, which will not be addressed with individualized solutions. In this article, we explain why the current SDOH framework and efforts to eliminate health inequities are inadequate, discuss Yearby's revised SDOH framework that includes structural racism as one of the root causes of health inequities, and illustrate how Yearby's revised SDOH framework better captures the impact of structural racism, which is associated with health inequities for agricultural workers. (Am J Public Health. 2023;113(S1):S65-S71. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.307166).


Subject(s)
Racism , Systemic Racism , Humans , Social Determinants of Health , Farmers , Health Inequities , Employment
7.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36613190

ABSTRACT

The influence of environmental quality on the quality of urban life and on migration decisions is an important research issue in urban economics and environmental economics. Using the 2012-2014 China Labor Dynamics Survey data (CLDS), this paper uses a conditional logit model (CLM) and Instrumental Variable (IV) estimation to examine the impact of air pollution on the migrant migration decision. We find that air pollution significantly negatively impacts the migration decisions of migrants. Specifically, if the PM2.5 level of a city increases by 10 µg/m3, the probability of migrants flowing into the city will be significantly reduced by 21.2%. It shows that migrants choose to flow into cities with better spatial quality to reduce the risk of exposure to air pollution. After controlling for the characteristics of the outflow and the reasons for the flow, the impact of air pollution on migrants' migration decisions remains robust. Heterogeneity analysis shows that middle-aged, male, married, and highly educated migrants are more sensitive to air pollution. This paper enriches the research on air pollution and labor mobility at the micro level and provides empirical evidence for policymaking related to environmental governance and labor mobility in a low-carbon society.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Transients and Migrants , Humans , Middle Aged , Male , Conservation of Natural Resources , Environmental Policy , Employment , China
8.
BMC Med Educ ; 23(1): 33, 2023 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The concept of employability can help educators understand the variability in the career outcome of graduates. Within the health professional education (HPE) literature, various conceptions of employability are used and implied. This review considers how the concept 'employability' is depicted and characterised in HPE literature. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted. The authors searched Medline, Web of Science and Scopus databases for English language literature relevant to employability in HPE. Arksey and O'Malley's review protocol and the criteria defined in the preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Extension for Scoping Reviews Checklist (PRISMA-ScR) were used with methodological guidance provided by Levac et al. and Peters et al. with the exception of formal stakeholder consultation. RESULTS: The search resulted in 158 articles, of which 34 articles were included in this review. Charting the included articles revealed that within the set of articles, there is much diversity in study design, geographical setting and health profession. Three conceptions of employability were identified: acquiring a professional job, sustaining employment and thriving in the workforce. CONCLUSION: Conceptions of employability in HPE are largely focused on listing skills and capabilities for entry into employment and sustaining a career. To address gaps in research, structural contributions to employability and institutional strategies to promote conditions for thriving in disruption should be explored.


Subject(s)
Education, Professional , Employment , Humans
9.
Am J Bioeth ; 23(2): 38-40, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681923
10.
Otol Neurotol ; 44(2): 134-140, 2023 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624590

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the distance burden for access to cochlear implant (CI)-related services and to assess whether socioeconomic disadvantage or level of education and occupation influenced uptake of CIs. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: A CI services provider operating across multiple centers. PATIENTS: All patients undergoing CI surgery in a 2-year period between March 2018 and February 2020. INTERVENTIONS: Diagnosis of hearing loss, CI surgery, and subsequent habilitation and mapping. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Distance traveled by patients to their audiological diagnostic, CI surgery hospital, and habilitation sites; subjects' index of relative socioeconomic advantage and disadvantage (IRSAD) and index of education and occupation (IEO). RESULTS: n = 201 children and n = 623 adults. There was a significant difference across IRSAD domains for children (p < 0.0001) and adults (p < 0.0001), and IEO in children (p = 0.015) and adults (p < 0.0001) when tested for equal proportions. The median driving distance from home to the diagnostic audiological site for children was 20 km (mean, 69 km; range, 1-1184 km; upper quartile, 79 km; lower quartile, 8 km). There was no significant difference between the driving distances from home to the CI surgery hospital site, or the mapping/habilitation sites between children and adults. There was no correlation for age at first surgery and either IRSAD/IEO. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of distance for access to CI in Australia is significant for the upper quartile who may not live within the large city centers. Greater consideration needs to be given regarding barriers to CI for those in lower socioeconomic and educational groups to ensure equity of access across different socioeconomic and educational level backgrounds.


