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J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100506], jul.-sept2024. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-231870


Purpose: To investigate the visual function correlates of self-reported vision-related night driving difficulties among drivers. Methods: One hundred and seven drivers (age: 46.06 ± 8.24, visual acuity [VA] of 0.2logMAR or better) were included in the study. A standard vision and night driving questionnaire (VND-Q) was administered. VA and contrast sensitivity were measured under photopic and mesopic conditions. Mesopic VA was remeasured after introducing a peripheral glare source into the participants' field of view to enable computation of disability glare index. Regression analyses were used to assess the associations between VND-Q scores, and visual function measures. Results: The mean VND-Q score was -3.96±1.95 logit (interval scale score: 2.46±1.28). Simple linear regression models for photopic contrast sensitivity, mesopic VA, mesopic contrast sensitivity, and disability index significantly predicted VND-Q score (P<0.05), with mesopic VA and disability glare index accounting for the greatest variation (21 %) in VND-Q scores followed by photopic contrast sensitivity (19 %), and mesopic contrast sensitivity (15 %). A multiple regression model to determine the association between the predictors (photopic contrast sensitivity, mesopic VA, mesopic contrast sensitivity, and disability index) and VND-Q score yielded significant results, F (4, 102) = 8.58, P < 0.001, adj. R2 = 0.2224. Seeing dark-colored cars was the most challenging vision task. Conclusion: Changes in mesopic visual acuity, photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity, as well as disability glare index are associated with and explain night driving-related visual difficulties. It is recommended to incorporate measurement of these visual functions into assessments related to driving performance.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Automobile Driving , Night Vision , Accidents, Traffic , Color Vision , Mesopic Vision , Glare/adverse effects
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100497], jul.-sept2024. graf, tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-231871


Purpose: To compare the eye defocus curves (DCs) obtained with stimuli on red, green, and white backgrounds and to investigate the applicability of the duochrome test (DT) in different age groups. Methods: 12 elderly (ELD: 59.3 ± 3.9 years) and 8 young (YG: 22.1 ± 1.1 years) subjects were recruited. An optometric assessment with the DT was carried out to obtain the subjective refraction at distance. DCs at distance on green, white, and red backgrounds were measured and the following parameters were deduced: dioptric difference between red-green, green-white, red-white focal positions (minima of the DCs), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and widths of the DCs for red, green, and white. Results: The DC difference between the green-white focal positions (mean ± standard deviation) was -0.12±0.17 diopters (D) (ELD, p = 0.012) and -0.11±0.12 D (YG, p = 0.039), while the red-white difference was not statistically significant. The DC red-green difference was 0.20±0.16 D (ELD, p = 0.002) and 0.18±0.18 D (YG, p = 0.008). The ELD BCVA with green background was significantly worse than BCVA with red (p = 0.007) and white (p = 0.007). The mean value of the DC's width in ELD for green (1.01±0.36 D) was higher than for red (0.77±0.21 D) and for white (0.84±0.35 D), but with no statistical significance. Conclusion: Both age groups showed a slight focusing preference for red when using white light. Moreover, ELD showed a worse BCVA with a green compared to a red background. Despite these results deduced by DC analyses, these aspects do not compromise the possibility of using the DT in clinical practice both in the young and in the elderly. Furthermore, the difference of about 0.20 D between red-green DC in both groups confirms the clinical appropriateness of the widespread use of 0.25 D step as the standard minimum difference in power between correcting lenses.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Aged , Vision, Ocular , Visual Acuity , Fundus Oculi , Contact Lenses , Vision Tests
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100510], jul.-sept2024. tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-231872


