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1.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 619, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Frailty is a kind of geriatric syndrome, which is very common in the elderly. Patients with malnutrition are at higher risk of frailty. This study explored the correlation between nutrition and frailty and compared the receiver operating characteristic curve of different nutritional indexes for frailty. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 179 inpatients aged ≥65 years old. Frailty was measured using Fried Frailty Phenotype, handgrip strength was measured using JAMAR@Plus and the 4.57 m usual gait speed was measured using a stopwatch. Comprehensive nutritional assessment refers to the application of Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) to assess the nutritional status of patients. RESULTS: Compared with the non-frailty group, the upper arm circumference, calf circumference, hemoglobin, albumin, prealbumin, cholesterol and low density lipoprotein in the frailty group were lower (P < 0.05). Comprehensive nutritional assessment, whether as a categorical variable or a continuous variable, was significantly correlated with frailty (P < 0.05). Model1 showed that the risk of frailty in malnourished patients was 3.381 times higher than that in well nourished patients (P = 0.036). Model2 showed that the risk of frailty decreased by 13.8% for every 1 point increase in MNA score (P = 0.009). The area under the curves of albumin, prealbumin and hemoglobin was larger (AUC > 0.65), AUC was 0.718, 0.693 and 0.743, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that malnutrition is closely related to frailty. As for single nutritional indexes, albumin, prealbumin and hemoglobin were found to be associated with frailty. Further cohort studies are needed to verify their ability to screen for frailty.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Malnutrition , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment , Hand Strength , Humans , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , ROC Curve
2.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 624, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Routine screening for frailty at admission by nurses may be useful to detect geriatric risks and problems at an early stage. However, the added value of this screening is not clear yet. Information about the opinions and attitudes of nurses towards this screening is also lacking. As they have a crucial role in conducting this screening, an exploratory study was performed to examine hospital nurses' opinions and perspectives about this screening and how it influences their daily work. METHODS: A qualitative, exploratory approach was employed, using semi-structured interviews with 13 nurses working on different general medical wards (surgical and internal medicine) in three Dutch hospitals. Frailty screening had been implemented for several years in these hospitals. RESULTS: The participating nurses reported that frailty screening can be useful to structure their work, create more awareness of frail older patients and as starting point for pro-active nursing care. At the same time, they assess their clinical view as more important than the results of a standard screening tool. The nurses hardly used the overall screening scores, but were particularly interested in information regarding specific items, such as delirium or fall risk. Screening results are partly embedded systematically and in daily nursing care, e.g., in team briefings or during transfer of patients to other wards. The majority of the nurses had received little training about the background of frailty screening and the use of screening tools. CONCLUSIONS: Most nurses stated that frailty screening tools are helpful in daily practice. However, nurses did not use the frailty screening tools in the referred way; tools were particularly used to evaluate patients on separate items of the tool instead of the summative score of the tool. When frailty screening tools are implemented in daily practice, training needs to be focused on. Additional research in this field is necessary to gain more insight into nurses' opinions on frailty screening.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Nurses , Aged , Attitude , Frail Elderly , Frailty/diagnosis , Hospitals , Humans , Mass Screening
3.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 627, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736401

ABSTRACT

The aims of the present study were to estimate the frequency of change in self-rated health (SRH) among community-dwelling older adults, between two measures taken at a 9-year interval; and determine factors associated with a decline and an improvement in SRH, in relation to aspects of physical/emotional health and subjective wellbeing. Data were derived from a community-based study on frailty among Brazilian elderly. Associations were investigated using Pearson's chi-square test and relative risk ratios were estimated using multinomial logistic regression analysis. 39.3% of participants did not change their SRH at both assessment times, 21.7% rated it as worse and 39.0% rated it as better. The relative risk ratio of an improvement in SRH for individuals with disability in basic activities of daily living (ADLs) was lower than for individuals with independence in basic ADLs (IRR=0.22; IC95%: 0.08-0.63). Understanding the complex interactions between self-rated health and the dimensions that influence the improvement of health perception may shed light on key determinants of the wellbeing among older adults.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Frailty , Aged , Health Status , Humans , Independent Living , Longitudinal Studies
4.
Rev Med Liege ; 76(11): 817-823, 2021 11.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738756

