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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(4)2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931425

ABSTRACT

A 9-day-old girl presented during the 2020 SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in wide-complex tachycardia with acute, symptomatic COVID-19 infection. Because the potential cardiac complications of COVID-19 were unknown at the time of her presentation, we chose to avoid the potential risks of haemodynamic collapse associated with afterload reduction from adenosine. Instead, a transoesophageal pacing catheter was placed. Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) with an aberrated QRS morphology was diagnosed and the catheter was used to pace-terminate tachycardia. This presentation illustrates that the haemodynamic consequences of a concurrent infection with largely unknown neonatal sequelae present a potentially high-risk situation for pharmacologic conversion. Oesophageal cannulation can be used to diagnose and terminate infantile SVT.


Subject(s)
Fever , Tachycardia, Supraventricular , /complications , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/virology
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 570098, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842415

ABSTRACT

The first cases of unexplained pneumonia were reported in Wuhan, China, in December of 2019. Later, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was identified as the causal agent of pneumonia. This virus has since spread to more than 180 countries and has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Herein, we aimed to determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of symptomatic patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the relationship between the influenza vaccine with a lower risk of severe COVID-19 infection in the state of Sinaloa. We collected demographic and clinical data of 4,040 patients with acute respiratory infections across Sinaloa state hospitals from February 28 to May 15, 2020. The prevalence of COVID-19 among hospitalized patients with respiratory symptoms in Sinaloa showed 45.2% of men were more affected than women (p < 0.001), and people aged 40-49 years were the most affected. The main symptoms of COVID-19 infection were cough and fever (p < 0.001), while hypertension, obesity, and type 2 diabetes were the chronic diseases associated with COVID-19 than non-COVID-19 (p < 0.003). Healthcare workers were most likely to be infected compared to other occupations (p < 0.001). The general lethality rate was 14.1%, and males >62 years were the ones who had a higher lethality rate (p < 0.001); the aforementioned chronic diseases were related to higher lethality of COVID-19 (p < 0.001). Likewise, higher lethality was seen in housewives and patient retirees/pensioners compared with other occupations (p < 0.001). Finally, we found there was a relationship between influenza vaccination and a lower risk of severe COVID-19 infection and mortality (p < 0.001). These findings showed that healthcare workers, men >62 years with chronic diseases, and retired people were most affected. Furthermore, the influenza vaccine could decrease the severeness of COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Adult , Comorbidity , Cough/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Hypertension , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Obesity , Survival Analysis
3.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e930853, 2021 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND COVID-19 has become a worldwide epidemic disease and is a public health crisis. We aim to provide evidence for clinical diagnosis and assessment of severity by analyzing patients' clinical data and early laboratory results and exploring the correlation between laboratory results and clinical classification. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 283 cases of suspected and diagnosed COVID-19 from 16 hospitals in Jiangsu Province from January to April 2020. The routine laboratory blood examinations, T lymphocyte subsets, and biochemical and coagulation function among different populations were contrasted by t test and chi-square (χ²) test. RESULTS Cough, fever, and dyspnea could be helpful to diagnose COVID-19 infection (P<0.05). Patients who were older or had comorbidities tended to become severe and critical cases. Among all the patients, the most obvious abnormal laboratory results were higher neutrophil count, CRP, total bilirubin, BUN, CRE, APTT, PT, and D-dimer, and lower blood platelet and lymphocyte count. CD3⁺ T cell, CD4⁺ T cell, and CD8⁺ T cell counts gradually decreased with exacerbation of the disease (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Cough and fever were the most common symptom. Patients with comorbidities were in more serious condition. The detection of inflammatory indexes, coagulation function, lymphocyte subsets, and renal function can help diagnose and assess the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation/immunology , /complications , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cough/blood , Cough/immunology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/immunology , Fever/virology , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Young Adult
4.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249788, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a pandemic disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 started to spread globally since December 2019 from Wuhan, China. Fever has been observed as one of the most common clinical manifestations, although the prevalence and characteristics of fever in adult and paediatric COVID-19 patients is inconclusive. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the overall pooled prevalence of fever and chills in addition to fever characteristics (low, medium, and high temperature) in both adult and paediatric COVID-19 patients. METHODS: The protocol of this systematic review and meta-analysis was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020176327). PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar databases were searched between 1st December 2019 and 3rd April 2020 without language restrictions. Both adult (≥18 years) and paediatric (<18 years) COVID-19 patients were considered eligible. We used random-effects model for the meta-analysis to obtain the pooled prevalence and risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Quality assessment of included studies was performed using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I² statistic and Cochran's Q test. Robustness of the pooled estimates was checked by different subgroups and sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: We identified 2055 studies, of which 197 studies (n = 24266) were included in the systematic review and 167 studies with 17142 adults and 373 paediatrics were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled prevalence of fever in adult and paediatric COVID-19 patients were 79.43% [95% CI: 77.05-81.80, I2 = 95%] and 45.86% [95% CI: 35.24-56.48, I2 = 78%], respectively. Besides, 14.45% [95% CI: 10.59-18.32, I2 = 88%] of the adult COVID-19 patients were accompanied with chills. In adult COVID-19 patients, the prevalence of medium-grade fever (44.33%) was higher compared to low- (38.16%) and high-grade fever (14.71%). In addition, the risk of both low (RR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.69-3.22, p<0.00001, I2 = 84%) and medium grade fever (RR: 2.79, 95% CI: 2.21-3.51, p<0.00001, I2 = 75%) were significantly higher compared to high-grade fever, however, there was no significant difference between low- and medium-grade fever (RR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.94-1.44, p = 0.16, I2 = 87%). 88.8% of the included studies were of high-quality. The sensitivity analyses indicated that our findings of fever prevalence for both adult and paediatric patients are reliable and robust. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of fever in adult COVID-19 patients was high, however, 54.14% of paediatric COVID-19 patients did not exhibit fever as an initial clinical feature. Prevalence and risk of low and medium-grade fevers were higher compared to high-grade fever.


