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1.
Iran J Med Sci ; 47(1): 2-14, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017772

ABSTRACT

Background: There are reports of ocular tropism due to respiratory viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Various studies have shown ocular manifestation in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients. We aimed to identify ophthalmic manifestations in COVID-19 patients and establish an association between ocular symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: A systematic search of Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library was conducted for publications from December 2019 to April 2021. The search included MeSH terms such as SARS-CoV-2 and ocular manifestations. The pooled prevalence estimate (PPE) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using binomial distribution and random effects. The meta-regression method was used to examine factors affecting heterogeneity between studies. Results: Of the 412 retrieved articles, 23 studies with a total of 3,650 COVID-19 patients were analyzed. The PPE for any ocular manifestations was 23.77% (95% CI: 15.73-31.81). The most prevalent symptom was dry eyes with a PPE of 13.66% (95% CI: 5.01-25.51). The PPE with 95% CI for conjunctival hyperemia, conjunctival congestion/conjunctivitis, and ocular pain was 13.41% (4.65-25.51), 9.14% (6.13-12.15), and 10.34% (4.90-15.78), respectively. Only two studies reported ocular discomfort and diplopia. The results of meta-regression analysis showed that age and sample size had no significant effect on the prevalence of any ocular manifestations. There was no significant publication bias in our meta-analysis. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of ocular manifestations in COVID-19 patients. The most common symptoms are dry eyes, conjunctival hyperemia, conjunctival congestion/conjunctivitis, ocular pain, irritation/itching/burning sensation, and foreign body sensation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/virology , Humans , Prevalence
2.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 447, 2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34961492

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical manifestations of orbital involvement in a large cohort of Chinese patients with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). METHODS: A total of 573 patients with IgG4-related disease were included. We described and compared the demographic, clinical, laboratory and histopathologic findings from 314 patients with IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD) and 259 with extra-ophthalmic IgG4-RD. RESULTS: Male predominance was found significant in extra-ophthalmic IgG4-RD only. Patients with IgG4-ROD showed younger age at diagnosis and longer duration from onset till diagnosis. In patients with extra-ophthalmic IgG4-RD, the most commonly involved extra-ophthalmic organ was pancreas; while in IgG4-ROD patients, salivary gland was most frequently affected. Multivariate analysis exhibited IgG4-ROD was associated with allergy history, higher serum IgG4/IgG ratio, multiple organs involvement and sialoadenitis. Orbital images were reviewed in 173 (55.1%) IgG4-ROD patients. Fifty-one (29.5%) patients had multiple lesions. Lacrimal gland involvement was detected in 151 (87.3%) patients, followed by extraocular muscles (40, 23.1%), other orbital soft tissue (40, 23.1%) and trigeminal nerve (8, 4.6%). Biopsy was performed from various organs in 390 cases. A dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and fibrosis were the main feature in orbital specimens. Storiform fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis were absent in lacrimal gland. CONCLUSIONS: Lacrimal gland involvement was the most common orbital manifestation of IgG4-ROD. Patients with IgG4-ROD showed different characteristic in demographic, clinical, laboratory findings compared to patients with extra-ophthalmic IgG4-RD. These features might indicate potential differences in the pathogenesis of these two subgroups of IgG4-RD.