Purpose: To evaluate the association between visual symptoms and use of digital devices considering the presence of visual dysfunctions. Methods: An optometric examination was conducted in a clinical sample of 346 patients to diagnose any type of visual anomaly. Visual symptoms were collected using the validated SQVD questionnaire. A threshold of 6 hours per day was used to quantify the effects of digital device usage and patients were divided into two groups: under and above of 35 years old. A multivariate logistic regression was employed to investigate the association between digital device use and symptoms, with visual dysfunctions considered as a confounding variable. Crude and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) were calculated for each variable. Results: 57.02 % of the subjects reported visual symptoms, and 65.02% exhibited some form of visual dysfunction. For patients under 35 years old, an association was found between having visual symptoms and digital device use (OR = 2.10, p = 0.01). However, after adjusting for visual dysfunctions, this association disappeared (OR = 1.44, p = 0.27) and the association was instead between symptoms and refractive dysfunction (OR = 6.52, p < 0.001), accommodative (OR = 10.47, p < 0.001), binocular (OR = 6.68, p < 0.001) and accommodative plus binocular dysfunctions (OR = 46.84, p < 0.001). Among patients over 35 years old, no association was found between symptoms and the use of digital devices (OR = 1.27, p = 0.49) but there was an association between symptoms and refractive dysfunction (OR = 3.54, p = 0.001). Conclusions: Visual symptoms are not dependent on the duration of digital device use but rather on the presence of any type of visual dysfunction: refractive, accommodative and/or binocular one, which should be diagnosed.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Vision, Ocular , Vision Tests , Visual Fields , Visually Impaired Persons , Vision, Binocular , Surveys and Questionnaires , Optometry
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100491], jul.-sept2024. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-231873


Background and objectives: The invention described herein is a prototype based on computer vision technology that measures depth perception and is intended for the early examination of stereopsis. Materials and methods: The prototype (software and hardware) is a depth perception measurement system that consists on: (a) a screen showing stereoscopic models with a guide point that the subject must point to; (b) a camera capturing the distance between the screen and the subject's finger; and (c) a unit for recording, processing and storing the captured measurements. For test validation, the reproducibility and reliability of the platform were calculated by comparing results with standard stereoscopic tests. A demographic study of depth perception by subgroup analysis is shown. Subjective comparison of the different tests was carried out by means of a satisfaction survey. Results: We included 94 subjects, 25 children and 69 adults, with a mean age of 34.2 ± 18.9 years; 36.2 % were men and 63.8 % were women. The DALE3D platform obtained good repeatability with an interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between 0.94 and 0.87, and coefficient of variation (CV) between 0.1 and 0.26. Threshold determining optimal and suboptimal results was calculated for Randot and DALE3D test. Spearman's correlation coefficient, between thresholds was not statistically significant (p value > 0.05). The test was considered more visually appealing and easier to use by the participants (90 % maximum score). Conclusions: The DALE3D platform is a potentially useful tool for measuring depth perception with optimal reproducibility rates. Its innovative design makes it a more intuitive tool for children than current stereoscopic tests. Nevertheless, further studies will be needed to assess whether the depth perception measured by the DALE3D platform is a sufficiently reliable parameter to assess stereopsis.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Vision, Binocular , Depth Perception , Vision, Ocular , Vision Tests
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100508], jul.-sept2024. tab, graf
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-231874


Purpose: To report the visual and refractive characteristics and the prevalence of amblyopia in patients with different types of Duane's Retraction Syndrome (DRS). Method: This retrospective study was performed on hospital records of 582 DRS patients at Farabi Hospital, Iran, from 2012 to March 2022. Results: The mean age of patients was 19.4 ± 11.9 (range, 3–70) years [335 (57.6 %) females and 247 (42.4 %) males (P < .001)]. DRS type I, II, III, and IV were presented in 347 (59.6 %), 148 (25.4 %), 82 (14.1 %), and 5 (0.9 %) patients, respectively. There were 530 (91.1 %) patients with unilateral and 52 (8.9 %) with bilateral involvement. In the unilateral patients, the DRS eyes' corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and astigmatism were significantly worse than the Non-DRS Eyes (P < .001). The mean amount of all refractive and visual parameters in bilateral patients' right or left eyes was significantly lower than in unilateral patients' non-DRS eyes (all P < .05). Anisometropia was observed in 75(12.9 %) of the patients. Amblyopia was observed in 18.5 % (98 patients) and 36.5 % (19 patients) of unilateral and bilateral DRS patients, respectively (P < .001). In unilateral patients, amblyopia was found in 57 (16.4 %) patients with Type I, 22 (14.9 %) patients with Type II, 16 (19.5 %) patients with Type III, and 3 (60 %) patients with Type IV. Forty-four (37.6 %) of patients with amblyopia had anisometropia. Conclusion: This large-scale study indicates that DRS types differ in terms of refractive error, visual acuity, and the prevalence of amblyopia and anisometropia. Clinicians should be aware of the clinical features associated with different types of DRS.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Vision, Ocular , Amblyopia , Duane Retraction Syndrome , Refractive Errors , Anisometropia
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100512], jul.-sept2024. graf, tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-231875


