Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 99.211
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249159, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339415

ABSTRACT

Abstract There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.


Resumo Há uma escassez de pesquisas realizadas sobre a prevalência microbiana em faisões. A microbiota de aves em cativeiro tem significado zoonótico e deve ser caracterizada. O presente estudo está, portanto, planejado para avaliar a microbiota do conteúdo oral, fecal e intestinal de espécies aviárias em cativeiro. Será útil na caracterização de micróbios nocivos. Diferentes amostras retiradas da boca, intestino e fezes de faisões de pescoço redondo (Phasianus colchicus), faisões verdes (Phasianus versicolor), faisões dourados (Chrysolophus pictus) e faisão prateado (Lophura nycthemera). As amostras foram coletadas, diluídas e inoculadas em diferentes placas de ágar (MacConkey, ágar SS, MSA e ágar nutriente) para o cultivo de espécies bacterianas. Colônias de E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Brachyspira spp. e Campylobacter spp foram observados com base na morfologia da colônia. A unidade formadora de colônia mostrou E. coli como bactéria frequentemente encontrada no conteúdo fecal, oral e intestinal de todos os faisões acima. A diferença de significância geral foi encontrada entre as espécies bacterianas de faisões dourados, faisões verdes, faisões de pescoço anelado e faisões prateados. Verificou-se que a E.coli é predominantemente isolada de faisões saudáveis, seguida por Campylobacter, Staphylococcus e Brachyspira.


Subject(s)
Animals , Galliformes , Escherichia coli , Feces
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248978, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339406

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present research was planned to assess the occurrence of intestinal parasites in small ruminants of Upper Dir of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. For this purpose, the faecal material was collected randomly with gloved fingers directly from the rectum region of sheep and goats and the faecal materials were then put in hygienic plastic bottles with 10% formalin. The overall 315 (n=184 sheep and n= 131 goats) faecal samples were collected out of 315 samples, 281 were found positive for different parasites. Patterns-wise prevalence of GI parasites of the study area was found. Overall Single parasitism 89.20% (281/315) with 94.0% (173/184) in sheep and 82.43% (108/131) in goats. Double parasitic infection in small ruminant recorded in which Fasciola+ Haemonchus. contortus in sheep were found their prevalence was 25.54% (47/184). While in goats, the double parasitic infection in which Haemonchus contortus+Trichuris spp were found and their prevalence were 23.43% (30/131). The species found in the sample of sheep were includes, i.e., Strongyloides papillosus (41.30%), Heamonchus controtus (21.73%), Trichuris ovis (17.39%), and Fasciola hepatica (13.58%), the corresponding value for goat were Strongyloides spp 33.33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp 28.70%, (27/108), Trichuris spp 25.20% (27/184) and Fasciola spp 10.68% (14/184). The sheep of the study area are more infected as compared to goats. This study suggested that gastrointestinal parasites are major health problems of small ruminants in the study area. Therefore, a comprehensive study on species of gastrointestinal parasites circulating in the area, control options, cost-effective strategies and awareness about gastrointestinal parasites among the farmers in the study area should be instituted.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi planejada para avaliar a ocorrência de parasitas intestinais em pequenos ruminantes do distrito Upper Dir, da província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, no Paquistão. Para tanto, o material fecal foi coletado aleatoriamente com dedos enluvados diretamente da região do reto de ovelhas e cabras, e os materiais fecais foram colocados em garrafas plásticas higiênicas com formol a 10%. No total, 315 (n = 184 ovelhas e n = 131 cabras) amostras fecais foram coletadas; destas, 281 foram consideradas positivas para diferentes parasitas. A prevalência de padrões de parasitas GI da área de estudo foi encontrada. Parasitismo global único 89,20% (281/315) com 94,0% (173/184) em ovinos e 82,43% (108/131) em cabras. Infecção parasitária dupla em pequenos ruminantes registrada em Fasciola + Haemonchus contortus em ovinos, sua prevalência foi de 25,54% (47/184). Já em caprinos, a dupla infecção parasitária em que Haemonchus contortus + Trichuris spp foram encontrados e sua prevalência foi de 23,43% (30/131). As espécies encontradas na amostra de ovinos foram: Strongyloides papillosus (41,30%), Heamonchus controtus (21,73%), Trichuris ovis (17,39%) e Fasciola hepatica (13,58%), o valor correspondente para cabra foi Strongyloides spp. 33,33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp. 28,70%, (27/108), Trichuris sp 25,20% (27/184) e Fasciola spp. 10,68% (14/184). As ovelhas da área de estudo estão mais infectadas do que as cabras. Este estudo sugeriu que os parasitas gastrointestinais são os principais problemas de saúde dos pequenos ruminantes na área de estudo. Portanto, um estudo abrangente sobre as espécies de parasitas gastrointestinais que circulam na área, opções de controle, estratégias de baixo custo e conscientização sobre parasitas gastrointestinais entre os agricultores na área de estudo deve ser instituído.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Ruminants , Goats , Sheep , Prevalence , Feces
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247181, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339388