Subject(s)
Eye Diseases , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease , Lacrimal Apparatus , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies
3.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 217, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the volume and the characteristics of pediatric eye emergency department (PEED) consultations performed at our tertiary eye center during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic and we compared them to those carried out in the same time interval of the previous three years. METHODS: Ophthalmic emergency examinations of patients aged ≤18 years old and done during the national COVID-19 lockdown (March 9th, 2020 - May 3rd, 2020) and in the corresponding date range of the previous three years (2017, 2018, and 2019) have been considered and reviewed. The following features were retrieved and analyzed: age, gender, duration and type of accused symptoms, traumatic etiology, and the discharge diagnosis. RESULTS: 136, 133, and 154 PEED visits have been performed respectively in 2017, 2018, and 2019, while 29 patients presented in 2020. Therefore, the volume of PEED activity decreased by 79.4% (p < 0.0001). Demographical and clinical characteristics were comparable to those of the pre-COVID period. Despite the absolute reduction in the number of traumas, urgent conditions increased significantly from 30.7 to 50.7% (p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: PEED activity decreased consistently after the onset of the pandemic and it was mainly attended by those children whose conditions required prompt assistance, reducing the number of patients diagnosed with milder pathologies. At the end of the emergency, better use of PEED could avoid overcrowding and minimize waste, allowing resource optimization for the management of urgent cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Age Factors , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Emergencies , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Eye Diseases/therapy , Facilities and Services Utilization , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Retrospective Studies
4.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 28(2): 123-128, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759671

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aims to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) around diabetic eye disease in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) attending primary health-care centers (PHCCs) in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: All diabetic patients attending eight PHCCs in Jazan region between December 2018 and December 2019 were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Face-to-face interviews were held to gather responses to a validated 20-item questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 293 patients aged 9-90 years (mean 50 years, standard deviation 14 years) agreed to participate, including 189 (64.5%) females and 104 (35.5%) males. Most (n = 251; 85.7%) had type 2 DM, the remainder (42; 14.3%) having type 1 DM. The mean duration of DM was 8.2 ± 6.4 years. Eye complications were self-reported by 114 (38.9%) participants. More than one-third (36.2%) of the participants had never undergone an eye examination. Less than one-third of participants (29% and 28% respectively) had an excellent level of knowledge or practice about diabetic eye disease, and only 12% demonstrated very positive attitude. KAP levels were independently predicted by patients' age, gender, and eye complication status. CONCLUSION: KAP relating to eye disease and eye care among Saudi patients with DM were less than desired. Rigorous efforts are required to raise awareness of eye complications among diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Eye Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
5.
Lakartidningen ; 1182021 10 22.
Article in Swedish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676526

ABSTRACT

A retrospective study was performed at three primary care centers, between 1 July 2019 and 31 January 2020. During that period, 200 patients were assessed for eye/vision problems. Demographic data as well as how they were examined, diagnosed and the treatment that was given to them were registered. The most common complaint was eyelid-related conditions (n=60). External inspection of the anterior segment of the eye was the most common investigation (186 patients), whereas visual acuity was meaured in only 19 instances. Infectious conjunctivitis was the most common diagnosis (n=54) and 87 % of those patients were given topical antibiotics. The majority of the patients (60%) were diagnosed and treated at the primary care unit. 72 (36%) were referred to specialized eye care.  We hope that the results of this study will contribute to developing standardized routines and specified equipment demands in primary health care for patients seeking help with ophthalmological problems.


Subject(s)
Conjunctivitis , Eye Diseases , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/therapy , Humans , Primary Health Care , Retrospective Studies , Visual Acuity
6.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(4): 420-428, 2021 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704409

ABSTRACT

To investigate the national burden of eye diseases in China from 1990 to 2019. The national burden of eye diseases in China, including case numbers, prevalence rate, age-standardized prevalence rate (ASR), disability-adjusted life year (DALY), DALY rate and age-standardized DALY rate (ASD) were calculated and stratified by sex and age. The trends of eye diseases burden from 1990 to 2019 and the correlation between eye diseases burden and human development index (HDI) were analyzed. In 2019, the total case number of eye diseases in China was 0.21 billion, the ASR was 9511/10, the total number of DALY was 4.72 million, and the ASD was 247.4/10. Near vision loss caused the greatest burden, followed by refraction disorders and cataract, with ASD being 73.8/10, 70.3/10 and 59.2/10, respectively. Men had lower risks of eye diseases than women. People aged old and old had the greatest burden of eye diseases. Compared with the year 1990, the total case number increased by 134.6% and DALY by 113.0% in 2019. The ASD of all decreased by 7.5%, and was negatively correlated with national HDI. Near vision loss, refraction disorders and cataract are of heavy disease burden in China. Although the ASD of eye diseases is decreased with the development of the national socioeconomic status, the eye diseases burden in China still increased with population growth and aging.