Subject(s)
Fever , Pandemics , /metabolism , Adult , /metabolism , Child , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/metabolism , Fever/virology , Humans
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7310, 2021 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790365

ABSTRACT

Treating patients with COVID-19 is expensive, thus it is essential to identify factors on admission associated with hospital length of stay (LOS) and provide a risk assessment for clinical treatment. To address this, we conduct a retrospective study, which involved patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection in Hefei, China and being discharged between January 20 2020 and March 16 2020. Demographic information, clinical treatment, and laboratory data for the participants were extracted from medical records. A prolonged LOS was defined as equal to or greater than the median length of hospitable stay. The median LOS for the 75 patients was 17 days (IQR 13-22). We used univariable and multivariable logistic regressions to explore the risk factors associated with a prolonged hospital LOS. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. The median age of the 75 patients was 47 years. Approximately 75% of the patients had mild or general disease. The univariate logistic regression model showed that female sex and having a fever on admission were significantly associated with longer duration of hospitalization. The multivariate logistic regression model enhances these associations. Odds of a prolonged LOS were associated with male sex (aOR 0.19, 95% CI 0.05-0.63, p = 0.01), having fever on admission (aOR 8.27, 95% CI 1.47-72.16, p = 0.028) and pre-existing chronic kidney or liver disease (aOR 13.73 95% CI 1.95-145.4, p = 0.015) as well as each 1-unit increase in creatinine level (aOR 0.94, 95% CI 0.9-0.98, p = 0.007). We also found that a prolonged LOS was associated with increased creatinine levels in patients with chronic kidney or liver disease (p < 0.001). In conclusion, female sex, fever, chronic kidney or liver disease before admission and increasing creatinine levels were associated with prolonged LOS in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
/etiology , Length of Stay , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Comorbidity , Creatinine/blood , Female , Fever/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
6.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(1)2021 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823049

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 may produce neurological manifestations, including its occurrence in children, and newborns, which has been little reported so far in newborns with COVID-19. CASE: We present a case in Colombia, of community-acquired neonatal infection of SARS-CoV-2, with suggestive symptoms, such as fever, and showing neurological findings, such as drowsiness, poor suction and mild hypotonia for a short time. DISCUSSION: The clinical manifestations of SARS-COV-2 in neonates are beginning to be described in detail. We report a case of SARS-COV-2-associated neurological compromise in a newborn, with features of drowsiness, poor suction and hypotonia.