Subject(s)
Cochlear Implantation , Cochlear Implants , Health Services Accessibility , Adult , Child , Humans , Australia/epidemiology , Cochlear Implantation/statistics & numerical data , Cochlear Implants/statistics & numerical data , Educational Status , Retrospective Studies , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Social Class , Employment/statistics & numerical data
11.
Inquiry ; 60: 469580221146039, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624989

ABSTRACT

In the interests of satisfying the dental services demands of German citizens area-wide, constant, and thoughtful planning of supply and demand is essential. With an anonymous online survey of 375 dentists a pairwise comparison of 9 factors extracted as relevant from the existing scientific literature were analyzed with an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and ranked considering the various business types. In general, 5 local environmental factors have a dominant impact on founders' decision in German dentistry. In order: environment for the family, quality of life in private environment, real income, location of the practice, infrastructure. Real income is in first place (p = 0.287) for dentists who want to start a new single practice. For preferring a new community practice, it is on third place (p = 0.177) and for dentists who favor a takeover a single practice (p = 0.130) or joining a community practice (p = 0.096) or employment (p = 0.111) it is fourth place. For this purpose, the location of the practice is of greater priority than the real income for dentists who prefer not to start a new practice. The AHP method is a way to picture a priority list out of all relevant factors for setting up of a dental practice.


Subject(s)
Analytic Hierarchy Process , Dentists , Humans , Quality of Life , Employment , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
J R Soc Interface ; 20(198): 20220775, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36628529

ABSTRACT

Urban scaling, the superlinear increase of socio-economic measures with increasing population, is a well-researched phenomenon. This article is focused on socio-economic performance scaling, which could possibly be driven by increasing returns of the size and density of interaction networks. If this is indeed the case, we should also find that spatial barriers to interaction affect scaling and cause local performance deviations. Possible barring effects of municipal boundaries are important from the perspective of urban and regional governance. We test the hypothesis of barring effects by correlating municipal boundaries with the structure of commuter networks within a large densely urbanized region, the Randstad in The Netherlands. The measured impacts of these boundaries are correlated with local employment-scaling deviations. Applying spatially weighted modelling techniques, we find that municipal borders have significant effects on inter-municipal commuting and indicate these effects on the map. The results show particularly significant correlations along dividing lines between large urban agglomerations and rural communities. The southern part of the Randstad is more fragmented by such dividing lines than the northern part, which could partly explain the diverging economic development between the two parts.


Subject(s)
Employment , Rural Population , Humans , Urban Population , Population Density , Cities
13.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2023 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689249

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Looked after children (LAC) are criminalised at five times the rate of children in the general population. Children in contact with both child welfare and child justice systems have higher rates of neurodisability and substance use problems, and LAC in general have high rates of school exclusion, homelessness and unemployment. This study aims to understand whether these factors persist in LAC who are in prison as adults. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Administrative data collected by the Do-IT profiler screening tool in a prison in Wales, UK, were analysed to compare sentenced prisoners who were LAC (n = 631) to sentenced prisoners who were not LAC (n = 2,201). The sample comprised all prisoners who were screened on entry to prison in a two-year period. FINDINGS: Prisoners who were LAC scored more poorly on a functional screener for neurodisability (effect size = 0.24), and on four self-report measures capturing traits of dyslexia (0.22), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (0.40), autism spectrum disorders (0.34) and developmental co-ordination disorder (0.33). Prisoners who were LAC were more likely to have been to a pupil referral unit (0.24), have substance use problems (0.16), be homeless or marginally housed (0.18) and be unemployed or unable to work due to disability (0.13). ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This study uniquely contributes to our understanding of prisoners who were LAC as a target group for intervention and support with re-integration into the community upon release. LAC in prison as adults may require additional interventions to help with employment, housing and substance use. Education programmes in prison should screen for neurodisability, to develop strategies to support engagement.