Subject(s)
Eye Diseases , Global Health , Aged , China/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Socioeconomic Factors
7.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 10(5): 461-472, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582428

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine the benefits and feasibility of a mobile, real-time, community-based, teleophthalmology program for detecting eye diseases in the New York metro area. DESIGN: Single site, nonrandomized, cross-sectional, teleophthalmologic study. METHODS: Participants underwent a comprehensive evaluation in a Wi-Fi-equipped teleophthalmology mobile unit. The evaluation consisted of a basic anamnesis with a questionnaire form, brief systemic evaluations and an ophthalmologic evaluation that included visual field, intraocular pressure, pachymetry, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, posterior segment optical coherence tomography, and nonmydriatic fundus photography. The results were evaluated in real-time and follow-up calls were scheduled to complete a secondary questionnaire form. Risk factors were calculated for different types of ophthalmological referrals. RESULTS: A total of 957 participants were screened. Out of 458 (48%) participants that have been referred, 305 (32%) had glaucoma, 136 (14%) had narrow-angle, 124 (13%) had cataract, 29 had (3%) diabetic retinopathy, 9 (1%) had macular degeneration, and 97 (10%) had other eye disease findings. Significant risk factors for ophthalmological referral consisted of older age, history of high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, Hemoglobin A1c measurement of ≥6.5, and stage 2 hypertension. As for the ocular parameters, all but central corneal thickness were found to be significant, including having an intraocular pressure >21 mm Hg, vertical cup-to-disc ratio ≥0.5, visual field abnormalities, and retinal nerve fiber layer thinning. CONCLUSIONS: Mobile, real-time teleophthalmology is both workable and effective in increasing access to care and identifying the most common causes of blindness and their risk factors.


Subject(s)
Eye Diseases , Ophthalmology , Telemedicine , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Tomography, Optical Coherence
8.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(10): 7, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369984

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To determine the relationship between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ocular outcomes such as visual impairment and age-related eye disease. Methods: Baseline data were used from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging. The Comprehensive Cohort consisted of 30,097 adults ages 45 to 85 years. Annual mean PM2.5 levels (µg/m3) for each participant's postal code were estimated from satellite data. Ozone, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide levels were also estimated. Binocular presenting visual acuity was measured using a visual acuity chart. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured in millimeters of mercury using the Reichart Ocular Response Analyzer. Participants were asked about a diagnosis of glaucoma, macular degeneration, or cataract. Logistic and linear regression models were used. Results: The overall mean PM2.5 level was 6.5 µg/m3 (SD = 1.8). In the single pollutant models, increased PM2.5 levels (per interquartile range) were associated with visual impairment (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.24), glaucoma (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.01-1.29), and visually impairing age-related macular degeneration (OR = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.10-2.09) after adjustment for sociodemographics and disease. PM2.5 had a borderline adjusted association with cataract (OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.99-1.14). In the multi-pollutant models, increased PM2.5 was associated with glaucoma and IOP only after adjustment for sociodemographics and disease (OR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.05-1.46 and ß = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.12-0.37). Conclusions: Increased PM2.5 is associated with glaucoma and IOP. These associations should be confirmed using longitudinal data and potential mechanisms should be explored. If confirmed, this work may have relevance for revision of World Health Organization thresholds to protect human health.