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Elderly people with diabetes represent a large and growing part of the general practitioners patient database, but their state of frailty compared to the non-diabetic population is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between diabetes and frailty in people aged 65 and over in primary care. METHOD: Frailty syndrome was assessed by the Fried Scale and compared between populations of diabetic and non-diabetic patients; 268 patients were studied, including 129 diabetic patients. RESULTS: Frailty was found in 27.9 % of older diabetic patients. The observed mean Fried score was 1.76 in people with diabetes versus 1.39 in non-diabetics, with more frail diabetic subjects (p = 0.007). In this study, HbA1c levels showed no significant association to frailty. CONCLUSION: Larger studies in several general practice clinics should be performed on subjects over 65 years of age with or without diabetes.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Frailty , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Frail Elderly , Frailty/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Outpatients , Prospective Studies
5.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 30(11): 1111-1114, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821484

ABSTRACT

Lockdowns and social distancing have been important and successful strategies to limit the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus. However, excess deaths related to non-COVID-19 causes have been reported, suggesting issues around availability and use of health services, particularly for people with conditions needing ongoing medical support. In addition, evidence indicates that a range of age-related diseases and frailty are impacted by physical activity and social engagement, both limited in lockdown situations. It is therefore important to learn from the effects of lockdowns in order to limit any impacts, while still protecting people from the infection. This editorial summarizes two research themes at the Centre for Ageing Research at Lancaster University in the UK, one assessing impacts of lockdown for people living with a long-term neurodegenerative condition, Parkinson's disease, and one assessing longitudinal impacts on frailty and wellbeing, with older adults aged over 70, including those living with at least one long-term condition. Uncertainty related to Parkinson's disease and to COVID-19 amplified each other, and cancelled clinical appointments and limitations on physical activity had very significant impacts on wellbeing for this group. In the longitudinal study, frailty was more severe during lockdown periods. While lockdowns reduce spread of the virus, becoming frailer could make older adults more vulnerable to the effects of the virus during these periods. Regular exercise during lockdown had beneficial effects aiding recovery once restrictions relaxed. These studies suggest factors that could lessen negative impacts of future lockdowns. Maintaining physical activity and providing access to health services during periods of lockdown are suggested as priorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Frailty/diagnosis , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(8): 1453-1459, 2021 Aug 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814567

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the transitions of frailty status and related factors influencing its worsening in middle-aged and elderly adults. Methods: Data was obtained from the Beijing MJ Health Screening Center. A total of 13 689 participants who attended health checkups at least twice during 2008-2019 and had more than three years' intervals during these two health checkups were included in the study. The frailty index comprising 28 variables was used to measure frailty status. Frailty was defined as frailty index ≥0.25, and prefrailty was defined as frailty index >0.10 and <0.25. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association of socio-demographic factors and lifestyle characteristics with the worsening of frailty status, stratified by frailty status at the first health checkup. Results: The mean age at the first and last health checkups were (42.3±9.2) and (47.9±9.3) years, respectively. The mean interval during these two health checkups was (5.7±1.9) years. At the first health checkup, the prevalence of frailty and prefrailty were 2.5% and 50.3%, respectively. While at the last health checkup, the prevalence of frailty and prefrailty rose to 3.9% and 55.4%. Of all participants, 67.3% remained in the same frailty state, 21.2% worsening, and 12.5% improving. In robust participants at the first health checkup, older age, female, low education level, smoking cessation, daily smoking, being general obesity measured by BMI or central obesity measured by WHR showed an increased the risk of worsening frailty status. However, in prefrail participants at the first health checkup, older age, female, general, or central obesity presented as risk factors for worsening frailty status. Conclusion: Modifiable factors such as low education level, smoking, and obesity may increase the risk of worsening frailty status.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Aged , Beijing , Female , Frail Elderly , Frailty/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Independent Living , Middle Aged , Risk Factors
7.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 75, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816978