Purpose: In children under 20 years, refractive development targets a cycloplegic refractive error of +0.5 to +1.5D, while presbyopes over 40 years generally have non-cycloplegic errors of ≥ +1D. Some papers suggest these periods are separated by a period of myopic refractive error (i.e., ≤ –0.50D), but this remains unclear. Hence, this work investigates the mean cycloplegic refractive error in adults aged between 20 – 40 years. Methods: In 2002 a cross-sectional study with stratified cluster sampling was performed on the population of Tehran, providing cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refractive error data for the right eyes of 3,576 participants, aged 30.6 ± 18.6 years (range: 1–86 years). After grouping these data into age groups of 5 years, the refractive error histogram of each group was fitted to a Bigaussian function. The mean of the central, emmetropized peak was used to estimate the mean refractive error without the influence of myopia. Results: The mean cycloplegic refractive error at the emmetropized peak decreased from +1.10 ± 0.11D (95 % confidence interval) to +0.50 ± 0.04D before 20 years and remains stable at that value until the age of 50 years. The non-cycloplegic refractive error also sees a stable phase at 0.00 ± 0.04D between 15 – 45 years. After 45 – 50 years both cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refractive error become more hypermetropic over time, +1.14 ± 0.12D at 75 years. Conclusions: The cycloplegic refractive error in adults is about +0.50D between 20 – 50 years, disproving the existence of the myopic period at those ages.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Vision, Ocular , Vision Tests , Refractive Errors , Emmetropia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Iran
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100514], jul.-sept2024. tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-231876


Purpose: To analyze binocular vision of individuals aged 18 to 35 years diagnosed with keratoconus, utilizing spectacles and rigid gas-permeable (RGP) contact lenses. Research was led by the Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, México and Fundación Universitaria del Área Andina Pereira, Colombia. Methods: A single center, prospective non-randomized, comparative, interventional, open-label study, in which the differences in binocular vision performance with both spectacles and RGP contact lenses was carried out from December 2018 to December 2019. Sampling was performed according to consecutive cases with keratoconus that met the inclusion criteria until the proposed sample size was reached. Results: Rigid gas-permeable (RGP) contact lenses notably enhanced distance and near visual acuity in keratoconus patients compared to spectacles. Visual alignment analysis shows exophoria at both distances and is slightly higher with RGP contact lenses. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.05), with 82.5 % presenting compensated phoria with spectacles and pnly 42.50% with RGP contact lenses. Stereoscopic vision improved while wearing RGP contact lenses (42.59 %), although accommodation and accommodative flexibility remained within normal ranges. Conclusions: Patients with keratoconus fitted with RGP contact lenses have improved binocular vision skills such as visual acuity, stereopsis, and accommodative flexibility. However, even when the vergence and motor system is decompensated with respect to normal ranges, the range between break and recovery points for both fusional reserves and the near point of convergence (NPC) improves with the use of RGP contact lenses, giving indications of an adaptive condition of the motor system from the medium to the long term.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Keratoconus , Eyeglasses , Contact Lenses , Vision, Binocular , Vision Tests , Colombia , Mexico , Ophthalmology , Prospective Studies
An. psicol ; 40(2): 171-178, May-Sep, 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-232712


En este estudio transversal se investiga la asociación entre los principales síntomas del Trastorno bipolar (TB) y las dificultades asociadas a las estrategias de regulación emocional (ERE) adaptativas y desadaptativas. Además, este estudio examina los efectos mediadores de las ERE con el mindfulness rasgo y el TB. Método. Veinticuatro adultos con TB completaron la Escala de Conciencia de Atención Plena (MAAS), el Inventario de Depresión de Beck (BDI-II), la Escala de Autoevaluación de Manía de Altman (ARSM), el Inventario de Ansiedad Rasgo (STAI-R), y el Cuestionario de Regulación Emocional Cognitiva (CERQ). Resultados. El análisis de regresión múltiple mostró cómo la depresión se relacionaba significativa y positivamente con la autoculpabilización, mientras que la ansiedad rasgo estaba positivamente asociada con la autoculpabilización y el catastrofismo. En segundo lugar, el análisis de mediación mostró un efecto de mediación significativo para la autoculpabilidad en la relación entre mindfulness y depresión (a*b = -.15; ICB 95% [-.36, -.03]) y entre mindfulness y ansiedad rasgo (a*b = -.09; ICB 95% [-.27, -.01]). Conclusiones. Nuestros resultados informan del papel de la auto-culpabilidad y el catastrofismo en el TB y de cómo éstas podrían mediar significativamente entre el mindfulness rasgo y el TB. Estos resultados sugieren que una práctica de meditación enfocada en el catastrofismo y la autoculpabilidad puede ser especialmente útil para reducir los síntomas en los pacientes bipolares.(AU)