Subject(s)
Aging , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Eye Diseases/etiology , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Canada/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Morbidity/trends
9.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 41(3): 356-361, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has transformed health care. With the need to limit COVID-19 exposures, telemedicine has become an increasingly important format for clinical care. Compared with other fields, neuro-ophthalmology faces unique challenges, given its dependence on physical examination signs that are difficult to elicit outside the office setting. As such, it is imperative to understand both patient and provider experiences to continue to adapt the technology and tailor its application. The purpose of this study is to analyze both neuro-ophthalmology physician and patient satisfaction with virtual health visits during the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Across three institutions (NYU Langone Health, Indiana University Health, and Columbia University Medical Center), telemedicine surveys were administered to 159 patients. Neuro-ophthalmologists completed 157 surveys; each of these were linked to a single patient visit. Patient surveys consisted of 5 questions regarding visit preparation, satisfaction, challenges, and comfort. The physician survey included 4 questions that focused on ability to gather specific clinical information by history and examination. RESULTS: Among 159 patients, 104 (65.4%) reported that they were satisfied with the visit, and 149 (93.7%) indicated that they were comfortable asking questions. Sixty-eight (73.9%) patients found the instructions provided before the visit easy to understand. Potential areas for improvement noted by patients included more detailed preparation instructions and better technology (phone positioning, Internet connection, and software). More than 87% (137/157) of neuro-ophthalmologists surveyed reported having performed an examination that provided enough information for medical decision-making. Some areas of the neuro-ophthalmologic examination were reported to be easy to conduct (range of eye movements, visual acuity, Amsler grids, Ishihara color plates, and pupillary examination). Other components were more difficult (saccades, red desaturation, visual fields, convergence, oscillations, ocular alignment, and smooth pursuit); some were especially challenging (vestibulo-ocular reflex [VOR], VOR suppression, and optokinetic nystagmus). Clinicians noted that virtual health visits were limited by patient preparation, inability to perform certain parts of the examination (funduscopy and pupils), and technological issues. CONCLUSIONS: Among virtual neuro-ophthalmology visits evaluated, most offer patients with appointments that satisfy their needs. Most physicians in this cohort obtained adequate clinical information for decision-making. Even better technology and instructions may help improve aspects of virtual health visits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Ophthalmology/methods , Pandemics , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/methods , Comorbidity , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies
10.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 41(3): 362-367, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 public health emergency (PHE) has significantly changed medical practice in the United States, including an increase in the utilization of telemedicine. Here, we characterize change in neuro-ophthalmic care delivery during the early COVID-19 PHE, including a comparison of care delivered via telemedicine and in office. METHODS: Neuro-ophthalmology outpatient encounters from 3 practices in the United States (4 providers) were studied during the early COVID-19 PHE (March 15, 2020-June 15, 2020) and during the same dates 1 year prior. For unique patient visits, patient demographics, visit types, visit format, and diagnosis were compared between years and between synchronous telehealth and in-office formats for 2020. RESULTS: There were 1,276 encounters for 1,167 patients. There were 30% fewer unique patient visits in 2020 vs 2019 (477 vs 670) and 55% fewer in-office visits (299 vs 670). Compared with 2019, encounters in 2020 were more likely to be established, to occur via telemedicine and to relate to an efferent diagnosis. In 2020, synchronous telehealth visits were more likely to be established compared with in-office encounters. CONCLUSIONS: In the practices studied, a lower volume of neuro-ophthalmic care was delivered during the early COVID-19 public health emergency than in the same period in 2019. The type of care shifted toward established patients with efferent diagnoses and the modality of care shifted toward telemedicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Neurology/organization & administration , Office Visits/trends , Ophthalmology/organization & administration , Pandemics , Telemedicine/methods , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
12.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 44(8): 1121-1128, 2021 Oct.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274163