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of mortality associated with sarcopenic obesity (SO), obesity (OB), and sarcopenia in elderlies. METHODS: We analyzed longitudinal data from 270 participants > 65 years of age of Phase III of the Study on Frailty in Brazilian Older People (FIBRA-RJ-2012). Socioeconomic, demographic, lifestyle, morbidity, and functional data were collected by home based interviews. DXA and body composition assessment was conducted in a laboratory. In women, OB was diagnosed when body fat percentage ≥ 38% and sarcopenia by an Appendicular Lean Mass Index (ALMI) < 6.00 kg/m2 and muscle strength < 16 Kgf. In men, OB was diagnosed when body fat percentage ≥ 27%, and sarcopenia was diagnosed with ALMI < 7.00 kg/m2 and muscle strength < 27 Kgf. SO was assessed by combining variables used to diagnose obesity and sarcopenia. The probabilistic linkage method was used to obtain deaths in the 2012-January 2017 period from the Brazilian Mortality Registry. Cox regression models were tested, and crude and adjusted hazard ratio calculations were conducted. RESULTS: After adjusting for sex, age, race/skin color, walking as an exercise, and hypertension, individuals with sarcopenia were 5.7 times more likely to die (95%CI: 1.17-27.99) than others without sarcopenia and obesity. CONCLUSION: A high risk of death was observed in individuals with sarcopenia. These results show the need for preventive strategies of early detection and treatment in order to increase survival employing multimodal interventions.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Sarcopenia , Aged , Body Composition , Brazil/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Obesity
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(7): 1179-1187, 2021 Jul 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814528

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the consistency of frailty status measured by Fried phenotype and frailty index composed of different numbers of deficits, and their prospective associations with risk of mortality. Methods: Data of 23 615 participants from the second resurvey of the China Kadoore Biobank (CKB) was used. Fried phenotype was constructed using five phenotypes, and frailty indexes (FI) were constructed using 28 and 40 deficits, respectively. We calculated the Weighted Kappa coefficient to compare the consistency of three measures in the classification of frailty status. Cox regression was performed to analyze the association of frailty status with risk of mortality. Results: The frailty prevalence calculated by Fried phenotype, FI-28, and FI-40 were 5.4%, 7.9%, and 4.0%, respectively. The Kappa coefficients of Fried phenotype with FI-28 and FI-40 were 0.357 and 0.408, respectively. The Kappa coefficients of FI-28 and FI-40 was 0.712. During an average of (3.9±0.5) years of follow-up, 755 participants died. When Fried phenotype was used, compared with the robust participants, the prefrail and frail participants had increased risk of mortality, the multivariable-adjusted HRs were 1.60 (95%CI: 1.32-1.94) and 2.90 (95%CI: 2.25-3.73), respectively. When FI-28 was used, the corresponding HRs were 1.71 (95%CI: 1.39-2.11) and 2.52 (95%CI:1.95-3.27) for prefrail and frail participants, and when FI-40 was used, the corresponding HRs were 1.98 (95%CI:1.60-2.44) and 3.71 (95%CI: 2.80-4.91). The association of frailty status with mortality differed in different age groups, with the association stronger in younger adults than in older adults. Conclusion: Fried phenotype and frailty index constituted with different numbers of deficits showed good consistency; which can be used to well predict the risk of mortality.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Aged , Frail Elderly , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Phenotype , Prospective Studies
9.
Trials ; 22(1): 783, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of older people (> 65 years) in hospital have frailty and are at increased risk of readmission or death following discharge home. In the UK, following acute hospitalisation, around one third of older people with frailty are referred on for rehabilitation, termed 'intermediate care' services. Although this rehabilitation can reduce early readmission to hospital (< 30 days), recipients often do not feel ready to leave the service on discharge, suggesting possible incomplete recovery. Limited evidence suggests extended rehabilitation is of benefit in several conditions and there is preliminary evidence that progressive physical exercise can improve mobility and function for older people with frailty, and slow progression to disability. Our aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Home-based Older People's Exercise (HOPE) programme as extended rehabilitation for older people with frailty discharged home from hospital or intermediate care services after acute illness or injury. METHODS: A multi-centre individually randomised controlled trial, to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the HOPE programme. This individualised, graded and progressive 24-week exercise programme is delivered by NHS physiotherapy teams to people aged 65 and older with frailty, identified using the Clinical Frailty Scale, following discharge from acute hospitalisation and linked intermediate care rehabilitation pathways. The primary outcome is physical health-related quality of life, measured using the physical component summary score of the modified Short Form 36- item health questionnaire (SF36) at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include self-reported physical and mental health, functional independence, death, hospitalisations, care home admissions. Plans include health economic analyses and an embedded process evaluation. DISCUSSION: This trial seeks to determine if extended rehabilitation, via the HOPE programme, can improve physical health-related quality of life for older people with frailty following acute hospitalisation. Results will improve awareness of the rehabilitation needs of older people with frailty, and provide evidence on the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the targeted exercise intervention. There is potential for considerable benefit for health and social care services through widespread implementation of trial findings if clinical and cost-effectiveness is demonstrated. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 13927531 . Registered on April 19, 2017.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Acute Disease , Aged , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Exercise Therapy , Frailty/diagnosis , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
10.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(757): 1883-1887, 2021 Nov 03.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738763