ABSTRACT

Abstract The protozoans include many intracellular human pathogens. Accurate detection of these pathogens is necessary to treat the diseases. In clinical epidemiology, molecular identification of protozoan is considered a more reliable and rapid method for identification than microscopy. Among these protozoans, Cryptosporidium considered being one of the important water-borne zoonotic pathogens and a major cause of a diarrheal disease named cryptosporidiosis in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. This study was aimed to identify Cryptosporidium in zoo felids (N= 56) belonging to different zoo of China, but accidentlly Colpodella was encountered in the zoo felids sample and phylogenetic data confirmed this unexpected amplification from fecal samples using two-step nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the fact about the specific primers used previously by many researchers and cross-genera amplification. We came to know that genetically sequenced amplicon gives more accurate identification of species. This study suggests more investigation on Colpodella which has been neglected previously but gains the attention of researchers after identified from humans and animals and has been known to correlate with neurological symptoms in patients.


Resumo Os protozoários incluem muitos patógenos humanos intracelulares. A detecção acurada desses patógenos é necessária para tratar as doenças. Na epidemiologia clínica, a identificação molecular de protozoários é considerada o método de identificação mais confiável e rápido do que a microscopia. Entre esses protozoários, o Cryptosporidium é considerado um dos importantes patógenos zoonóticos transmitidos pela água e uma das principais causas de uma doença diarreica denominada criptosporidiose em humanos, animais domésticos e selvagens. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar Cryptosporidium em zoofelídeos (N = 56) pertencentes a diferentes zoológicos da China, mas acidentalmente Colpodella foi encontrada na amostra de zoofelídeos e os dados filogenéticos confirmaram essa amplificação inesperada de amostras fecais usando nested-PCR em duas etapas. A análise filogenética revelou o fato sobre os primers específicos usados ​​anteriormente por muitos pesquisadores e a amplificação entre gêneros. Ficamos sabendo que o amplicon sequenciado geneticamente fornece uma identificação mais acurada das espécies. Este estudo sugere mais investigação sobre Colpodella, que foi negligenciada anteriormente, mas ganha a atenção dos pesquisadores depois de identificada em humanos e animais e é conhecida por se correlacionar com sintomas neurológicos em pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium/genetics , Phylogeny , China , Feces , Genotype
4.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 104(4): 257-260, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939845

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess faecal immunochemical test (FIT) negativity in terms of its effect on cancer risk in the local symptomatic two-week wait (2WW) population. FIT was introduced to the colorectal 2WW pathway at the start of the pandemic. This study analyses the FIT-negative (<10µg Hb/g) cohort and calculates the relative risk and odds ratio associated with a negative FIT test. METHODS: FIT tests were sent to symptomatic 2WW patients without rectal bleeding, iron-deficient anaemia or palpable mass. Where FIT was <10µg Hb/g investigations were moved to a radiology protocol. RESULTS: The test return rate was 91% with a FIT-negative (<10µg Hb/g) rate of 82%. The FIT-negative group in the symptomatic referral pathway in Cornwall have a low (1.4%) risk of colon cancer but a significant risk (6.6%) when all cancer types are considered. The impact of a negative quantitative FIT changes the odds ratio of a patient having a luminal cancer by 0.26. The odds ratio for 'all cancer' risk was affected by 0.83. CONCLUSION: A negative FIT test within the local NG12 symptomatic patient group signifies a low risk of colon cancer and identifies patients who can be initially investigated with cross-sectional imaging. However, when all cancer types are considered, cancer prevalence in this group remains above 6%. In relative risk terms a negative FIT represents a small change in overall risk and this patient group still qualify for investigation through 2WW pathways.