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A fire at the Lubrizol chemical factory in Rouen on September 26, 2019 generated a huge column of smoke directed northeast toward the city. As the eye might be particularly affected by the smoke and other toxic emissions from the fire, we assessed the impact of this industrial and ecological disaster on irritative eye surface disease in the week following the accident. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected the medical data of the patients who presented to the Ophthalmology Emergency Department (OED) of Rouen University Hospital (the only OED open during the days following the accident) during the week following the fire (W1). We compared these data with those of patients who presented during the week before the fire (W-1). We also collected data on patients presenting to the ED in general during W-1 and W1, including the number of visits directly related to the fire. RESULTS: 361 patients presented to the OED during W1 following the fire, compared with 384 in W-1. Of these patients, 83 (23%) had ocular surface disease in W1, versus 76 (20%) in W-1. Conjunctivitis was found in 54 patients in W1 (39 viral, 9 allergic, 6 undetermined) versus 44 in W-1 (27 viral, 12 allergic, 5 undetermined). A dry irritative syndrome was present in 29 patients in W1 versus 32 in W-1. Only 4 patients directly attributed their symptoms to the fire: 2 viral conjunctivitis, 1 allergic conjunctivitis and 1 worried patient (at D2, D5, D7 and D7 following the fire respectively). DISCUSSION: The number of emergency eye consultations did not change in the week following the Lubrizol factory fire (except for a decrease the day of the accident, related to the lock-down). There was a higher number of consultations in W1 for conjunctivitis, mostly viral in appearance and probably not directly related to the fire. The number of consultations for dry irritative syndrome was comparable between the two periods. Despite major media coverage of the event at the national level and a very high level of concern among the population, the fire does not seem to have had an effect on OED activity at Rouen University Hospital, nor on general ED visits. The stay-at-home order on the first day may have had a protective effect, avoiding direct exposure to smoke. The long-term consequences of the soot deposits on the ground as the smoke cloud passed over remain undetermined and are under surveillance. A review of the literature on the ocular consequences of industrial accidents is presented. CONCLUSION: The Ophthalmology Emergency Department did not record increased activity in the week following the Lubrizol Rouen fire, and ocular surface disease did not give rise to more consultations than the week before the fire. This suggests that there was no or minimal immediate ocular toxicity of the smoke from the fire.


Subject(s)
Eye Diseases , Fires , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies
13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281132

ABSTRACT

Climate change generates negative impacts on human health. However, little is known about specific impacts on eye diseases, especially in arid and semi-arid areas where increases in air temperatures are expected. Therefore, the main goals of this research are: (i) to highlight the association between common eye diseases and environmental factors; and (ii) to analyze, through the available literature, the health expenditure involved in combating these diseases and the savings from mitigating the environmental factors that aggravate them. Mixed methods were used to assess the cross-variables (environmental factors, eye diseases, health costs). Considering Southern Spain as an example, our results showed that areas with similar climatic conditions could increase eye diseases due to a sustained increase in temperatures and torrential rains, among other factors. We highlight that an increase in eye diseases in Southern Spain is conditioned by the effects of climate change by up to 36.5%; the economic burden of the main eye diseases, extrapolated to the rest of the country, would represent an annual burden of 0.7% of Spain's Gross Domestic Product. In conclusion, the increase in eye diseases has a strong economic and social impact that could be reduced with proper management of the effects of climate change. We propose a new concept: disease sink, defined as any climate change mitigation action which reduces the incidence or morbidity of disease.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Eye Diseases , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Spain/epidemiology
14.
PLoS Med ; 18(7): e1003716, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over 3.5 billion individuals worldwide are exposed to household air pollution from solid fuel use. There is limited evidence from cohort studies on associations of solid fuel use with risks of major eye diseases, which cause substantial disease and economic burden globally. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The China Kadoorie Biobank recruited 512,715 adults aged 30 to 79 years from 10 areas across China during 2004 to 2008. Cooking frequency and primary fuel types in the 3 most recent residences were assessed by a questionnaire. During median (IQR) 10.1 (9.2 to 11.1) years of follow-up, electronic linkages to national health insurance databases identified 4,877 incident conjunctiva disorders, 13,408 cataracts, 1,583 disorders of sclera, cornea, iris, and ciliary body (DSCIC), and 1,534 cases of glaucoma. Logistic regression yielded odds ratios (ORs) for each disease associated with long-term use of solid fuels (i.e., coal or wood) compared to clean fuels (i.e., gas or electricity) for cooking, with adjustment for age at baseline, birth cohort, sex, study area, education, occupation, alcohol intake, smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, cookstove ventilation, heating fuel exposure, body mass index, prevalent diabetes, self-reported general health, and length of recall period. After excluding participants with missing or unreliable exposure data, 486,532 participants (mean baseline age 52.0 [SD 10.7] years; 59.1% women) were analysed. Overall, 71% of participants cooked regularly throughout the recall period, of whom 48% used solid fuels consistently. Compared with clean fuel users, solid fuel users had adjusted ORs of 1.32 (1.07 to 1.37, p < 0.001) for conjunctiva disorders, 1.17 (1.08 to 1.26, p < 0.001) for cataracts, 1.35 (1.10 to 1.66, p = 0.0046) for DSCIC, and 0.95 (0.76 to 1.18, p = 0.62) for glaucoma. Switching from solid to clean fuels was associated with smaller elevated risks (over long-term clean fuel users) than nonswitching, with adjusted ORs of 1.21 (1.07 to 1.37, p < 0.001), 1.05 (0.98 to 1.12, p = 0.17), and 1.21 (0.97 to 1.50, p = 0.088) for conjunctiva disorders, cataracts, and DSCIC, respectively. The adjusted ORs for the eye diseases were broadly similar in solid fuel users regardless of ventilation status. The main limitations of this study include the lack of baseline eye disease assessment, the use of self-reported cooking frequency and fuel types for exposure assessment, the risk of bias from delayed diagnosis (particularly for cataracts), and potential residual confounding from unmeasured factors (e.g., sunlight exposure). CONCLUSIONS: Among Chinese adults, long-term solid fuel use for cooking was associated with higher risks of not only conjunctiva disorders but also cataracts and other more severe eye diseases. Switching to clean fuels appeared to mitigate the risks, underscoring the global health importance of promoting universal access to clean fuels.