Subject(s)
/complications , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , /diagnosis , Colombia , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Muscle Hypotonia/virology , Sleepiness
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 263, 2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has critically impacted the spread of infection within nursing facilities. We evaluated the usefulness of genetic and serological tests conducted during a COVID-19 outbreak in a nursing facility in Japan. METHODS: After the first identification of SARS-CoV-2 infection, a comprehensive, facility- and/or unit-wide PCR testing from nasopharyngeal swabs was repeatedly performed in a three-unit facility including 99 residents with dementia and 53 healthcare personnel. Additionally, PCR testing was conducted separately for residents and staff with fever of ≥37.5 °C. Facility-wide serological testing, including rapid kit testing and quantitative assay, was conducted twice over 1 month apart. RESULTS: A total of 322 PCR and 257 antibody tests were performed. 37 (24.3%) of the 152 individuals (25/99 residents, 25.3%; 12/53 staff, 22.6%) were identified as PCR-positive. Seven residents died with a mortality of 7.1% (7/99). Among the 37 individuals, 10 (27.0%) were asymptomatic at the time of testing. PCR positivity was concentrated on one unit (Unit 1) (20/30 residents, 66.7%; 9/14 staff, 64.3%). The other units showed a limited spread of infection. In unit-wide and separate tests, PCR positivity detection was highly prevalent (22.9 and 44.4%, respectively) in Unit 1, compared with that in the other units. Serological testing identified two additional infected residents with a negative PCR result and showed that no staff was newly identified as infected. CONCLUSIONS: Thorough PCR testing, in combination with comprehensive and separate tests, is critical for managing COVID-19 outbreaks in nursing facilities, particularly, in units considered an epicenter. Serological testing is also beneficial for tracing contacts, confirming the number of infected individuals, and authorizing the termination of the outbreak.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Contact Tracing , Female , Fever/virology , Health Personnel , Humans , Japan , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Pandemics
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8840835, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33708997

ABSTRACT

This study established an interpretable machine learning model to predict the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and output the most crucial deterioration factors. Clinical information, laboratory tests, and chest computed tomography (CT) scans at admission were collected. Two experienced radiologists reviewed the scans for the patterns, distribution, and CT scores of lung abnormalities. Six machine learning models were established to predict the severity of COVID-19. After parameter tuning and performance comparison, the optimal model was explained using Shapley Additive explanations to output the crucial factors. This study enrolled and classified 198 patients into mild (n = 162; 46.93 ± 14.49 years old) and severe (n = 36; 60.97 ± 15.91 years old) groups. The severe group had a higher temperature (37.42 ± 0.99°C vs. 36.75 ± 0.66°C), CT score at admission, neutrophil count, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio than the mild group. The XGBoost model ranked first among all models, with an AUC, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.924, 90.91%, and 97.96%, respectively. The early stage of chest CT, total CT score of the percentage of lung involvement, and age were the top three contributors to the prediction of the deterioration of XGBoost. A higher total score on chest CT had a more significant impact on the prediction. In conclusion, the XGBoost model to predict the severity of COVID-19 achieved excellent performance and output the essential factors in the deterioration process, which may help with early clinical intervention, improve prognosis, and reduce mortality.