This cross-sectional study investigates the association between the main symptoms of Bipolar disorder (BD) and emotional regulation dif-ficulties in adaptive and maladaptive emotional regulation strategies (ERS). In addition, this study examines the possible mediating effects of ERS with dispositional mindfulnessand bipolar symptoms. Method.Twenty-four adults diagnosed with BD completed the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), the Altman Mania Self-Assessment Scale (ARSM), the Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-R), and the Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ). Results. First, mul-tiple regression analysis showed how depression was significantly positively related to self-blame, whereas trait anxietywas positively associated with self-blame and catastrophizing. Second, the results of the mediation analy-sis have shown a significant mediation effect for the self-blamein the rela-tionship between mindfulnessand depression (a*b = -.15; BCI 95% [-.36, -.03]) and between mindfulnessand trait anxiety (a*b = -.09; BCI 95% [-.27, -.01]). Conclusions. Our results report the role of self-blame and catastrophiz-ing in BD and how these might significantly mediate between dispositional mindfulness and symptoms of depression and anxiety. These results suggest that a meditation practice focused on reducing catastrophizing and self-blame may be especially helpful for symptoms of depression and anxiety in bipolar patients.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Catastrophization , Anxiety , Depression , Bipolar Disorder , Mindfulness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Test Anxiety Scale
An. psicol ; 40(2): 179-188, May-Sep, 2024. graf, tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-232713


Los trastornos emocionales (TEs) son los trastornos más comunes entre la población joven. El desarrollo de programas preventivos de los TEs es fundamental para evitar su posible aparición. Los programas de prevención transdiagnósticos podrían presentar una ventaja sobre los existentes para mejorar las estrategias de regulación emocional. Así, el objetivo de este estudio ha sido determinar la viabilidad y eficacia preliminar de un programa breve basado en el Protocolo Unificado (PU). El proyecto consistió en un estudio piloto utilizando un diseño experimental de línea base múltiple. Nueve estudiantes universitarios recibieron un programa de 5 sesiones basado en el PU en formato grupal online. Se encontraron diferencias significativas después de la intervención en la regulación de las emociones, el apoyo social percibido y la evitación, con tamaños del efecto moderados-grandes (r de Cohen = .49 - .59). Estas mejoras mostraron aumentos en los seguimientos al mes y a los 3 meses. Esos resultados están en línea con los que muestran que los programas preventivos transdiagnósticos breves podrían ser útiles para la prevención de los TEs en población universitaria.(AU)

Emotional disorders (EDs) are the most common disorders among the young population. The development of preventive programs for EDs is essential to avoid their possible appearance. Transdiagnostic prevention programs could present an advantage over existing ones to im-prove emotional regulation strategies. Thus, the objective of this study has been to determine the preliminary feasibility and effectiveness of a brief program based on the Unified Protocol (UP). The project consisted of a pilot study using a multiple baseline experimental design. Nine university students received a 5-session program based on the UP in online-group format. Significant differences were found after the intervention for emo-tion regulation, perceived social support and avoidance, with moderate-large effect sizes (Cohen's r= .49-.59). These improvements showed in-creases at 1-month and 3-month follow-ups. Those results are in line with those showing that brief transdiagnostic preventive programs could be use-ful for the prevention of EDs in the university population.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Students/psychology , Mental Health , Student Health , Affective Symptoms , Disease Prevention , Pilot Projects , Psychology , Clinical Protocols
An. psicol ; 40(2): 189-198, May-Sep, 2024. tab
Article in English, Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-232714


