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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 471, 2024 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The accessibility of pharmacies has been associated with overall health and wellbeing. Past studies have suggested that low income and racial minority communities are underserved by pharmacies. However, the literature is inconsistent in finding links between area-level income or racial and ethnic composition and access to pharmacies. Here we aim to assess area-level spatial access to pharmacies across New York State (NYS), hypothesizing that Census Tracts with higher poverty rates and higher percentages of Black and Hispanic residents would have lower spatial access. METHODS: The population weighted mean shortest road network distance (PWMSD) to a pharmacy in 2018 was calculated for each Census Tract in NYS. This statistic was calculated from the shortest road network distance to a pharmacy from the centroid of each Census block within a tract, with the mean across census blocks weighted by the population of the census block. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted to assess links between Tract-level socio demographic characteristics and Tract-level PWMSD to a pharmacy. RESULTS: Overall the mean PWMSD to a pharmacy across Census tracts in NYS was 2.07 Km (SD = 3.35, median 0.85 Km). Shorter PWMSD to a pharmacy were associated with higher Tract-level % poverty, % Black/African American (AA) residents, and % Hispanic/Latino residents and with lower Tract-level % of residents with a college degree. Compared to tracts in the lowest quartile of % Black/AA residents, tracts in the highest quartile had a 70.7% (95% CI 68.3-72.9%) shorter PWMSD to a pharmacy. Similarly, tracts in the highest quartile of % poverty had a 61.3% (95% CI 58.0-64.4%) shorter PWMSD to a pharmacy than tracts in the lowest quartile. CONCLUSION: The analyses show that tracts in NYS with higher racial and ethnic minority populations and higher poverty rates have higher spatial access to pharmacies.


Subject(s)
Ethnicity , Pharmacies , Humans , New York , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Services Accessibility , Minority Groups
2.
Cancer Control ; 31: 10732748241246958, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623948

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Identify predictors of overall survival (OS) after hypopharyngeal/laryngeal cancer in Florida. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the Florida Cancer Data System (FCDS) on patients diagnosed with hypopharyngeal or laryngeal cancer from 2010-2017. Primary outcome was OS. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated from univariable and multivariable Cox regression models for OS. Data was analyzed from November 1, 2022, to June 30, 2023. RESULTS: We analyzed 6771 patients, who were primarily male (81.2%), White non-Hispanic (WNH) (78.2%), publicly insured (70.1%), married (51.8%), and residents of urban counties (73.6%). Black patients were more likely to be younger at diagnosis (38.9%), single (43.4%), to have distant SEER stage disease (25.6%). Median OS were lowest among patients who were uninsured (34 months), with hypopharyngeal site disease (18 months), and a smoking history (current: 34 months, former: 46 months, no smoking: 63 months). Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed worse OS for single/unmarried vs married (HR 1.47 [95%CI: 1.36-1.59], P < .001), history of tobacco use (current: HR 1.62 [95%CI: 1.440-1.817], P < .001; former smokers: (HR 1.28 [95%CI: 1.139-1.437], P < .001) vs no history). Improved OS was observed among White Hispanics (WH) vs WNH (HR .73 [95%CI: .655-.817], P < .001) and women vs men (HR .88 [95%CI: .807-.954], P = .002). Geographical mapping showed that mortality rates were highest in census tracts with low income and education. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that sociodemographic and clinical factors impact OS from hypopharyngeal/laryngeal cancer in Florida and vary geographically within the state. These results will help guide future public health interventions.


Subject(s)
Laryngeal Neoplasms , Humans , Male , Female , Florida/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Ethnicity , Proportional Hazards Models
3.
HLA ; 103(4): e15482, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625090