Subject(s)
/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted/methods , Adult , Aged , Blood Cell Count , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Machine Learning , Male , Models, Biological , Neutrophils , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 255, 2021 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to be a priority health problem; According to the World Health Organization data from October 13, 2020, 37,704,153 confirmed COVID-19 cases have been reported, including 1,079,029 deaths, since the outbreak. The identification of potential symptoms has been reported to be a useful tool for clinical decision-making in emergency departments to avoid overload and improve the quality of care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of symptoms as a diagnostic tool for SARS -CoV-2 infection. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional, prospective and analytical study was carried out, during the period of time from April 14 to July 21, 2020. Data (demographic variables, medical history, respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms) were collected by emergency physicians. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was made using SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR. The diagnostic accuracy of these characteristics for COVID-19 was evaluated by calculating the positive and negative likelihood ratios. A Mantel-Haenszel and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association of symptoms with COVID-19. RESULTS: A prevalence of 53.72% of SARS-CoV-2 infection was observed. The symptom with the highest sensitivity was cough 71%, and a specificity of 52.68%. The symptomatological scale, constructed from 6 symptoms, obtained a sensitivity of 83.45% and a specificity of 32.86%, taking ≥2 symptoms as a cut-off point. The symptoms with the greatest association with SARS-CoV-2 were: anosmia odds ratio (OR) 3.2 (95% CI; 2.52-4.17), fever OR 2.98 (95% CI; 2.47-3.58), dyspnea OR 2.9 (95% CI; 2.39-3.51]) and cough OR 2.73 (95% CI: 2.27-3.28). CONCLUSION: The combination of ≥2 symptoms / signs (fever, cough, anosmia, dyspnea and oxygen saturation < 93%, and headache) results in a highly sensitivity model for a quick and accurate diagnosis of COVID-19, and should be used in the absence of ancillary diagnostic studies. Symptomatology, alone and in combination, may be an appropriate strategy to use in the emergency department to guide the behaviors to respond to the disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Institutional registration R-2020-3601-145, Federal Commission for the Protection against Sanitary Risks 17 CI-09-015-034, National Bioethics Commission: 09 CEI-023-2017082 .


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Symptom Assessment , Adult , Cough/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Fever/virology , Headache/virology , Humans , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
10.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 78(1): 18-23, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661874

ABSTRACT

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 virus may affect both adults and children. Although COVID-19 has a lower prevalence in infancy and has been described as mild, the clinical characteristics may vary, and there is a possibility of complications. The objectives of this study were to describe the clinical and epidemiological aspects of confirmed COVID-19 pediatric cases in the state of Sinaloa, Mexico, during the first 3 months of the pandemic, and children admitted with COVID-19 to a secondary hospital. Methods: This case series includes all patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test, identified in the state epidemiological surveillance system (SISVER) between March 1 and May 31, 2020. Confirmed patients admitted to the Sinaloa Pediatric Hospital (HPS) in the same period are also described. Results: Fifty-one children with SARS-CoV-2 were included, of which ten were admitted to the HPS. The median age was 10 years. The more frequent symptoms were fever (78%), cough (67%), and headache (57%). Most cases were mild or asymptomatic. Three patients with comorbidities died. Only four of ten patients identified in HPS were admitted with the diagnosis of possible COVID-19. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection in children was mostly mild or asymptomatic, and the clinical presentation varied. There is a possibility of complications, especially in children with comorbidities.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Adolescent , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/virology , Headache/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mexico , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 78(1): 29-33, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661877

ABSTRACT

Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a potentially mortal disease characterized by a chronic pulmonary disease with persistent airway infection. Children with this disease are more susceptible to respiratory infections due to the limitation in mucociliary transport and anatomical disruption of the bronchial tree. SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19, a respiratory illness related to exacerbations of chronic pulmonary pathologies in children, such as CF and asthma. There are not enough case reports on pediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and CF, for which we share our experience. Case report: A 22-month-old male patient diagnosed with CF presented in the hospital with cough, fever, and increased respiratory work. The patient received supplemental oxygen and antibiotic and antiviral therapy. Positive results for type B influenza and RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) for SARS-CoV-2 were obtained. Due to the persistence of respiratory difficulty, high-flow therapy was initiated, with a good response. After an episode of hypoxemia, bradycardia, and increased respiratory work secondary to accumulated secretions, orotracheal intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation were performed. The patient evolved with clinical and gasometric improvement. After 10 days of in-hospital antibiotic management with adequate clinical evolution, the patient was discharged to complete oral treatment and home isolation. Conclusions: We present a case of chronic respiratory disease and SARS-CoV-2 infection with severity criteria in a pediatric patient. The evolution was favorable with timely support management and antibiotic therapy in a third-level hospital.