Subject(s)
Coal , Cooking , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Wood , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
15.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 275, 2021 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Superficial eye disorders are one of the most common complications of improper eye care in intensive care units that can lead to corneal ulcers and permanent eye damage. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the implementation of eye care protocol on the incidence of infection and superficial eye disorders in patients admitted to intensive care units. METHODS: This study was a cross-over clinical trial that was performed on 32 patients admitted to the intensive care unit with reduced or no blink reflex following loss of consciousness or receiving sedatives. The eye of the test group received eye care according to the protocol and the eye of the control group received the routine care of the ward. The data collection form included demographic and clinical information and the clinical score scale of superficial eye disorders, which were completed in 7 days for both eyes. Data analysis was performed by McNemar and Cochran tests with a 95 % confidence interval. RESULTS: In the study of superficial eye disorders, the frequency of dacryorrhea and hyperemia was not significantly different in the second to seventh days in the control and test eyes (P < 0.05). The frequency of xerophthalmia was not significantly different between the control and the test eyes on the second to third days (P < 0.05), but there was a significant difference on the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh days (P = 0.0001). Also, the frequency of corneal opacity was not significantly different in the second and third days (P < 0.05), but in the fourth (P < 0.05), fifth, sixth, and seventh days, this difference was significant (P = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results, although the implementation of eye care protocol has been able to have a significant effect on reducing ocular complications and problems, routine eye care in the intensive care unit also has clinical effectiveness. Therefore, in order to prevent and completely eliminate eye disorders in the intensive care unit, more evidence and research are needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was retrospectively registered on https://en.irct.ir/trial/43493 on 13 November 2019 (13.11.2019) with registration number [IRCT20140307016870N5].