Subject(s)
Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Colonic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Feces , Humans , Occult Blood , Rectum , Referral and Consultation
5.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271640, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913975

ABSTRACT

Entamoeba are amoeboid extracellular parasites that represent an important group of organisms for which the regulatory networks must be examined to better understand how genes and functional processes are interrelated. In this work, we inferred the gene regulatory networks (GRNs) in four Entamoeba species, E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. nuttalli, and E. invadens, and the GRN topological properties and the corresponding biological functions were evaluated. From these analyses, we determined that transcription factors (TFs) of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. nuttalli are associated mainly with the LIM family, while the TFs in E. invadens are associated with the RRM_1 family. In addition, we identified that EHI_044890 regulates 121 genes in E. histolytica, EDI_297980 regulates 284 genes in E. dispar, ENU1_120230 regulates 195 genes in E. nuttalli, and EIN_249270 regulates 257 genes in E. invadens. Finally, we identified that three types of processes, Macromolecule metabolic process, Cellular macromolecule metabolic process, and Cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, are the main biological processes for each network. The results described in this work can be used as a basis for the study of gene regulation in these organisms.


Subject(s)
Entamoeba histolytica , Entamoeba , Entamoebiasis , Parasites , Animals , Entamoeba/genetics , Entamoeba histolytica/genetics , Entamoebiasis/genetics , Entamoebiasis/parasitology , Feces/parasitology
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 808986, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35795186

ABSTRACT

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common microsporidian pathogen in farm animals and humans. Although several spore wall proteins (SWPs) of other human-pathogenic microsporidia have been identified, SWPs of E. bieneusi remain poorly characterized. In the present study, we identified the sequences of three E. bieneusi SWPs from whole genome sequence data, expressed them in Escherichia coli, generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against one of them (EbSWP1), and used the mAb in direct immunofluorescence detection of E. bieneusi spores in fecal samples. The amino acid sequence of EbSWP1 shares some identity to EbSWP2 with a BAR2 domain, while the sequence of EbSWP3 contains a MICSWaP domain. No cross-reactivity among the EbSWPs was demonstrated using the polyclonal antibodies generated against them. The mAb against EbSWP1 was shown to react with E. bieneusi spores in fecal samples. Using chromotrope 2R staining-based microscopy as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the direct immunofluorescence for the detection of E. bieneusi were 91.4 and 73.7%. Data generated from the study could be useful in the characterization of E. bieneusi and immunological detection of the pathogen.


Subject(s)
Enterocytozoon , Microsporidiosis , Animals , Animals, Domestic , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Enterocytozoon/genetics , Feces , Microsporidiosis/veterinary , Spores
7.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805592

ABSTRACT

Beach sand may act as a reservoir for numerous microorganisms, including enteric pathogens. Several of these pathogens originate in human or animal feces, which may pose a public health risk. In August 2019, high levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were detected in the sand of the Azorean beach Prainha, Terceira Island, Portugal. Remediation measures were promptly implemented, including sand removal and the spraying of chlorine to restore the sand quality. To determine the source of the fecal contamination, during the first campaign, supratidal sand samples were collected from several sites along the beach, followed by microbial source tracking (MST) analyses of Bacteroides marker genes for five animal species, including humans. Some of the sampling sites revealed the presence of marker genes from dogs, seagulls, and ruminants. Making use of the information on biological sources originating partially from dogs, the municipality enforced restrictive measures for dog-walking at the beach. Subsequent sampling campaigns detected low FIB contamination due to the mitigation and remediation measures that were undertaken. This is the first case study where the MST approach was used to determine the contamination sources in the supratidal sand of a coastal beach. Our results show that MST can be an essential tool to determine sources of fecal contamination in the sand. This study shows the importance of holistic management of beaches that should go beyond water quality monitoring for FIB, putting forth evidence for beach sand monitoring.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bathing Beaches/standards , Sand/microbiology , Water Pollution , Animals , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteroides/genetics , Bacteroides/isolation & purification , Charadriiformes , Dogs , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Feces/microbiology , Portugal , Ruminants , Water Microbiology , Water Pollution/analysis
8.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(3): e006422, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830149