ABSTRACT

Polymorphism of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and their HLA class I ligands impacts the effector activity of cytotoxic NK cell and T cell subsets. Therefore, understanding the extent and implications of KIR and HLA class I genetic polymorphism across various populations is important for immunological and medical research. In this study, we conducted a high-resolution investigation of KIR and HLA class I diversity in three distinct Chinese ethnic minority populations. We studied the She, Yugur, and Tajik, and compared them with the Zhejiang Han population (Zhe), which represents the majority Southern Han ethnicity. Our findings revealed that the Tajik population exhibited the most diverse KIR copy number, allele, and haplotype diversity among the four populations. This diversity aligns with their proposed ancestral origin, closely resembling that of Iranian populations, with a relatively higher presence of KIR-B genes, alleles, and haplotypes compared with the other Chinese populations. The Yugur population displayed KIR distributions similar to those of the Tibetans and Southeast Asians, whereas the She population resembled the Zhe and other East Asians, as confirmed by genetic distance analysis of KIR. Additionally, we identified 12.9% of individuals across the three minority populations as having KIR haplotypes characterized by specific gene block insertions or deletions. Genetic analysis based on HLA alleles yielded consistent results, even though there were extensive variations in HLA alleles. The observed variations in KIR interactions, such as higher numbers of 2DL1-C2 interactions in Tajik and Yugur populations and of 2DL3-C1 interactions in the She population, are likely shaped by demographic and evolutionary mechanisms specific to their local environments. Overall, our findings offer valuable insights into the distribution of KIR and HLA diversity among three distinct Chinese ethnic minority populations, which can inform future clinical and population studies.


Subject(s)
East Asian People , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Minority Groups , Humans , Ethnicity/genetics , China , Genotype , Iran , Alleles , Receptors, KIR/genetics
4.
Ann Intern Med ; 177(4): 418-427, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elevated tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates have recently been reported for racial/ethnic minority populations in the United States. Tracking such disparities is important for assessing progress toward national health equity goals and implementing change. OBJECTIVE: To quantify trends in racial/ethnic disparities in TB incidence among U.S.-born persons. DESIGN: Time-series analysis of national TB registry data for 2011 to 2021. SETTING: United States. PARTICIPANTS: U.S.-born persons stratified by race/ethnicity. MEASUREMENTS: TB incidence rates, incidence rate differences, and incidence rate ratios compared with non-Hispanic White persons; excess TB cases (calculated from incidence rate differences); and the index of disparity. Analyses were stratified by sex and by attribution of TB disease to recent transmission and were adjusted for age, year, and state of residence. RESULTS: In analyses of TB incidence rates for each racial/ethnic population compared with non-Hispanic White persons, incidence rate ratios were as high as 14.2 (95% CI, 13.0 to 15.5) among American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) females. Relative disparities were greater for females, younger persons, and TB attributed to recent transmission. Absolute disparities were greater for males. Excess TB cases in 2011 to 2021 represented 69% (CI, 66% to 71%) and 62% (CI, 60% to 64%) of total cases for females and males, respectively. No evidence was found to indicate that incidence rate ratios decreased over time, and most relative disparity measures showed small, statistically nonsignificant increases. LIMITATION: Analyses assumed complete TB case diagnosis and self-report of race/ethnicity and were not adjusted for medical comorbidities or social determinants of health. CONCLUSION: There are persistent disparities in TB incidence by race/ethnicity. Relative disparities were greater for AI/AN persons, females, and younger persons, and absolute disparities were greater for males. Eliminating these disparities could reduce overall TB incidence by more than 60% among the U.S.-born population. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Subject(s)
Ethnicity , Tuberculosis , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Routinely Collected Health Data , Minority Groups , Population Surveillance , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(8): e034029, 2024 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Normalization of echocardiographic chamber measurements for body surface area may result in misclassification of individuals with obesity or sarcopenia. Normalization for alternative measures of body size may be preferable, but there remains a dearth of information on their normative values and association with cardiovascular function metrics. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3032 individuals underwent comprehensive 2-dimensional echocardiography at Exam 6 in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). In the subgroup of 608 individuals free of cardiopulmonary disease (69.5±7.0 years, 46% male, 48% White, 17% Chinese, 15% Black, 21% Hispanic), normative values were derived for left and right cardiac chamber measurements across a variety of ratiometric (body surface area, body mass index, height) and allometric (height1.6, height2.7) scaling parameters. Normative upper and lower reference values were provided for each scaling parameter stratified across age groups, sex, and race or ethnicity. Among scaling parameters, body surface area and height were associated with the least variability across race and ethnicity categories and height2.7 was associated with the least variability across sex categories. CONCLUSIONS: In this diverse cohort of community-dwelling older adults, we provide normative values for common echocardiographic parameters across a variety of indexation methods.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Heart Ventricles , Humans , Male , Aged , Female , Reference Values , Echocardiography/methods , Ethnicity , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging
6.
Arch Iran Med ; 27(2): 79-88, 2024 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The study of Y-chromosomal variations provides valuable insights into male susceptibility in certain diseases like cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this study, we analyzed paternal lineage in different Iranian ethnic groups, not only to identify developing medical etiology, but also to pave the way for gender-specific targeted strategies and personalized medicine in medical genetic research studies. METHODS: The diversity of eleven Iranian ethnic groups was studied using 27 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) haplotypes from Y-filer® Plus kit. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) based on pair-wise RST along with multidimensional scaling (MDS) calculation and Network phylogenic analysis was employed to quantify the differences between 503 unrelated individuals from each ethnicity. RESULTS: Results from AMOVA calculation confirmed that Gilaks and Azeris showed the largest genetic distance (RST=0.35434); however, Sistanis and Lurs had the smallest considerable genetic distance (RST=0.00483) compared to other ethnicities. Although Azeris had a considerable distance from other ethnicities, they were still close to Turkmens. MDS analysis of ethnic groups gave the indication of lack of similarity between different ethnicities. Besides, network phylogenic analysis demonstrated insignificant clustering between samples. CONCLUSION: The AMOVA analysis results explain that the close distance of Azeris and Turkmens may be the effect of male-dominant expansions across Central Asia that contributed to historical and demographics of populations in the region. Insignificant differences in network analysis could be the consequence of high mutation events that happened in the Y-STR regions over the years. Considering the ethnic group affiliations in medical research, our results provided an understanding and characterization of Iranian male population for future medical and population genetics studies.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , Ethnicity , Humans , Male , Ethnicity/genetics , Haplotypes , Iran , Analysis of Variance
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e245697, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598239