Subject(s)
/physiopathology , Cystic Fibrosis/complications , /diagnosis , Cough/virology , Cystic Fibrosis/physiopathology , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant , Male , Respiration, Artificial , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e24771, 2021 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725944

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: As an international tourist center, Hainan province includes both imported and local COVID-19 cases. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients in Hainan, China.COVID-19 patients hospitalized in Hainan affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University in January to March 2020 were retrospectively assessed. Routine blood tests, blood gas analyses, and computed tomography imaging were performed within 24 hours. Virus nucleic acid was detected every other day. The patients were divided into local resident and traveler groups, and differences in clinical data as well as leukocyte, lymphocyte, and neutrophil levels were analyzed.A total of 70 patients aged 51.23 ±â€Š13.54 years were assessed, including 16 local residents and 54 travelers. Of these, 55 cases (78.6%) had fever, 47 (67.1%) had cough and sputum, and 9 (12.9%) had chest dyspnea; 60 and 10 cases were mild/common and severe/critical, respectively. Sex, basic diseases, smoking history and drinking history, Charlson Comorbidity Index, symptoms, time of onset to admission, clinical severity, white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, neutrophil count, oxygen inhalation, mechanical ventilation, glucocorticoid therapy, treatment, admission to ICU, hospital stay, and mortality were similar between the 2 groups.The warm and humid climate of Hainan does not seem to significantly affect patient features and outcomes from COVID-19. Unnecessary travel to tourist areas should be avoided.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , /therapy , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Travel , Treatment Outcome
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e24826, 2021 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725951

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Wenzhou had the highest number of confirmed novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) cases outside the Hubei province. The aim of this study was to identify the difference in clinical features and viral RNA shedding between the imported and local COVID-19 cases in Wenzhou.All patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to Wenzhou Sixth People's Hospital, Wenzhou Central Hospital Medical Group, from January 17 to February 11, 2020, were enrolled in this study. Data was analyzed and compared for the imported and local cases with regard to epidemiological, demographic, clinical, radiological features, and laboratory findings. Outcomes for the enrolled participants were followed up until May 7, 2020.Of the 136 cases, 50 were imported from Wuhan. The median age was 45 years and 73 (53.7%) were men. The most common symptoms at onset were fever (104 [76.5%]) and cough (85[62.5%]). Pleural effusion was more common among imported cases compared to local cases. The white blood cell count, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count and platelet count of the imported cases were significantly lower than those of the local cases, while the prothrombin time was significantly longer than that of the local cases. Severe and critically ill patients accounted for 15.4% and 2.9%, respectively. The median duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding from symptom onset was 26 days (IQR 17-32.3 days) and there were no significant differences in duration of viral RNA shedding between the two groups.The study findings suggest that imported cases from Wuhan were more likely to be severe compared to the local cases in Wenzhou. However, there was no difference between imported and local cases on the viral shedding among the COVID patients.


Subject(s)
/virology , RNA, Viral , Virus Shedding , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , /epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Imported/virology , Cough/virology , Critical Illness , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 265, 2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasing arbovirus infections have been a global burden in recent decades. Many countries have experienced the periodic emergence of arbovirus diseases. However, information on the prevalence of arboviruses is largely unknown or infrequently updated because of the lack of surveillance studies, especially in Africa. METHODS: A surveillance study was conducted in Gabon, Central Africa, on arboviruses, which are a major public health concern in Africa, including: West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), yellow fever virus (YFV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Serological and molecular assays were performed to investigate past infection history and the current status of infection, using serum samples collected from healthy individuals and febrile patients, respectively. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence during 2014-2017 was estimated to be 25.3% for WNV, 20.4% for DENV, 40.3% for ZIKV, 60.7% for YFV, 61.2% for CHIKV, and 14.3% for RVFV. No significant differences were found in the seroprevalence of any of the viruses between the male and female populations. However, a focus on the mean age in each arbovirus-seropositive individual showed a significantly younger age in WNV- and DENV-seropositive individuals than in CHIKV-seropositive individuals, indicating that WNV and DENV caused a relatively recent epidemic in the region, whereas CHIKV had actively circulated before. Of note, this indication was supported by the detection of both WNV and DENV genomes in serum samples collected from febrile patients after 2016. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the recent re-emergence of WNV and DENV in Gabon as well as the latest seroprevalence state of the major arboviruses, which indicated the different potential risks of virus infections and virus-specific circulation patterns. This information will be helpful for public health organizations and will enable a rapid response towards these arbovirus infections, thereby preventing future spread in the country.