ABSTRACT

Improving glycaemia level is helpful to the clinician in diabetes management. Elderly diabetics make up a group that is non-homogeneous and with a very varied health status, whose treatment must be adjusted to take into account comorbidities, degree of frailty and both functional and mental disability, in addition to their life expectancy and personal preferences. Thus, the target of treatment should be defined along three categories of patients: robust, vulnerable and dependent. This article reviews information from the literature high-lighting current recommendations for treatment, the clear inclination towards overtreatment of the elderly diabetic and the resulting noxious effects of occurring hypoglycemia, that are often not recognized by the patient and his doctor.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Frailty , Hypoglycemia , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Frail Elderly , Frailty/therapy , Geriatric Assessment , Health Status , Humans , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology
11.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 921, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724934

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal conditions and physical frailty have overlapping constructs. We aimed to quantify individual contributions of musculoskeletal factors to frailty. METHODS: Participants included 347 men and 360 women aged ≥60 yr (median ages; 70.8 (66.1-78.6) and 71.0 (65.2-77.5), respectively) from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Frailty was defined as ≥3, pre-frail 1-2, and robust 0, of the following; unintentional weight loss, weakness, low physical activity, exhaustion, and slowness. Measures were made of femoral neck BMD, appendicular lean mass index (ALMI, kg/m2) and whole-body fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2) by DXA (Lunar), SOS, BUA and SI at the calcaneus (Lunar Achilles Insight) and handgrip strength by dynamometers. Binary and ordinal logistic regression models and AUROC curves were used to quantify the contribution of musculoskeletal parameters to frailty. Potential confounders included anthropometry, smoking, alcohol, prior fracture, FMI, SES and comorbidities. RESULTS: Overall, 54(15.6%) men and 62(17.2%) women were frail. In adjusted-binary logistic models, SI, ALMI and HGS were associated with frailty in men (OR = 0.73, 95%CI 0.53-1.01; OR=0.48, 0.34-0.68; and OR = 0.11, 0.06-0.22; respectively). Muscle measures (ALMI and HGS) contributed more to this association than did bone (SI) (AUROCs 0.77, 0.85 vs 0.71, respectively). In women, only HGS was associated with frailty in adjusted models (OR = 0.30 95%CI 0.20-0.45, AUROC = 0.83). In adjusted ordinal models, similar results were observed in men; for women, HGS and ALMI were associated with frailty (ordered OR = 0.30 95%CI 0.20-0.45; OR = 0.56, 0.40-0.80, respectively). CONCLUSION: Muscle deficits appeared to contribute more than bone deficits to frailty. This may have implications for identifying potential musculoskeletal targets for preventing or managing the progression of frailty.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Osteoporosis , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Femur Neck , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Hand Strength , Humans , Male , Osteoporosis/epidemiology
13.