ABSTRACT

Importance: Access to COVID-19 testing is critical to reducing transmission and supporting early treatment decisions; when made accessible, the timeliness of testing may also be an important metric in mitigating community spread of the infection. While disparities in transmission and outcomes of COVID-19 have been well documented, the extent of timeliness of testing and the association with demographic factors is unclear. Objectives: To evaluate demographic factors associated with delayed COVID-19 testing among health care personnel (HCP) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the Preventing Emerging Infections Through Vaccine Effectiveness Testing study, a multicenter, test-negative, case-control vaccine effectiveness study that enrolled HCP who had COVID-19 symptoms and testing between December 2020 and April 2022. Data analysis was conducted from March 2022 to Junne 2023. Exposure: Displaying COVID-19-like symptoms and polymerase chain reaction testing occurring from the first day symptoms occurred up to 14 days after symptoms occurred. Main Outcomes and Measures: Variables of interest included patient demographics (sex, age, and clinical comorbidities) and COVID-19 characteristics (vaccination status and COVID-19 wave). The primary outcome was time from symptom onset to COVID-19 testing, which was defined as early testing (≤2 days) or delayed testing (≥3 days). Associations of demographic characteristics with delayed testing were measured while adjusting for clinical comorbidities, COVID-19 characteristics, and test site using multivariable modeling to estimate relative risks and 95% CIs. Results: A total of 5551 HCP (4859 female [82.9%]; 1954 aged 25-34 years [35.2%]; 4233 non-Hispanic White [76.3%], 370 non-Hispanic Black [6.7%], and 324 non-Hispanic Asian [5.8%]) were included in the final analysis. Overall, 2060 participants (37.1%) reported delayed testing and 3491 (62.9%) reported early testing. Compared with non-Hispanic White HCP, delayed testing was higher among non-Hispanic Black HCP (adjusted risk ratio, 1.18; 95%CI, 1.10-1.27) and for non-Hispanic HCP of other races (adjusted risk ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.03-1.33). Sex and age were not associated with delayed testing. Compared with clinical HCP with graduate degrees, all other professional and educational groups had significantly delayed testing. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of HCP, compared with non-Hispanic White HCP and clinical HCP with graduate degrees, non-Hispanic Black HCP, non-Hispanic HCP of other races, and HCP all other professional and education backgrounds were more likely to have delayed COVID-19 testing. These findings suggest that time to testing may serve as a valuable metric in evaluating sociodemographic disparities in the response to COVID-19 and future health mitigation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control , Health Personnel
8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 262, 2024 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594695