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to find out the diversity of Eimeria species in cattle herds in the semiarid region of Brazil. Forty cattle fecal samples were collected from 20 farms in the Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil, and examined by centrifugation-floatation technique in sucrose solution. From each positive animal, 20 oocysts were photographed and measured. Infection by Eimeria spp. was detected in 17.12% (137/800) of the samples analyzed. All the farms had at least one animal that was positive for Eimeria spp. (100%; 20/20). In total, 2740 coccidia were photographed and measured. The species detected were: Eimeria bovis (35.1%); Eimeria canadensis (17.48%); Eimeria auburnensis (14.7%); Eimeria ellipsoidalis (9.7%); Eimeria zuernii (7.22%); Eimeria brasiliensis (4.56%); Eimeria bukidnonensis (3.97%); Eimeria illinoisensis (2.91%); Eimeria wyomingensis (1.42%); Eimeria alabamensis (1.27%); Eimeria cylindrica (0.76%); Eimeria pellita (0.54%); Eimeria ildefonsoi (0.21%); and Eimeria subspherica (0.07%). It was concluded that cattle in the semiarid region of Brazil were parasitized by 14 species of Eimeria. It is thinked that the sanitary management employed, as well as the system used for raising these animals, is the crucial point that leads to high rates of infection in this region.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Coccidiosis , Eimeria , Animals , Biodiversity , Brazil/epidemiology , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Coccidiosis/parasitology , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Eimeria/classification , Feces/parasitology , Prevalence
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(28): e2114931119, 2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35787046

ABSTRACT

The genetic composition of the gut microbiota is constantly reshaped by ecological and evolutionary forces. These strain-level dynamics are challenging to understand because they depend on complex spatial growth processes that take place within a host. Here we introduce a population genetic framework to predict how stochastic evolutionary forces emerge from simple models of microbial growth in spatially extended environments like the intestinal lumen. Our framework shows how fluid flow and longitudinal variation in growth rate combine to shape the frequencies of genetic variants in simulated fecal samples, yielding analytical expressions for the effective generation times, selection coefficients, and rates of genetic drift. We find that over longer timescales, the emergent evolutionary dynamics can often be captured by well-mixed models that lack explicit spatial structure, even when there is substantial spatial variation in species-level composition. By applying these results to the human colon, we find that continuous fluid flow and simple forms of wall growth alone are unlikely to create sufficient bottlenecks to allow large fluctuations in mutant frequencies within a host. We also find that the effective generation times may be significantly shorter than expected from traditional average growth rate estimates. Our results provide a starting point for quantifying genetic turnover in spatially extended settings like the gut microbiota and may be relevant for other microbial ecosystems where unidirectional fluid flow plays an important role.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Biological Evolution , Colon/microbiology , Ecosystem , Feces/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Humans
10.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270860, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793330

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cholera continues to pose a problem for low-resource, fragile and humanitarian contexts. Evidence suggests that 2.86 million cholera cases and 95,000 deaths due to cholera are reported annually. Without quick and effective diagnosis and treatment, case-fatality may be 50%. In line with the priorities of the Global Task Force on Cholera Control, we undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy and other test characteristics of current tests for cholera detection in stool and water. METHODS: We searched 11 bibliographic and grey literature databases. Data was extracted on test sensitivity, specificity and other product information. Meta-analyses of sensitivity and specificity were conducted for tests reported in three or more studies. Where fewer studies reported a test, estimates were summarised through narrative synthesis. Risk of Bias was assessed using QUADAS-2. RESULTS: Searches identified 6,637 records; 41 studies reporting on 28 tests were included. Twenty-two tests had both sensitivities and specificities reported above 95% by at least one study, but there was, overall, wide variation in reported diagnostic accuracy across studies. For the three tests where meta-analyses were possible the highest sensitivity meta-estimate was found in the Cholera Screen test (98.6%, CI: 94.7%-99.7%) and the highest specificity meta-estimate in the Crystal VC on enriched samples (98.3%, CI: 92.8%-99.6%). There was a general lack of evidence regarding field use of tests, but where presented this indicated trends for lower diagnostic accuracy in field settings, with lesser-trained staff, and without the additional process of sample enrichment. Where reported, mean test turnaround times ranged from over 50% to 130% longer than manufacturer's specification. Most studies had a low to unclear risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Currently available Rapid Diagnostic Tests can potentially provide high diagnostic and detection capability for cholera. However, stronger evidence is required regarding the conditions required to secure these levels of accuracy in field use, particularly in low-resource settings. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD42016048428).