Subject(s)
Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Dengue/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Adolescent , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arboviruses/classification , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Dengue/diagnosis , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Gabon/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Public Health , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
15.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0241875, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior studies examining symptoms of COVID-19 are primarily descriptive and measured among hospitalized individuals. Understanding symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pre-clinical, community-based populations may improve clinical screening, particularly during flu season. We sought to identify key symptoms and symptom combinations in a community-based population using robust methods. METHODS: We pooled community-based cohorts of individuals aged 12 and older screened for SARS-CoV-2 infection in April and June 2020 for a statewide prevalence study. Main outcome was SARS-CoV-2 positivity. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for individual symptoms as well as symptom combinations. We further employed multivariable logistic regression and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to examine symptoms and combinations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Among 8214 individuals screened, 368 individuals (4.5%) were RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2. Although two-thirds of symptoms were highly specific (>90.0%), most symptoms individually possessed a PPV <50.0%. The individual symptoms most greatly associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity were fever (OR = 5.34, p<0.001), anosmia (OR = 4.08, p<0.001), ageusia (OR = 2.38, p = 0.006), and cough (OR = 2.86, p<0.001). Results from EFA identified two primary symptom clusters most associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection: (1) ageusia, anosmia, and fever; and (2) shortness of breath, cough, and chest pain. Moreover, being non-white (13.6% vs. 2.3%, p<0.001), Hispanic (27.9% vs. 2.5%, p<0.001), or living in an Urban area (5.4% vs. 3.8%, p<0.001) was associated with infection. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms can help distinguish SARS-CoV-2 infection from other respiratory viruses, especially in community or urgent care settings where rapid testing may be limited. Symptoms should further be structured in clinical documentation to support identification of new cases and mitigation of disease spread by public health. These symptoms, derived from asymptomatic as well as mildly infected individuals, can also inform vaccine and therapeutic clinical trials.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Mass Screening/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/virology , Cough , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Dyspnea , Epidemiologic Studies , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Indiana/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , /pathogenicity , Syndrome
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009248, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690662

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan City and rapidly spread across the world. The clinical characteristics of affected patients in different regions and populations may differ. Thus, this study aimed to identify the characteristics of the disease to provide an insight about the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. METHODS: Data on the demographic characteristics and clinical findings of the patients admitted at the First Hospital of Changsha from January 1, 2020 to February 10, 2020 were assessed. RESULTS: In this study, there were 8 (3.8%) asymptomatic, 21 (10.0%) mild upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), and 180 (86.1%) pneumonia cases. In total, 47 (22.5%) patients resided in Wuhan, and 45 (21.5%) had recently traveled to Wuhan before disease onset. Moreover, 19 (9.1%) had contact with people from Wuhan, and 69 (33.0%) were family cluster cases. The median incubation period was approximately 6.3 (range: 1.0-20.0) days. Fever and cough were the most common initial symptoms: 99 (49.3%) patients presented with fever, without cough; 59 (29.4%) with cough, without fever; and 33 (16.4%) with both fever and cough. CONCLUSION: The symptoms of patients with COVID-19 were relatively mild outside Wuhan, and family cluster was a remarkable epidemic characteristic. Special attention should be paid to asymptomatic patients.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , /epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , China/epidemiology , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , /isolation & purification , Young Adult
17.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(2): 214-223, 2021 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690203