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a profound mental disorder with a multifactorial etiology, including genetics, environmental factors, and demographic influences such as ethnicity and geography. Among these, the studies of SCZ also shows racial and regional differences. METHODS: We first established a database of biological samples for SCZ in China's ethnic minorities, followed by a serum metabolomic analysis of SCZ patients from various ethnic groups within the same region using the LC-HRMS platform. RESULTS: Analysis identified 47 metabolites associated with SCZ, with 46 showing significant differences between Miao and Han SCZ patients. These metabolites, primarily fatty acids, amino acids, benzene, and derivatives, are involved in fatty acid metabolism pathways. Notably, L-Carnitine, L-Cystine, Aspartylphenylalanine, and Methionine sulfoxide demonstrated greater diagnostic efficacy in Miao SCZ patients compared to Han SCZ patients. CONCLUSION: Preliminary findings suggest that there are differences in metabolic levels among SCZ patients of different ethnicities in the same region, offering insights for developing objective diagnostic or therapeutic monitoring strategies that incorporate ethnic considerations of SCZ.


Subject(s)
Schizophrenia , Humans , Schizophrenia/diagnosis , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Asian People , Ethnicity , China , Genetic Predisposition to Disease
9.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 20(1): 42, 2024 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600492

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Indigenous and non-indigenous people in subtropical and temperate areas of Bhutan share an intricate relationship with stingless bees for diverse purposes including ethno-medicinal uses. Stingless bees hold significant importance in the realms of social, economic, cultural, and spiritual aspects. Bhutan's cultural traditions demonstrate a strong bond with the environment, exemplified by the regular use of honey from stingless bees for remedies such as treating the common cold, cough, and sore throat. METHODS: Ethnographic research was conducted to document the ethno-medicinal uses and cultural importance of stingless in Bhutan. We deployed semi-structured interviews with stingless beekeepers and honey collectors including traditional healers who perform religious rituals for curing and preventing physical and mental illness. RESULTS: We documented 22 different uses of stingless bee honey in food, medicine, veterinary medicine, crafts, beliefs, and religious purposes. The relative cultural importance (RCI) of stingless bees among Bhutan's ethnic communities was assessed through our calculations. It was determined that these bees hold notably greater significance for the Lhotshampa communities compared to other ethnic groups in Bhutan. This finding demonstrates the dependence of Hindu ethnic communities on natural resources in their everyday life. All participant communities largely exploit these bees through destructive extraction practices. They often find the natural nests in nearby forests, transfer them as a log hive to their backyards, and practice traditional meliponiculture. CONCLUSION: The ethnic communities of Bhutan use stingless bees for various purposes and the local knowledge are persistent. However, significant efforts should be made to address the ethno-medicinal, ecological, biological, and commercial perspectives of meliponiculture in Bhutan.


Subject(s)
Honey , Bees , Humans , Animals , Bhutan , Forests , Ethnicity , Population Groups
10.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1374806, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38601489

ABSTRACT

Background: Epidemiological studies have observed an increase in the prevalence of obesity in both western and Asian countries. This study aims to compare the distribution of body mass index (BMI) in the general population of Singapore between 2010 and 2016, and to explore the socio-demographic risk factors associated with it. Methods: Data for this study were extracted from two national-wise studies in 2010 and 2016, two population-based, cross-sectional epidemiological studies. BMI cut-off scores were used as an indicator to assess obesity in this study, and the data included in the analysis was self-reported by the respondents. Results: Overall, the study observed decreasing prevalence in underweight and normal weight categories; and an increasing prevalence in overweight and obesity categories in the Singapore adult population between 2010 and 2016. Age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, and educational level were found to be significantly associated with BMI categories. Conclusion: The observed increase in the population's BMI between 2010 and 2016 may lead to an increase in the incidence of chronic diseases in Singapore. Our study findings add to the existing local literature and provides data for evidence-based policymaking on health-related interventions and program planning.