Subject(s)
Cholera , Advisory Committees , Cholera/diagnosis , Databases, Factual , Feces , Humans , Water
11.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 32(3): 631-640, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35813666

ABSTRACT

Background: Schistosoma mansoni infection is endemic in Ethiopia. The epidemiology of S. mansoni and the efficacy of praziquantel among schoolchildren have not been well documented in different parts of the country including our study area. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the status of S. mansoni infection and evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel among school children in northeast Ethiopia. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 499 children of two preschool children. Stool specimens were collected and microscopically examined using Kato-Katz (41.7 gram) methods. Positive children were treated with a single oral dose of praziquantel at 40 mg/kg body weight. Egg reduction and cure rates were assessed 4 weeks post-treatment to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel against S. mansoni infection. Results: The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection among the schoolchildren was 52.1% with a mean intensity of 546 eggs per gram of stool. Majorities of the S. mansoni infections were moderate to heavy intensity, with only 5.0% light infections. Praziquantel administered at a single oral dose of 40 mg/kg achieved a cure rate of 91.7% and reduced the egg rate by 86.8%. Twenty-one schoolchildren remained infected at 4 weeks post-treatment, among which 6 and 15 children had moderate and light infections, respectively. Conclusions: S. mansoni prevalence among primary school children in Northeast Ethiopia was high, highlighting the need to implement school-based chemotherapy with annual frequency. The efficacy of praziquantel at 40 mg/kg is sufficient to permit continued use in treating S. mansoni-infected schoolchildren.


Subject(s)
Anthelmintics , Schistosomiasis mansoni , Animals , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Feces , Humans , Praziquantel/therapeutic use , Prevalence , Schistosoma mansoni , Schistosomiasis mansoni/drug therapy , Schistosomiasis mansoni/epidemiology , Schools , Treatment Outcome
12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 886196, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35800387

ABSTRACT

Autism is a kind of biologically based neurodevelopmental condition, and the coexistence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is not uncommon. Given that the gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of both diseases, we aimed to explore the differences of gut microbiota and their correlations with urinary organic acids between autistic children with and without AD. We enrolled 61 autistic children including 36 with AD and 25 without AD. The gut microbiota was sequenced by metagenomic shotgun sequencing, and the diversity, compositions, and functional pathways were analyzed further. Urinary organic acids were assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and univariate/multivariate analyses were applied. Spearman correlation analysis was conducted to explore their relationships. In our study, AD individuals had more prominent gastrointestinal disorders. The alpha diversity of the gut microbiota was lower in the AD group. LEfSe analysis showed a higher abundance of Anaerostipes caccae, Eubacterium hallii, and Bifidobacterium bifidum in AD individuals, with Akkermansia muciniphila, Roseburia intestinalis, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Rothia mucilaginosa in controls. Meanwhile, functional profiles showed that the pathway of lipid metabolism had a higher proportion in the AD group, and the pathway of xenobiotics biodegradation was abundant in controls. Among urinary organic acids, adipic acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, tartaric acid, homovanillic acid, 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, aconitic acid, and 2-hydroxyhippuric acid were richer in the AD group. However, only adipic acid remained significant in the multivariate analysis (OR = 1.513, 95% CI [1.042, 2.198], P = 0.030). In the correlation analysis, Roseburia intestinalis had a negative correlation with aconitic acid (r = -0.14, P = 0.02), and the latter was positively correlated with adipic acid (r = 0.41, P = 0.006). Besides, the pathway of xenobiotics biodegradation seems to inversely correlate with adipic acid (r = -0.42, P = 0.18). The gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of AD in autistic children, and more well-designed studies are warranted to explore the underlying mechanism.