El suicidio se ha convertido en un problema social y de salud pública a nivel mundial. En este sentido, la Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso (ACT) podría ser eficaz en su abordaje, existiendo evidencia sobre la relación entre algunos de sus componentes y la conducta suicida. Así, el presente estudio tuvo por objetivo realizar una revisión sistemática sobre la eficacia de ACT en conducta suicida. Para ello se siguió el protocolo PRISMA, empleando las siguientes bases de datos: PsycInfo, PubMed, Scopus y PsicoDoc. Inicialmente se obtuvieron 108 publicaciones potencialmente relevantes, de las cuales, finalmente, 13 fueron incluidas en la revisión. La calidad de los estudios se analizó a través de un instrumento de evaluación de riesgo de sesgos. Como resultados, a nivel general se observaron disminuciones estadísticamente significativas en ideación suicida (IS) y factores de riesgo de suicidio. Además, algunos estudios señalaron relaciones estadísticamente significativas entre un aumento de flexibilidad psicológica y la disminución de IS. Si bien los datos apuntaron a una posible eficacia de ACT en la reducción de IS, es necesario llevar a cabo mayor número de estudios experimentales que contemplen la complejidad de la conducta suicida y exploren los procesos de cambio implicados.(AU)

Suicide has emerged as a pressing global issue affecting both so-ciety and public health.In this context, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) could prove effective in its approach, supported by evi-dence of the relationship between certain components of ACT and suicidal behavior. Thus, the present study aims to conduct a systematic review on the efficacy of ACT in suicidal behavior. For this, the PRISMA protocol was followed, using thefollowing databases: PsycInfo, PubMed, Scopus and PsicoDoc. Initially, 108 potentially relevant publicationswereobtained,13ofwhichwerefinallyincludedinthereview.Weanalyzedstudy qualityus-ingariskofbiasassessmentinstrument.Asaresult,statisticallysignificantdecreases in suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide risk factors were observed. In addition, some studies indicated statistically significant relationships be-tween increased psychological flexibility and decreasedSI.WhilethedatasuggestedthepotentialeffectivenessofACTinreducingsuicidal ideation (SI), more experimental studies are needed to consider the complexity of suicidal behavior and explore the processes of changeinvolved.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Suicidal Ideation , Mental Health , Psychology, Clinical , Suicide , Public Health , Risk Factors
An. psicol ; 40(2): 199-218, May-Sep, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-232715


La comorbilidad es más la regla que la excepción en salud mental y, sobre todo, en el caso de la ansiedad y la depresión. Los modelos transdiagnósticos estudian los procesos subyacentes para mejorar el tratamiento y la comprensión de la salud mental. Objetivo: Esta revisión sistemática busca evidencias sobre los factores de riesgo transdiagnósticos para la ansiedad y la depresión en la población clínica diagnosticada de estas condiciones psicopatológicas, analizando los diferentes tipos o categorías de factores identificados. Método: Se registró una revisión sistemática en PROSPERO (número de registro CRD42022370327) y se diseñó de acuerdo con las guías PRISMA-P. La calidad del estudio fue evaluada por dos revisores independientes con conocimiento del campo para reducir el posible sesgo. Resultados: Cincuenta y tres artículos fueron examinados y las variables transdiagnósticas fueron agrupadas en tres categorías: psicológicas, biológicas y socioculturales. Conclusiones: La categoría más estudiada fue la de variables psicológicas, en especial los procesos cognitivos, afecto negativo y neuroticismo, intolerancia a la incertidumbre, sensibilidad a la ansiedad. Los factores biológicos y socioculturales requieren más estudio para sustentar su enfoque transdiagnóstico.(AU)

Comorbidity is more the rule than the exception in mental health, specifically in the case of anxiety and depression. Transdiagnostic models studied the underlying processes to improve mental health treat-ment and understating. Objective:This systematic review searchs for evi-dence on transdiagnostic risk factors for anxiety and depression in the clin-ical population diagnosed with these psychopathological conditions, by an-alysing the different types or categories of factors identified.Methods:A sys-tematic review was registered in PROSPERO (registration number CRD42022370327) and was designed according to PRISMA-P guidelines. Two independent reviewers with field knowledge assessed the study quality to reduce bias.Results: Fifty-three articles were examined, and the transdi-agnostic variables were grouped into three categories: psychological, bio-logical, and sociocultural.Conclusions:The most studied category was that of psychological variables, especially cognitive processes, negative affect, and neuroticism, intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety sensitivity. Biological and sociocultural factors require more study to support their transdiagnos-tic approach.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Mental Health , Risk Factors , Anxiety , Depression , Psychopathology , Mental Disorders
An. psicol ; 40(2): 227-235, May-Sep, 2024. tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-232717