Subject(s)
Prisoners , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Adult , Child , Prisons , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Wales , Employment
14.
15.
BMJ Mil Health ; 169(1): 62-68, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657827

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Following the opening of all combat roles to women across the UK Armed Forces, there is a requirement to understand the risk of injury to these female personnel. Women injure at a higher rate than men during basic military training, but fewer data are published from individuals who have passed military training. METHODS: A bespoke survey was designed to investigate differences in injury prevalence and medical downgrading between sexes and career employment groups (ie, job roles) in the UK Armed Forces. RESULTS: Questionnaire data were evaluated from 847 service personnel (87% men) employed in combat roles (Royal Marines, Infantry, Royal Armoured Corps, Royal Air Force Regiment (all men)) and non-combat roles (Royal Regiment of Artillery, Corps of Royal Engineers, Royal Logistic Corps and Combat Service Support Corps who were attached to one of the participating units (men and women)). Women reported more total (OR 1.64 (95% CI: 1.03 to 2.59), p=0.035), lower limb (OR 1.92 (95% CI: 1.23 to 2.98), p=0.004) and hip (OR 2.99 (95% CI: 1.59 to 5.62), p<0.001) musculoskeletal injuries in the previous 12 months than men, but there were no sex differences in the prevalence of current or career medical downgrading due to musculoskeletal injury (both p>0.05). There were no differences in 12-month musculoskeletal injury prevalence between men in combat roles and men in non-combat roles (all p>0.05), but men in non-combat roles were more likely to be currently medically downgraded (OR 1.88 (95% CI: 1.27 to 2.78), p=0.001) and medically downgraded during their career (OR 1.49 (95% CI: 1.11 to 2.00), p=0.008) due to musculoskeletal injury than men in combat roles. More time in service and quicker 1.5-mile run times were associated with increased prevalence of total musculoskeletal injuries, and female sex was a predictor of hip injury. CONCLUSIONS: Although women are at greater risk of injury than men, we have no evidence that combat employment is more injurious than non-combat employment. The prevention of hip injuries should form a specific focus of mitigation efforts for women.


Subject(s)
Military Personnel , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Male , Humans , Female , Cohort Studies , Musculoskeletal Diseases/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Employment
16.
Physiol Biochem Zool ; 96(1): 62-74, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36626839

ABSTRACT

AbstractTorpor is a highly effective response to counter various ecological and physiological bottlenecks in endotherms. In this study, we examined interrelations between thermoregulatory responses and key environmental variables in free-living squirrel gliders (Petaurus norfolcensis) in a habitat with drastic climatic and ecological changes across seasons. To this end, we measured body temperature (Tb) and heart rate (fH) simultaneously throughout the year using implanted data loggers. Squirrel gliders in our study experienced fluctuations in ambient temperature (Ta) between -4.0°C and 44.1°C and expressed torpor at different times during the year. In contrast to our expectations, torpor seemed to be employed flexibly, on demand, and most frequently in spring rather than during the coldest and/or hottest periods. Torpor bouts lasted, on average, about 5 h, and Tb during torpor dropped as low as 17.9°C. The fH during torpor decreased below 50 bpm, which is about one-third of the basal level. The ability to record fH alongside Tb enabled us to also report periods of low fH during thermoconforming hyperthermia at Ta's above 35°C that likely occurred to conserve energy and water. Our findings double the body size of Australian gliders for which data on torpor are available and advance our ecological understanding of the dynamics of torpor expression in wild mammals and of how animals cope with varying conditions. Moreover, they highlight that the flexibility of physiology and thermoregulatory responses are clearly more complex than previously thought.


Subject(s)
Marsupialia , Torpor , Animals , Sciuridae , Australia , Torpor/physiology , Body Temperature Regulation/physiology , Body Temperature/physiology , Seasons , Marsupialia/physiology , Employment
17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673814