Subject(s)
Autistic Disorder , Dermatitis, Atopic , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Aconitic Acid/analysis , Adipates/analysis , Child , Clostridiales , Dermatitis, Atopic/complications , Dermatitis, Atopic/microbiology , Feces/microbiology , Humans
13.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 22(1): 342, 2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35836115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a potential treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but its efficacy in Japanese IBS patients is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy, side effects, and microbiome changes following FMT in Japanese IBS patients. METHODS: Seventeen Japanese patients with refractory IBS received FMT (4 donors) under colonoscopy. Responders were defined by an improvement in the IBS severity index (IBS-SI) of 50 points or more after 12 weeks. We evaluated the IBS-SI and Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) and compared the diversity and microbiome before and 12 weeks after FMT. For the microbiome, we analyzed the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. RESULTS: IBS-SI decreased an average of 115.58 points after 12 weeks, and 10 patients (58.8%) were considered responders. Eight patients with diarrhea (66.7%) and three patients with constipation (60.0%) showed improvement in the BSFS. Two patients complained of mild abdominal pain, but there were no cases with severe side-effects. α-diversity was increased only in the responder group (p = 0.017). Patients who closely paralleled the donor microbiome had a higher rate of IBS-SI improvement. The relative abundance of Neisseria and Akkermansia increased and Desulfovibrio and Delftia were decreased in the responder group after FMT. CONCLUSIONS: Following FMT, about 60% of Japanese patients with IBS showed improvement in both the IBS-SI and BSFS, without severe side effects. Increased α-diversity and similarity to the donor microbiome after FMT may be associated with better treatment effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registration (UMIN000026363). Registered 31 May 2017, https://rctportal.niph.go.jp/s/detail/um?trial_id=UMIN000026363 . The study was registered prospectively.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/adverse effects , Feces , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/complications , Japan , Prospective Studies , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Treatment Outcome
14.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2096993, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35844189

ABSTRACT

In vitro fermentation systems allow for the investigation of gut microbial communities with precise control of various physiological parameters while decoupling confounding factors from the human host. Current systems, such as the SHIME and Robogut, are large in footprint, lack multiplexing, and have low experimental throughput. Alternatives which address these shortcomings, such as the Mini Bioreactor Array system, are often reliant on expensive specialized equipment, which hinders wide replication across labs. Here, we present the Mini Colon Model (MiCoMo), a low-cost, benchtop multi-bioreactor system that simulates the human colon environment with physiologically relevant conditions. The device consists of triplicate bioreactors working independently of an anaerobic chamber and equipped with automated pH, temperature, and fluidic control. We conducted 14-d experiments and found that MiCoMo was able to support a stable complex microbiota community with a Shannon Index of 3.17 ± 0.65, from individual fecal samples after only 3-5 d of inoculation. MiCoMo also retained inter-sample microbial differences by developing closely related communities unique to each donor, while maintaining both minimal variations between replicate reactors (average Bray-Curtis similarity 0.72 ± 0.13) andday-to-day variations (average Bray-Curtis similarity 0.81±0.10) after this short stabilization period. Together, these results establish MiCoMo as an accessible system for studying gut microbial communities with high throughput and multiplexing capabilities.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Microbiota , Bioreactors , Colon , Feces , Humans , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
15.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269859, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium spp. is recognized as an opportunistic zoonotic parasite that infects humans as well as wild and domestic animals. This enteric protozoan is a major cause of diarrhea in humans and animals and often result in death due to severe dehydration. The present study was designed to investigate the prevalence, identification of various risk factors and evaluation of sensitivity of the two diagnostic techniques for rapid and correct detection of Cryptosporidium infection in diarrheic sheep in Pakistan. METHODS: A total of 360 fecal samples were collected and processed for detection of Cryptosporidium infection after proper preservation. These samples were properly stained with modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid staining and then examined under simple microscope at 100x magnification for confirmation of Cryptosporidium oocysts. The same samples were again processed through simple PCR for confirmation of the Cryptosporidium spp. RESULTS: The age wise prevalence was detected through simple microscopy and PCR. We found highest prevalence at the age of ≤1 year followed by 1-2 years of age while the lowest prevalence was recorded at the age of ≥ 2-3 years of sheep and found significant difference between different ages (P<0.05). The sex wise prevalence showed the highest prevalence in male (♂) animals detected compared to female (♀). The overall prevalence was detected 27.08% and 18.80% through PCR and simple microscopy, respectively, and significant difference between two diagnostic techniques were observed (P<0.05). Considering the seasonality, the highest prevalence was recorded through simple microscopy in autumn, summer, and spring, while the lowest in winter. These results were confirmed through PCR. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that molecular detection is the most efficient, specific and sensitive technique for detection of Cryptosporidium infection than simple microscopy. Moreover sheep is the major potential source of infection to other wild and domestic animals including humans.