J Trauma Nurs ; 28(6): 363-366, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the population ages, it is predicted that approximately 40% of all patients who experience fall-related trauma will be 65 years of age and older. Most injuries in older adults are caused by falls that are the result of multiple contributing factors including home hazards, comorbidities, frailty, and medications. A variety of medications have been associated with falls, specifically those with sedating and anticholinergic effects. The drug burden index can be used to quantify sedating and anticholinergic drug burden, with higher scores being associated with reduced psychomotor function. OBJECTIVE: Assess the medication-associated fall risk on admission and discharge for older patients admitted to a trauma nurse practitioner service. METHODS: Retrospective, observational study of patients managed by trauma nurse practitioners at a Level 1 trauma center between January 1, 2018, and December 31, 2019. Patients were included if they were at least 65 years of age, the primary diagnosis for the admission was fall-related trauma, and length of stay was at least 7 days. RESULTS: A total of 172 patients were included in the study. The drug burden index was significantly higher at discharge than admission (M = 1.4, SD = 0.9 vs. M = 1.9, SD = 0.9) as was the total number of medications (M = 11.0, SD = 5.2 vs. M = 15.1, SD = 5.8). CONCLUSIONS: Medication-related fall risk was increased during admission due to fall-related trauma. Patients were discharged with a higher sedating and anticholinergic burden than on admission, which increases risk for future falls.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Frailty , Aged , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Trauma Centers
14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769827

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Ageing is associated with complex and dynamic changes leading to multimorbidity and, therefore, polypharmacy. The main objectives were to study an older community-dwelling cohort, to detect inappropriate prescriptions (IP) applying the Patient-Centred Prescription model, and to evaluate the most associated factors. (2) Methods: This was a prospective, descriptive, and observational study conducted from June 2019 to October 2020 on patients ≥ 65 years with multimorbidity who lived in the community. Demographic, clinical and pharmacological data were assessed. Variables assessed were: degree of frailty, using the Frail-VIG index; therapeutical complexity and anticholinergic and sedative burden; and the number of chronic drugs to determine polypharmacy or excessive polypharmacy. Finally, a medication review was carried out through the application of the Patient-Centred Prescription model. We used univariate and multivariate regression to identify the factors associated with IP. (3) Results: We recruited 428 patients (66.6% women; mean age 85.5, SD 7.67). A total of 50.9% of them lived in a nursing home; the mean Barthel Index was 49.93 (SD 32.14), and 73.8% of patients suffered some degree of cognitive impairment. The prevalence of frailty was 92.5%. Up to 90% of patients had at least one IP. An increase in IP prevalence was detected when the Frail-VIG index increased (p < 0.05). With the multivariate model, the relationship of polypharmacy with IP detection stands out above all. (4) Conclusions: 90% of patients presented one IP or more, and this situation can be detected through the PCP model. Factors with higher association with IP were frailty and polypharmacy.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Inappropriate Prescribing , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Polypharmacy , Prospective Studies
15.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 5089-5098, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787201