Subject(s)
Ethnicity , Obesity , Adult , Humans , Body Mass Index , Singapore/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Obesity/epidemiology
11.
J Patient Rep Outcomes ; 8(1): 44, 2024 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The concept of Positive Health (PH) has gained increasing attention as a way of measuring individuals' ability to adapt in the face of contextual challenges. However, a suitable measurement instrument for PH that encompasses contextual factors has not yet been developed. This paper responds to this need by developing a Context-specific Positive Health (CPH) measurement instrument that aligns with the Capability Approach (CA). METHODS: The measurement instrument was developed and tested among a representative sample of 1002 Dutch internet survey panel members with diverse sociodemographic backgrounds. The instrument was developed in two stages: a preparation phase consisting of focus groups and expert consultations, and a validation among a representative panel of Dutch citizens. The goal of the preparation phase, was to pilot test and refine previously proposed Positive Health questionnaires into an initial version of the CPHQ. The validation phase aimed to examine the initial CPHQ's factorial validity using Factor Analysis, and its concurrent validity using Multivariate Regression Analysis. RESULTS: The developed questionnaire demonstrated adequate factorial and concurrent validity. Furthermore, it explicitly includes an assessment of resilience, this being a key component of PH. CONCLUSIONS: The introduced measurement tool, the CPHQ, comprises 11 dimensions that we have labeled as follows: relaxation, autonomy, fitness, perceived environmental safety, exclusion, social support, financial resources, political representation, health literacy, resilience, and enjoyment. In this article, we present four major contributions. Firstly, we embedded the measurement in a theoretical framework. Secondly, we focused the questionnaire on a key concept of Positive Health - the "ability to adapt." Thirdly, we addressed issues of health inequality by considering contextual factors. Finally, we facilitated the development of more understandable measurement items.


Subject(s)
Ethnicity , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Exercise , Focus Groups
12.
Soc Sci Res ; 119: 102981, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609302

ABSTRACT

More young adults in the United States are studying beyond high school and working full-time than in the past, yet young adults continue to have high poverty rates as they transition to adulthood. This study uses longitudinal data on two cohorts of young adults from the 1979 and 1997 National Longitudinal Study of Youth to assess whether conventional benchmarks associated with economic success-gaining an education, finding stable employment, and delaying childbirth until after marriage-are as predictive of reduced poverty today as they were in the past. We also explore differences in the protective effect of the benchmarks by race/ethnicity, gender, and poverty status while young. We find that, on average, the benchmarks associated with economic success are as predictive of reduced poverty among young adults today as they were for the prior generation; however, demographics and features of the economy have contributed to higher poverty rates among today's young adults.


Subject(s)
Benchmarking , Employment , Young Adult , Adolescent , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Educational Status , Ethnicity
13.
Soc Sci Res ; 119: 102990, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609309

ABSTRACT

Scholarly research has consistently shown that teachers present negative assessments of and attitudes toward migrant students. However, previous studies have not clearly addressed the distinction between implicit and explicit prejudices, or identified their underlying sources. This study identifies the explicit and implicit prejudices held by elementary and middle school teachers regarding the learning abilities of an ethnic minority group: Haitian students within the Chilean educational system. We use a list experiment to assess how social desirability and intergroup attitudes toward minority students influence teachers' prejudices. The findings reveal that teachers harbor implicit prejudices towards Haitian students and are truthful in reporting their attitudes, thereby contradicting the desirability bias hypothesis. We suggest that teachers rely on stereotypes associated with the students' nationality when assessing Haitian students' learning abilities. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to theories grounded in stereotypes and intergroup attitudes.