Subject(s)
Cryptosporidiosis , Cryptosporidium , Animals , Animals, Domestic , Cryptosporidiosis/diagnosis , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidiosis/parasitology , Cryptosporidium/genetics , Feces/parasitology , Female , Male , Pakistan/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sheep
16.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0268706, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830422

ABSTRACT

Yersiniosis is the third most reported food-borne zoonosis in Europe. The aim of the present study was to perform the search for Yersinia enterocolitica in food samples collected from Apulia and Basilicata regions (Southern Italy) and to characterize any isolates by classical and modern analytical methods. A total of 130 samples were analyzed between July 2018 and July 2019: most of them were raw milk and dairy products made from it. Furthermore, 8 out of 130 samples were individual milk samples collected from bovines reared in a Brucella-free farm which showed false positive serological reaction for brucellosis due to the presence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica O:9 biotype 2 in faeces. The Real Time PCR targeting the ail gene and the culture method were performed to detect pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. Isolates were subjected to API 20E (Biomerieux) and MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight) for species identification. All samples were negative for the ail gene. The culture method allowed to isolate suspicious colonies from 28 samples. The API 20E system and the MALDI-TOF MS technique identified 20 Y. enterocolitica and 1 Y. intermedia in a concordant way. The remaining 7 strains were all identified as Y. enterocolitica by the API 20E system, while the MALDI-TOF MS recognized 4 Y. intermedia, 1 Y. bercovieri and 2 Y. massiliensis. Genotypic characterization of the discordant strains was performed by rMLST and it confirmed the MALDI-TOF MS' results. Only non-pathogenic Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains were found, although with a non-negligible prevalence (P = 0.15 with CI 95% = ± 0.06). This study indicates a poor circulation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in food products made and marketed in the investigated areas. However, the small number of samples, insufficient for some food categories such as meat and vegetable, does not allow to exclude the presence of pathogenic strains at all.


Subject(s)
Yersinia Infections , Yersinia enterocolitica , Animals , Cattle , Feces , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization/methods , Yersinia Infections/veterinary , Yersinia enterocolitica/genetics
17.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270213, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834499

ABSTRACT

The infant gut microbiome progresses in composition and function during the introduction of solid foods throughout the first year of life. The purpose of this study was to characterize changes in healthy infant gut microbiome composition, metagenomic functional capacity, and associated metabolites over the course of the complementary feeding period. Fecal samples were obtained at three 'snapshot' timepoints from infants participating in the 'Nourish to Flourish' pilot study: before the introduction of solid foods at approximately 4 months of age, after introducing solid foods at 9 months of age, and after continued diet diversification at 12 months of age. KEGG and taxonomy assignments were correlated with LC-MS metabolomic profiles to identify patterns of co-abundance. The composition of the microbiome diversified during the first year of life, while the functional capacity present in the gut microbiome remained stable. The introduction of solid foods between 4 and 9 months of age corresponded to a larger magnitude of change in relative abundance of sequences assigned to KEGG pathways and taxonomic assignments, as well as to stronger correlations with metabolites, compared to the magnitude of changes and number of correlations seen during continued diet diversification between 9 and 12 months of age. Changes in aqueous fecal metabolites were more strongly correlated with KEGG pathway assignments, while changes in lipid metabolites associated with taxonomic assignments, particularly between 9 and 12 months of age. This study establishes trends in microbiome composition and functional capacity occurring during the complementary feeding period and identifies potential metabolite targets for future investigations.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Feces , Humans , Infant , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Metagenome , Pilot Projects
18.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2100197, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35854629