ABSTRACT

Common mental health and musculoskeletal disorders (CMDs and MSDs) are two of the most significant causes of non-participation in employment amongst working age adults. BACKGROUND: This case study fills an important gap in the scientific literature on reintegration back to work after sickness absence due to CMDs and MSDs. It particularly examines the return to work (RTW) experiences of sick-listed employees to understand the facilitators and barriers of sustainable RTW. METHODS: Using a realist evaluation approach within a qualitative inquiry, perceptions of employees were explored to provide in-depth understanding of what, how and under what circumstances sustainable RTW can be enabled for employees absent on a short- or long-term basis. Repeat face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 participants (15 women and 7 men, aged 30-50 years and sick-listed with MSDs and CMDs) who were recruited using purposive sampling. Data was thematically analysed. RESULTS: A total of 2 main codes and 5 subcodes were developed and grouped into three theoretical abstractions. As a result of validating the context, mechanism, and outcome configurations with accounts of participants, all three initial theories explaining the most prominent mechanisms that either facilitates or impedes a sustainable RTW for people with CMDs and MSDs were justified. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal the active role of line managers on the RTW outcomes of returning employees. However, line-manager's competence and ability to effectively support and implement appropriate RTW strategies suited to employees' hinges on working in alignment with key stakeholders and returning employees.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Male , Adult , Humans , Female , Return to Work/psychology , Mental Health , Sick Leave , Employment , Mental Disorders/psychology
18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673836

ABSTRACT

This study aims to examine the relationship between workplace bullying and Exit-Voice-Loyalty-Neglect (EVLN) coping responses with Perceived Organizational Tolerance (POT) of bullying as moderator using the integrated model of reactance and learned helplessness theory. The data has been collected from junior faculty in higher education institutes of Punjab. The study has been conducted in two phases, with phase 1 including identifying targets of workplace bullying using cut-off scores and phase 2 studying the perceived organizational tolerance. The results show that junior faculty chooses neglect as a coping response and that the level of perceived organizational tolerance moderates the relationship between workplace bullying and exit-voice-neglect. This study contributes to existing literature by employing integration of theories and using multi-level research design. It also is an addition to the literature on the coping response of targets to workplace bullying in higher education and is a rare attempt at operationalizing perceived organizational tolerance and its relation with workplace bullying.


Subject(s)
Bullying , Occupational Stress , Humans , Workplace , Adaptation, Psychological , Employment , Faculty , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674011

ABSTRACT

Organizational career management (OCM) is believed to be a useful practice to stimulate the potential of employees. However, how this can be achieved is still under investigation. This research aims to explore the mechanisms that explain the effects of OCM by clarifying its impact on employees' psychological states and their capability, based on a socially embedded model of thriving. To examine our hypotheses, we conducted a three-wave survey study with 272 full-time employees in China from diverse industries. The study lasted for three months and there was a one-month interval after each wave. We asked the participants to report OCM, career plateau and demographic variables at Time 1, their appraisal of learning and vitality at Time 2, and their self-perceived employability and job burnout at Time 3. We utilized regression analysis to examine our theoretical model and path analysis using the bias-corrected bootstrap method to test the significance of the indirect and moderation effects. The findings showed that OCM positively affected employees' learning and vitality at work, which increased their self-perceived employability and subsequently decreased job burnout. Furthermore, the effects of OCM were found to be weaker for employees with a high degree of career plateau. These findings demonstrate that OCM benefits employees by "enabling" and "energizing" them to better themselves in terms of their employment and they shed light on the boundary condition of the career plateau. Therefore, organizations may provide OCM to facilitate employees' capability and their motivation to engage in self-development, and to further enhance the effects by decreasing their perception of a career plateau.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , Employment , Humans , Employment/psychology , Occupations , Burnout, Professional/psychology , China
20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674222

ABSTRACT

Workers, especially healthcare workers, are exposed to an increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, less is known about the impact of rehabilitation on health outcomes associated with post-COVID. This longitudinal observational study examined the changes in physical and neuropsychological health and work ability after inpatient rehabilitation of 127 patients (97 females/30 males; age 21-69 years; Mean = 50.62) who acquired COVID-19 in the workplace. Post-COVID symptoms, functional status, physical performance, neuropsychological health, employment, and work ability were assessed before and after rehabilitation. Group differences relating to sex, professions, and acute COVID status were also analyzed. Except for fatigue, the prevalence of all post-COVID symptoms decreased after rehabilitation. Significant improvements in physical performance and neuropsychological health outcomes were determined. Moreover, healthcare workers showed a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms compared to non-healthcare workers. Nevertheless, participants reported poor work ability, and 72.5% of them were still unable to work after discharge from rehabilitation. As most participants were still suffering from the impact of COVID-19 at rehabilitation discharge, ongoing strategies in aftercare are necessary to improve their work ability. Further investigations of this study population at 6 and 12 months after rehabilitation should examine the further course of post-COVID regarding health and work ability status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Workplace , Health Personnel/psychology , Employment
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