Subject(s)
Ethnicity , Transients and Migrants , Humans , Haiti , Social Desirability , Minority Groups , Prejudice , Students
14.
Soc Sci Res ; 119: 102989, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609313

ABSTRACT

Despite substantial evidence that racial/ethnic minority communities exhibit distinct mothering practices, research on racial/ethnic differences in how mothers spend time with their children is scant. Using the 2003-2019 American Time Use Survey (N = 44,372), this study documents variations in the amounts of childcare and copresent time spent in various activities with residential children aged 0-17 across White, Black, Latina, and Asian mothers. The results show that racial/ethnic differences in maternal time spent with children are partly due to socioeconomic differences but still exist when these factors are held constant, indicating patterns that reflect each minority community's mothering norms. Compared to mothers in other groups, Black mothers spend more copresent time with children in religious activities, although less in terms of the total amount of time. Latina mothers spend more copresent time with elementary-school-age children while engaging in daily routines. Asian mothers spend more time teaching and eating with elementary-school-age or younger children.


Subject(s)
Ethnicity , Minority Groups , Child , Female , Humans , Racial Groups , Asian , Mothers
15.
Eur J Med Res ; 29(1): 232, 2024 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Varicose vein is a chronic condition that affects the lower extremities of the human body. Several factors have been implicated in the development of this disease, viz age, gender, weight, height and prolonged standing. Recently, genome-wide studies have identified genetic biomarkers that are associated with varicose veins in different ethnic groups. Such genetic studies are lacking in South Asians specifically in Indians where the prevalence of varicose veins is high, and it is important to replicate these variants in the stated population. The study aimed to replicate the association of genetic variants associated with varicose veins in this target population, which were found to be associated with the other ethnic groups. METHODOLOGY: The studied cohort is of the Indian population comprising unrelated 104 varicose veins cases and 448 non-varicose vein controls. The samples were genotyped using the Illumina Global Screening Array. Using the genomic data from UK BioBank and 23andMe studied cohorts; eight genetic variants were selected to replicate in our dataset. The allelic association was performed to identify the effective allele and risk was estimated using odds ratio and p-value as level of significance. Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction was used to estimate the cumulative effect of variants in Indians. RESULT: Variant rs3791679 of EFEMP1 was found to be associated with varicose veins in Indians. After observing the association of the EFEMP1 with varicose veins, we further ensued to identify all genetic variants within EFEMP1 to uncover the additional variants associated with this trait. Interestingly, we identified six new variants of EFEMP1 gene that have shown association. Moreover, the cumulative effect of all associated variations was estimated and the risk was 2.7 times higher in cases than controls whereas independently their effect ranges from 0.37-1.58. CONCLUSION: This study identifies EFEMP1 as a potential gene related to the risk of varicose veins in Indians. It also highlights that evaluating the maximum number of variants of a gene rather than focusing solely on replicating single variations offers a more comprehensive and nuanced understanding of the genetic factors contributing to a complex trait like varicose veins.


Subject(s)
Asian People , Ethnicity , Humans , Genotype , Alleles , Phenotype , Extracellular Matrix Proteins
16.
J Med Case Rep ; 18(1): 166, 2024 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired gluconeogenesis. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 (FBP1) mutations demonstrate ethnic patterns. For instance, Turkish populations commonly harbor exon 2 deletions. We present a case report of whole exon 2 deletion in a Syrian Arabian child as the first recording of this mutation among Arabian ethnicity and the first report of FBP1 gene mutation in Syria. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 2.5-year-old Syrian Arab child with recurrent hypoglycemic episodes, accompanied by nausea and lethargy. The patient's history, physical examination, and laboratory findings raised suspicion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency. Whole exome sequencing was performed, revealing a homozygous deletion of exon 2 in the FBP1 gene, confirming the diagnosis. CONCLUSION: This case highlights a potential novel mutation in the Arab population; this mutation is well described in the Turkish population, which suggests potential shared mutations due to ancestral relationships between the two ethnicities. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding.


Subject(s)
Fructose-1,6-Diphosphatase Deficiency , Child, Preschool , Humans , Documentation , Ethnicity , Fructose , Fructose-1,6-Diphosphatase Deficiency/complications , Fructose-1,6-Diphosphatase Deficiency/diagnosis , Fructose-1,6-Diphosphatase Deficiency/genetics , Fructose-Bisphosphatase/genetics , Homozygote , Mutation , Sequence Deletion
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7796, 2024 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565879