Subject(s)
Corneal Ulcer , Eye Diseases , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/therapy , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Treatment Outcome
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009489, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115752

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis (river-blindness) in Africa is targeted for elimination through mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin. Onchocerciasis may cause various types of skin and eye disease. Predicting the impact of MDA on onchocercal morbidity is useful for future policy development. Here, we introduce a new disease module within the established ONCHOSIM model to predict trends over time in prevalence of onchocercal morbidity. METHODS: We developed novel generic model concepts for development of symptoms due to cumulative exposure to dead microfilariae, accommodating both reversible (acute) and irreversible (chronic) symptoms. The model was calibrated to reproduce pre-control age patterns and associations between prevalences of infection, eye disease, and various types of skin disease as observed in a large set of population-based studies. We then used the new disease module to predict the impact of MDA on morbidity prevalence over a 30-year time frame for various scenarios. RESULTS: ONCHOSIM reproduced observed age-patterns in disease and community-level associations between infection and disease reasonably well. For highly endemic settings with 30 years of annual MDA at 60% coverage, the model predicted a 70% to 89% reduction in prevalence of chronic morbidity. This relative decline was similar with higher MDA coverage and only somewhat higher for settings with lower pre-control endemicity. The decline in prevalence was lowest for mild depigmentation and visual impairment. The prevalence of acute clinical manifestations (severe itch, reactive skin disease) declined by 95% to 100% after 30 years of annual MDA, regardless of pre-control endemicity. CONCLUSION: We present generic model concepts for predicting trends in acute and chronic symptoms due to history of exposure to parasitic worm infections, and apply this to onchocerciasis. Our predictions suggest that onchocercal morbidity, in particular chronic manifestations, will remain a public health concern in many epidemiological settings in Africa, even after 30 years of MDA.


Subject(s)
Anthelmintics/administration & dosage , Eye Diseases/drug therapy , Ivermectin/administration & dosage , Onchocerciasis/drug therapy , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Africa/epidemiology , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/parasitology , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Drug Administration , Middle Aged , Onchocerca/drug effects , Onchocerca/physiology , Onchocerciasis/epidemiology , Onchocerciasis/parasitology , Skin Diseases/epidemiology , Skin Diseases/parasitology , Young Adult
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11085, 2021 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34040094

ABSTRACT

To describe the medium-term ophthalmological findings in patients recovering from COVID-19. Patients recovered from the acute phase of COVID-19 underwent a complete ophthalmological evaluation, including presenting and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refractometry, biomicroscopy, tonometry, break-up time and Schirmer tests, indirect ophthalmoscopy, color fundus picture, and retinal architecture evaluation using optical coherence tomography. Socio-demographic data and personal medical history were also collected. According to the severity of systemic manifestations, patients were classified into mild-to-moderate, severe, and critical. Sixty-four patients (128 eyes) were evaluated 82 ± 36.4 days after the onset of COVID's symptoms. The mean ± SD duration of hospitalization was 15.0 ± 10.7 days. Seven patients (10.9%) had mild-to-moderate, 33 (51.5%) severe, and 24 (37.5%) critical disease. Median [interquartile ranges (IQR)] presenting visual acuity was 0.1 (0-0.2) and BCVA 0 (0-0.1). Anterior segment biomicroscopy was unremarkable, except for dry eye disease, verified in 10.9% of them. The mean ± SD intraocular pressure (IOP) in critical group (14.16 ± 1.88 mmHg) was significantly higher than in severe group (12.51 ± 2.40 mmHg), both in the right (p 0.02) and left eyes (p 0.038). Among all, 15.6% had diabetic retinopathy, and two patients presented with discrete white-yellowish dots in the posterior pole, leading to hyporreflective changes at retinal pigment epithelium level, outer segment, and ellipsoid layers. The present study identified higher IOP among critical cases, when compared to severe cases, and discrete outer retina changes 80 days after COVID-19 infection. No sign of uveitis was found.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetic Retinopathy/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Retinal Pigment Epithelium/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Middle Aged , Ophthalmoscopy , Retrospective Studies , Survivors , Visual Acuity
18.
Clin Exp Optom ; 104(6): 711-716, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016025