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: SARS-Cov-2 infection or COVID-19 is a global pandemic. In this manuscript, we investigated the primary symptoms and basic hematological presentations of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the Bangladeshi patients. METHODOLOGY: This was a multicentre cross-sectional study done on COVID-19 patients tested positive by RT PCR in Bangladesh. Clinical features of mild to moderate degree of COVID-19 patients; hematological and biochemical admission day laboratory findings of moderate to severe degree hospitalized COVID-19 patients were analyzed. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh commonly presented with fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, and sore throat. But symptoms like myalgia, diarrhea, skin rash, headache, Abdominal pain/cramp, nausea, vomiting, restlessness, and a higher temperature of >100°F have a greater presentation rate and more frequent than other published studies. CRP and Prothrombin time was found to increase in all the patients. Serum ferritin, ESR, SGPT, and D-Dimer were increased among 53.85%, 80.43, 44%, and 25% patients. 17.39% of the patients had leucocytosis and neutrophilia, 28.26% presented with lymphocytopenia, and 62.52% had mild erythrocytopenia. The difference between the decrease hemoglobin count (higher in the male) and increased SGPT (higher in female) against gender was significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our study had evaluated a different expression in presenting symptoms of COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh. CRP, Prothrombin time, serum ferritin, ESR, SGPT, D-Dimer, erythrocytopenia, and lymphocytopenia can be assessments for diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19 disease. Decrease hemoglobin count (higher in the male) and increased SGPT (higher in female) establish these two markers as a good candidate for diagnostic value against gender.


Subject(s)
/blood , /etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Bangladesh , Child , Comorbidity , Cough/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fatigue/virology , Female , Fever/virology , Hematologic Tests , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
18.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 434-439, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603240

ABSTRACT

The genus Orthonairovirus, which is part of the family Nairoviridae, includes the important tick-transmitted pathogens Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and Nairobi sheep disease virus, as well as many other poorly characterized viruses found in ticks, birds and mammals1,2. In this study, we identified a new orthonairovirus, Songling virus (SGLV), from patients who reported being bitten by ticks in Heilongjiang Province in northeastern China. SGLV shared similar genomic and morphological features with orthonairoviruses and phylogenetically formed a unique clade in Tamdy orthonairovirus of the Nairoviridae family. The isolated SGLV induced cytopathic effects in human hepatoma cells in vitro. SGLV infection was confirmed in 42 hospitalized patients analyzed between 2017 and 2018, with the main clinical manifestations being headache, fever, depression, fatigue and dizziness. More than two-thirds (69%) of patients generated virus-specific antibody responses in the acute phase. Taken together, these results suggest that this newly discovered orthonairovirus is associated with human febrile illness in China.


Subject(s)
Fever/complications , Nairovirus/isolation & purification , Nairovirus/pathogenicity , Tick-Borne Diseases/virology , Virus Diseases/virology , Adult , Aged , China , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tick-Borne Diseases/complications , Virus Diseases/complications
20.
Homeopathy ; 110(2): 132-136, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618380

ABSTRACT

Thromboinflammation is a still not well-understood phenomenon, which has recently come to the foreground as a function of its relevance in the pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The patient described in the present case report exhibited acute fever, giant urticaria, elevated acute phase reactants, and very high d-dimer levels, thus characterizing thromboinflammation. She was diagnosed as a COVID-19 suspect case, which was not confirmed; urticarial vasculitis was ruled out. Homeopathic treatment was started with the earliest clinical manifestations, resulting in rapid and drastic reduction of inflammation and hypercoagulability within the first 12 hours, and full recovery on 10-day follow-up assessment. This case demonstrates the effectiveness of homeopathy in a severe acute disorder, and points to the need to include laboratory testing in homeopathic clinical assessment to achieve an accurate picture of disease, and to avoid the risk of passing over life-threatening disorders.


Subject(s)
Bee Venoms/therapeutic use , Bees , Homeopathy , Inflammation/therapy , Thrombosis/therapy , Aged , Animals , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Female , Fever/virology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Thrombosis/virology , Urticaria/virology
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