El objetivo fue examinar, desde una aproximación multi-informante, las medidas del Síndrome de Desconexión Cognitiva (SDC) de padres/madres e hijos/as y su relación con síntomas internalizantes y externalizantes. 279 niños/as (9-13 años), y sus padres/madres completaron las evaluaciones sobre SDC, la inatención del trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) y otras medidas internalizadas y externalizadas. Los ítems de las tres medidas de SDC convergieron razonablemente bien en el factor SDC. Se aportaron pruebas discriminantes de la validez de las relaciones entre las puntuaciones de las pruebas y las medidas de los tres constructos diferentes (SDC, soledad y preferencia por la soledad). La asociación más estrecha estuvo entre la evaluación parental de las medidas de SDC con ansiedad y depresión, y entre inatención con hiperactividad/impulsividad y trastorno negativista desafiante. Se observó capacidad predictiva de la medida de SDC sobre la soledad y preferencia por estar solo autoinformadas. Se encontró una posible asociación entre la medida del SDC evaluado por padres/madres y sexo y edad de los niños. En conclusión, los datos apoyan la inclusión de medidas autoinformadas en la evaluación del SDC. Las medidas del SDC en niños se vinculan con medidas internalizantes y, la inatención con las externalizantes.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Child Health , Psychology, Child , Child Development , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Anxiety , Depression
An. psicol ; 40(2): 236-241, May-Sep, 2024.
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-232718


La adicción digital, que se determina como un problema común entre los adolescentes en los últimos años, afecta negativamente la vida de los adolescentes en muchos aspectos. El objetivo del estudio es examinar las relaciones entre la adicción digital, la soledad, la timidez y la ansiedad social de los adolescentes. Gate se reunió con adolescentes que completaron la Escala de adicción digital, la versión corta de la Escala de soledad de UCLA, la Escala de timidez y la Escala de gravedad del trastorno de ansiedad social DSM-5 - Formulario infantil. Las hipótesis sugeridas se han probado utilizando los datos recopilados de 991 adolescentes y un análisis de regresión jerárquica. Los resultados de la investigación encontraron una relación positiva y significativa entre la adicción digital, la soledad, la timidez y la ansiedad social entre los adolescentes. Además, los hallazgos muestran que la adicción digital, la soledad y la timidez predicen la ansiedad social. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que la adicción digital, la soledad y la timidez tienen efecto sobre la ansiedad social. Según los hallazgos, se sugiere aplicar diversas intervenciones educativas por parte de profesionales de la salud mental a adolescentes que presenten signos de adicción digital, soledad, timidez y ansiedad social.(AU)

Digital addiction, which is determined as a common problem among adolescents in the last years, affects the lives of adolescents nega-tively in terms of many aspects. The aim of the study is to examine the re-lationships between adolescents' digital addiction, loneliness, shyness and social anxiety. Gate gathered from adolescents who completed Digital Ad-diction Scale, Short Form of UCLA Loneliness Scale, Shyness Scale, and DSM-5 Social Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale -Child Form. The suggest-ed hypotheses have been tested using the data gathered from 991 adoles-cents and hierarchical regression analysis. The research findings found a positive and significant relationship between digital addiction, loneliness, shyness and social anxiety among adolescents. Furthermore, the findings show that digital addiction, loneliness, and shyness predict social anxiety. The results obtained prove that digital addiction, loneliness and shyness have an effect on social anxiety. According to the findings, it is suggested to applyvarious educational interventions by mental health professionals to adolescents who show signs of digital addiction, loneliness, shyness, and social anxiety.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Loneliness , Shyness , /psychology , Anxiety
An. psicol ; 40(2): 242-253, May-Sep, 2024. tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-232719


Objetivo: La Escala de Fatiga de Chalder (CFS) es una escala breve para evaluar fatiga que se utiliza en España, pero que no ha sido validada en su población. El objetivo del estudio fue adaptar y evaluar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión española de la CFS (Sp-CFS). Método: La muestra la conformaron 3,671 participantes (3.190 de la población general y 481 pacientes), con edades entre 18 y 86 años (M = 28.43; DT = 12.71), siendo el 67.6% mujeres. Las propiedades psicométricas de la escala se probaron en un diseño transversal utilizando validación cruzada (análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio) y estimación de la invarianza (sexo y condición clínica). Resultados: Un modelo de cuatro factores (baja energía, problemas de sueño, problemas de concentración y disfunción cognitiva subjetiva) en lugar de un modelo original de dos factores (fatiga física y mental) proporcionó mejores índices de bondad de ajuste a los datos. La consistencia interna y la estabilidad de la escala fueron excelentes. Su validez convergente se apoyó en su asociación significativa con la ansiedad, la depresión, el estrés y los síntomas positivos y negativos del espectro de la psicosis. El instrumento no mostró diferencias significativas entre sexos ni condiciones clínicas, y discriminó entre la población general y los pacientes, obteniendo estos últimos puntajes significativamente mayores. Conclusiones: Sp-CFS es una escala fiable y válida para medir la fatiga en población general y clínica española.(AU)