ABSTRACT

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Following the COVID-19 lockdown, uptake of slitlamp-enabled live teleophthalmology increased. Its use contributed to a reduction of referrals escalated to secondary care during-lockdown (avoided: 64% pre-lockdown vs 86% during-lockdown). BACKGROUND: Live teleophthalmology using video conferencing allows real-time, three-way consultation between secondary care, community providers and patients, improving interpretation of slit lamp findings and potentially reducing referrals to secondary care. NHS Forth Valley implemented live teleophthalmology in March 2019. In March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic created urgency to deliver ophthalmic care while minimising the risk of contracting or spreading the disease. We aim to compare the uptake and two outcomes (number of avoided secondary care referrals; pattern of presenting conditions) of live teleophthalmology consultations in NHS Forth Valley before and during the COVID-19 national lockdown. METHODS: An NHS secure video conferencing platform connected the video slit lamps of optometrists, or an iPad mounted on a slit lamp and viewing through the eyepieces, to a secondary care ophthalmologist via a virtual live clinic/waiting area. Data about avoiding a secondary care referral were extracted from a post-consultation ophthalmologist survey for 14 months of data. Pre- and during-lockdown intervals were before/after 23 March 2020, when routine eyecare appointments were suspended. Numbers of avoided referrals to secondary care and patterns of presenting conditions were compared for pre- and during-lockdown periods. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic markedly increased use of live teleophthalmology in NHS Forth Valley. Surveys were completed for 164 of 250 (66%) teleophthalmology consultations over the study period. Data from 154 surveys were analysed, 78 and 76 for the pre- and during-lockdown periods, respectively. Significantly more during-lockdown (86%) than pre-lockdown (64%; difference 21%, 95% CI 8-34%, p = 0.001) surveys indicated that referrals to secondary care were avoided. CONCLUSION: Survey data from ophthalmologists suggest significantly fewer escalations to secondary care due to teleophthalmology use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Ophthalmology/methods , Quarantine , Referral and Consultation/trends , Secondary Care/standards , Telemedicine/methods , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Eye Diseases/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 41(3): 565-581, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860968

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study investigates how and in what circumstances a school-based eye health programme, the Refractive Errors Among CHildren (REACH) programme, achieved its desired outcomes: accessibility, standards of refractive care, fidelity and availability of comprehensive services, for over 2 million school children in six districts across India. METHODS: We conducted a realist evaluation to identify programme aspects and their causal relationships with outcomes. Deductive and inductive thematic analysis of qualitative data included three phases: 1. theory gleaning, 2. eliciting programme theory, 3. revisiting programme theory. The Initial Programme Theories (IPTs) were developed and revised through review of the literature, programme documents and field notes. We reviewed informal and formal discussions from the participatory advisory workshops and conducted semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders for the development and refinement of the IPTs. We based our analysis on the programme designers' perspective; used contexts, mechanisms and outcomes configuration for the analysis and presentation of the findings and reported the revised IPTs for the REACH programme. RESULTS: We identified four major programme aspects of the REACH programme for evaluation: programme governing unit, human resource, innovation and technology and funding. Based on the intended outcomes of the programme, themes and contexts were sorted and IPTs were defined. We revised the IPTs based on the analysis of the interviews (n = 19). The contexts and mechanisms that were reported to have potential influence on the attainment of favourable programme outcomes were identified. The revisions to the IPTs included: co-designing a collaborative model and involving local government officials to reinforce trust, community partnerships; local well-trained staff to encourage participation; use of the web-based data capturing system with built-in quality control measures and continued technical support; pre-determined costs and targets for the outputs promoted transparency and adherence with costs. CONCLUSION: This process provided a comprehensive understanding of the opportunities and possibilities for a large-scale school eye health programme in diverse local contexts in India. This illustrated the importance of embracing principles of system thinking and considering contextual factors for School Eye Health programmes in low and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
Eye Diseases/prevention & control , Qualitative Research , School Health Services/trends , Schools , Visual Acuity/physiology , Adult , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies
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