ABSTRACT

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising treatment for microbiota dysbiosis associated diseases, such as Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The engraftment of donor bacteria is essential for the effectiveness of FMT, which to some extent depends on the matching of donors and recipients. However, how different types of donor-derived bacteria affect FMT efficacy has not been fully dissected. We recruited two longitudinal IBD cohorts of 103 FMT recipients and further analyzed 1,280 microbiota datasets from 14 public CDI and IBD studies to uncover the effect of donor-derived microbiota in recipients. We found that two enterotypes, RCPT/E and RCPT/B (dominated by Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroides, respectively), consistently exist in both CDI and IBD patients. Based on a time-course-based multi-cohort analysis of FMT fecal samples, we observed the interplay between recipient and donor-derived microbiota during FMT, in which the FMT outcome was significantly associated with the enterotype and microbiota distance between donor and recipient after FMT. We proposed a new measurement, the ratio of colonizers to residents after FMT (C2R), to quantify the engraftment of donor-derived bacteria in the recipients, and then constructed an enterotype-based statistical model for donor-recipient matching, which was validated by both cross-validation and an additional IBD FMT cohort (n = 42). We believe that with the accumulation of FMT multi-omics datasets, machine learning-based methods will be helpful for rational donor selection for improving efficacy and precision FMT practices.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Bacteria/genetics , Clostridium Infections/microbiology , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/methods , Feces/microbiology , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/microbiology , Treatment Outcome
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(7): e0010561, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection is estimated to be 30-100 million worldwide, although this an underestimate. Most cases remain undiagnosed due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection. We wanted to estimate the seroprevalence of S. stercoralis infection in a South Indian adult population. METHODS: To this end, we performed community-based screening of 2351 individuals (aged 18-65) in Kanchipuram District of Tamil Nadu between 2013 and 2020. Serological testing for S. stercoralis was performed using the NIE ELISA. RESULTS: Our data shows a seroprevalence of 33% (768/2351) for S. stercoralis infection which had a higher prevalence among males 36% (386/1069) than among females 29.8% (382/1282). Adults aged ≥55 (aOR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.25-2.18) showed higher adjusted odds of association compared with other age groups. Eosinophil levels (39%) (aOR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.19-1.74) and hemoglobin levels (24%) (aOR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.11-1.53) were significantly associated with S. stercoralis infection. In contrast, low BMI (aOR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.82-1.61) or the presence of diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.83-1.69) was not associated with S. stercoralis seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence for a very high baseline prevalence of S. stercoralis infection in South Indian communities and this information could provide realistic and concrete planning of control measures.


Subject(s)
Strongyloides stercoralis , Strongyloidiasis , Adult , Animals , Feces , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Strongyloidiasis/diagnosis , Strongyloidiasis/epidemiology
20.
Biol Lett ; 18(7): 20220109, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857889

ABSTRACT

Temperature profoundly impacts insect development, but plasticity of reproductive behaviours may mediate the impacts of temperature change on earlier life stages. Few studies have examined the potential for adult behavioural plasticity to buffer offspring from the warmer, more variable temperatures associated with climate change. We used a field manipulation to examine whether the dung beetle Phanaeus vindex alters breeding behaviours in response to temperature changes and whether behavioural shifts protect offspring from temperature changes. Dung beetles lay eggs inside brood balls made of dung that are buried underground. Brood ball depth impacts the temperatures offspring experience with consequences for development. We placed adult females in either control or greenhouse treatments that simultaneously increased temperature mean and variance. We found that females in greenhouse treatments produced more brood balls that were smaller and buried deeper than controls, suggesting brood ball number or burial depth may come at a cost to brood ball size, which can impact offspring nutrition. Despite being buried deeper, brood balls from the greenhouse treatment experienced warmer mean temperatures but similar amplitudes of temperature fluctuation relative to controls. Our findings suggest adult behaviours may partially buffer developing offspring from temperature changes.


Subject(s)
Coleoptera , Animals , Coleoptera/physiology , Feces , Female , Temperature
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...