Objective:The Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS) is a brief self-report screening scale for fatigue that is used in Spain but has not been validated for the Spanish population. The aim of this study was to adapt and evalu-ate the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the CFS (Sp-CFS). Method:The sample consisted of 3,671 participants (3,190 from the general population and 481 patients), aged 18 to 86 years (M=28.43; DT=12.71), 67.6% of whom were women. Psychometric properties of the scale were tested in a cross-sectional design using cross-validation (explora-tory and confirmatory factor analysis) and estimation of invariance (sex and clinical condition). Results:A four-factor model (low energy, sleep problems, concentration problems and subjective cognitive dysfunction) rather than an original two-factor model (physical and mental fatigue) pro-vided better indices of goodness of fit to the data. The internal consistencyand stability of the scale were excellent. Its convergent validity was sup-ported by its significant association with anxiety, depression, stress, and the positive and negative symptoms of the psychosis spectrum. The instru-ment did not show significant differences between sexes or clinical condi-tions, and it discriminated between the general population and the patients, with the latter obtaining significantly greater scores. Conclusions: Sp-CFS is a reliable and valid scale for measuring a transdiagnostic construct such as fatigue in Spanish general and clinical populations.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Psychometrics , Fatigue , Cognitive Dysfunction , Attention , Spain , Psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies
An. psicol ; 40(2): 254-264, May-Sep, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-232720


El programa de Instrucción de la Autorregulación Cognitiva (CSRI) se basa en la instrucción centrada en la estrategia e incluye tres componentes para la mejora del producto textual (enseñanza directa, modelado y práctica entre iguales). Se plantearon como objetivosanalizar si la instrucción con el programa CSRI en un género textual (texto de comparación) conducía a la transferencia espontánea en el producto textual (mejor coherencia, estructura y calidad) en un género no instruido (texto de opinión); y examinar si el orden de los componentes instruccionales presentaba algún efecto. Participaron 126 estudiantes de cuarto de educación primaria que fueron asignados a una de las dos condiciones experimentales en las que se aplicaba el programa CSRI (con diferente secuencia de los componentes instructivos), o a una condición de control en la que se seguía la enseñanza tradicional. Los resultados reflejaron que las dos secuencias de instrucción del programa CSRI mostraban beneficios en la estructura y coherencia del producto textual de los estudiantes en el posttest pero no 8 meses después. Para que los alumnos sean capaces de transferir adecuadamente lo aprendido a géneros textuales no instruidos, necesitan que los profesores les enseñen cómo hacerlo eficazmente.(AU)

Cognitive Self-Regulation Instruction (CSRI) program is a strategy-focused instruction with three instructional components for im-proving students’ writing product (direct teaching, modelling, and peer-practice). The present study aimed to explore whether the CSRI program leads to spontaneous transfer, improving the writing product (in terms of quality, structure, and text coherence) of an uninstructed genre (opinion text); and to examine whether the order in which the instructional compo-nents were implemented had an effect. A total of 126 students in their 4thyear of primary school participated in the study. They were randomly as-signed to one of two experimental conditions which received the CSRI but differed in the order the instructional components were delivered, or to a control condition which followed the traditional teaching approach. Our findings show that both CSRI sequences produced benefits in terms of greater structure and coherence of the writing product in the opinion text at post-test but not 8months after the intervention. In consequence, for students to be able to adequately transfer strategies to uninstructed text genres, they need teachers to teach them how to do it effectively.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Education, Primary and Secondary , Writing , Learning
An. psicol ; 40(2): 272-279, May-Sep, 2024. tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-232721