ABSTRACT

Chronic musculoskeletal pain including knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Previous research indicates ethnic-race groups differ in the pain and functional limitations experienced with knee OA. However, when socioenvironmental factors are included in analyses, group differences in pain and function wane. Pain-related brain structures are another area where ethnic-race group differences have been observed. Environmental and sociocultural factors e.g., income, education, experiences of discrimination, and social support influence brain structures. We investigate if environmental and sociocultural factors reduce previously observed ethnic-race group differences in pain-related brain structures. Data were analyzed from 147 self-identified non-Hispanic black (NHB) and non-Hispanic white (NHW), middle and older aged adults with knee pain in the past month. Information collected included health and pain history, environmental and sociocultural resources, and brain imaging. The NHB adults were younger and reported lower income and education compared to their NHW peers. In hierarchical multiple regression models, sociocultural and environmental factors explained 6-37% of the variance in pain-related brain regions. Self-identified ethnicity-race provided an additional 4-13% of explanatory value in the amygdala, hippocampus, insula, bilateral primary somatosensory cortex, and thalamus. In the rostral/caudal anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, self-identified ethnicity-race was not a predictor after accounting for environmental, sociocultural, and demographic factors. Findings help to disentangle and identify some of the factors contributing to ethnic-race group disparities in pain-related brain structures. Numerous arrays of environmental and sociocultural factors remain to be investigated. Further, the differing sociodemographic representation of our NHB and NHW participants highlights the role for intersectional considerations in future research.


Subject(s)
Brain , Musculoskeletal Pain , Humans , Middle Aged , Black or African American , Brain/anatomy & histology , Ethnicity , White , Aged
18.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0302060, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603721

ABSTRACT

This study investigates whether publicly funded summer school programs in secondary education are of substantive meaning for the math performance of students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. More specifically, we explore whether this is the case when the summer programs are not explicitly aimed at low-SES students. In this context, we investigate whether summer schools in the Netherlands can decrease inequalities of opportunities in education. We use administrative data from Dutch secondary schools. To analyse the effect of the intervention we apply a Difference-in-Difference analysis in combination with matching estimation techniques. The results indicate that there is an overall modest effect of participation in a summer school. When analysing the SES groups separately, we observe a positive effect of participation for all three SES groups. However, the effect seems less strong for participants in the lowest and middle SES group compared to the highest SES group.


Subject(s)
Ethnicity , Schools , Humans , Students , Netherlands
20.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e078647, 2024 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604627

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To map the current use of paper-based and/or screen-based media for health education aimed at older people. DESIGN: A scoping review was reported following the Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses for Scoping Reviews checklist. DATA SOURCES: The search was carried out in seven databases (Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, Medline, CINAHL, ACM Guide to Computing Literature, PsycINFO), with studies available from 2012 to the date of the search in 2022, in English, Portuguese, Italian or Spanish. In addition, Google Scholar was searched to check the grey literature. The terms used in the search strategy were older adults, health education, paper and screen-based media, preferences, intervention and other related terms. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies included were those that carried out health education interventions for older individuals using paper and/or screen-based media and that described barriers and/or facilitators to using these media. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: The selection of studies was carried out by two reviewers. A data extraction form was developed with the aim of extracting and recording the main information from the studies. Data were analysed descriptively using Bardin's content analysis. RESULTS: The review included 21 studies that carried out health education interventions with different purposes, the main ones being promotion of physical activity, hypertension prevention and psychological health. All 21 interventions involved screen-based media on computers, tablets, smartphones and laptops, while only 4 involved paper-based media such as booklets, brochures, diaries, flyers and drawings. This appears to reflect a transition from paper to screen-based media for health education for the older population, in research if not in practice. However, analysis of facilitators and barriers to using both media revealed 10 design factors that could improve or reduce their use, and complementarity in their application to each media type. For example, screen-based media could have multimedia content, additional functionality and interactivity through good interaction design, but have low accessibility and require additional learning due to complex interface design. Conversely, paper-based media had static content and low functionality but high accessibility and availability and a low learning cost. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend having improved screen-based media design, continued use of paper-based media and the possible combination of both media through the new augmented paper technology. REGISTRATION NUMBER: Open Science Framework (DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/GKEAH).


Subject(s)
Checklist , Health Education , Humans , Aged , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Databases, Factual , Ethnicity
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