Introduction: The scientific evidence regarding the effects of online social media use on the well-being of adolescents is mixed. In gen-eral, passive uses (receiving, viewing content without interacting) and more screen time are related to lower well-being when compared with active uses (direct interactions and interpersonal exchanges). Objectives:This study ex-amines the types and motives for social media usage amongst adolescents, differentiating them by gender identity and sexual orientation, as well as its effects on eudaimonic well-being and minority stress. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1259 adolescents, aged 14 to 19 (M= 16.19; SD= 1.08), analysing the Scale of Motives for Using Social Net-working Sites, eudaimonic well-being, the Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory, screen time and profile type. Results:The results found that longer use time is related to finding partners, social connection and friendships; that gay and bisexual (GB) adolescents perceive more distal stressors online;and that females have higher levels of well-being. Discus-sion: The public profiles of GB males increase self-expression, although minority stress can be related to discrimination, rejection or exclusion. Dif-ferentiated socialization may contribute to a higher level of well-being in females, with both active and passive uses positively effecting eudaimonic well-being in adolescents.(AU)

Introduction: The scientific evidence regarding the effects of online social media use on the well-being of adolescents is mixed. In general, passive uses (receiving, viewing content without interacting) and more screen time are related to lower well-being when compared with active uses (direct interactions and interpersonal exchanges). Objectives: This study examines the types and motives for social media usage amongst adolescents, differentiating them by gender identity and sexual orientation, as well as its effects on eudaimonic well-being and minority stress. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1259 adolescents, aged 14 to 19 (M = 16.19; SD = 1.08), analysing the Scale of Motives for Using Social Networking Sites, eudaimonic well-being, the Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory, screen time and profile type. Results: The results found that longer use time is related to finding partners, social connection and friendships; that gay and bisexual (GB) adolescents perceive more distal stressors online; and that females have higher levels of well-being. Discussion: The public profiles of GB males increase self-expression, although minority stress can be related to discrimination, rejection or exclusion. Differentiated socialization may contribute to a higher level of well-being in females, with both active and passive uses positively effecting eudaimonic well-being in adolescents.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Online Social Networking , Social Media , Adolescent Health , Psychology, Adolescent , Motivation
An. psicol ; 40(2): 280-289, May-Sep, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-232722


Antecedentes: La escala Teacher Emotion Inventory (TEI) es un instrumento que evalúa emociones discretas experimentadas por el profesorado en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. El objetivo de este estudio es examinar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión breve española de la escala Teacher Emotion Inventory (TEI-BSV) en una muestra de 567 profesores (65.5% son mujeres), con edades comprendidas entre 25 y 65 años (M = 46.04; DT = 9.09). Método: Tras su adaptación mediante traducción inversa, el profesorado completó una batería que incluía el TEI-BSV, un cuestionario de inteligencia emocional, dos escalas de bienestar subjetivo, una escala sobre burnout y una escala sobre engagement. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron una consistencia interna adecuada de las subescalas del TEI-BSV. Los análisis factoriales (exploratorio y confirmatorio) proporcionaron pruebas de que el TEI-BSV tiene una estructura de cuatro factores con un buen ajuste, frente a la estructura de cinco factores original. Se han hallado evidencias de validez convergente, así como de validez criterial e incremental del TEI-BSV. Conclusiones: el TEI-BSV podría ser una herramienta útil para la evaluación ecológica de las emociones discretas del profesorado en su contexto laboral.(AU)

Background: The Teacher Emotion Inventory (TEI) scale is an instrument that evaluates discrete emotions experienced by teachers in the teaching-learning process. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the brief Spanish version of the Teacher Emotion Inventory scale (TEI-BSV) using a sample of 567 teachers (65.5% women), aged between 25 and 65 years (M= 46.04; SD= 9.09). Methods: After adaptation through back-translation, the teachers com-pleted a battery of tests included in the TEI-BSV: an emotional intelli-gence questionnaire, two subjective well-being scales, a burnout scale and a scale on engagement. Results: The data revealed adequate internal consistency of the TEI-BSV subscales, and exploratory and confirma-tory factor analyses provided evidence that the TEI-BSV has a four-factor structure with good adjustment, as opposed to the original five-factor structure proposed. There was evidence of convergent validity of the TEI-BSV, as well as criterion and incremental validity. Conclusions: The TEI-BSV could be a useful instrument for the ecological assess-ment of teachers' discrete emotions in the context of their workplace.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Psychometrics , Emotions , Stress, Psychological , Burnout, Psychological , Emotional Intelligence