ABSTRACT

This article aims to investigate whether difficulty in taking medication is associated with stroke among older adults with Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH) and to explore their association with living arrangements. Cross-sectional study was based on 3,502 older adults with SAH from the four universities pole of Frailty in Brazilian Older People (Fibra) Study, Brazil, including 14 municipalities of the five Brazilian regions. We used the medical diagnosis of stroke and difficulty in taking medications (self-reported difficulty and financial difficulty affording prescribed medications). Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Differently from women, older men with SAH, which report difficulty in taking medication (unintentional non-adherence), have higher odds of stroke. When stratified by living arrangements, those living with a partner have even higher odds of stroke compared to those without difficulty in taking medication and living alone. None association was found for difficulty affording prescribed medication for both men and women. Unintentional difficulty in taking medication plays a role in SAH treatment among men. Primary care strategies for controlling blood pressure should not be focus only on patients but targeting spouses as well.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Hypertension , Stroke , Aged , Blood Pressure , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Medication Adherence , Stroke/epidemiology
16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770244

ABSTRACT

Frailty syndrome is an independent risk factor for serious health episodes, disability, hospitalization, falls, loss of mobility, and cardiovascular disease. Its high reversibility demands personalized interventions among which exercise programs are highly efficient to contribute to its delay. Information technology-based solutions to support frailty have been recently approached, but most of them are focused on assessment and not on intervention. This paper describes a sensor-based mHealth platform integrated in a service-based architecture inside the FRAIL project towards the remote monitoring and intervention of pre-frail and frail patients at home. The aim of this platform is constituting an efficient and scalable system for reducing both the impact of aging and the advance of frailty syndrome. Among the results of this work are: (1) the development of elderly-focused sensors and platform; (2) a technical validation process of the sensor devices and the mHealth platform with young adults; and (3) an assessment of usability and acceptability of the devices with a set of pre-frail and frail patients. After the promising results obtained, future steps of this work involve performing a clinical validation in order to quantify the impact of the platform on health outcomes of frail patients.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Telemedicine , Accidental Falls , Aged , Exercise , Frail Elderly , Geriatric Assessment , Humans
17.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have suggested that fatty acids such as higher levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may prevent frailty. By using Mendelian randomization analysis, we examined the relationship between fatty acids and frailty. METHODS: We used summary statistics data for single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with plasma levels of saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid, stearic acid), mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) (palmitoleic acid, oleic acid), n-6 PUFAs (linoleic acid, arachidonic acid), and n-3 PUFAs (alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid), and the corresponding data for frailty index (FI) in 356,432 individuals in the UK Biobank. RESULTS: Although there were no robust associations on the MUFAs or the PUFAs, genetically predicted higher plasma stearic acid level (one of saturated fatty acids) was statistically significantly associated with higher FI (ß = 0.178; 95% confidence interval = -0.050 to 0.307; p = 0.007). Such a relationship was also observed in a multivariate MR (ß = 0.361; 95% confidence interval = 0.155 to 0.567; p = 0.001). Genetically predicted higher palmitic acid was also significantly associated with higher FI (ß = 0.288; 95% confidence interval = 0.128 to 0.447; p < 0.001) in the multivariate MR analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The present MR study implies that saturated fatty acids, especially stearic acid, is a risk factor of frailty.


Subject(s)
Fatty Acids/metabolism , Frailty/genetics , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Fatty Acids/blood , Genetic Variation , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics
18.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 181: 109085, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634389

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To explore risk of frailty and functional decline associated with low glycaemia in older people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Systematic review. RESULTS: 11 studies included. Six studies investigated risk of frailty or physical decline with hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia increased risk of incident frailty (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.42) in one study and risk of fractures in four studies (2.24, 1.56 to 3.21, 1.24, 1.13 to 1.37, 1.94, 1.67 to 2.24 and 1.71, 1.35 to 2.16 respectively). In sixth study, hypoglycaemia associated with dependency (P < 0.001). Five studies explored association of low blood glucose/HbA1c with frailty. One study showed that mean blood glucose decreased with increasing frailty (p = 0.003). Two studies reported that HbA1c inversely correlated with clinical frailty scale (r = -0.31, p < 0.01) and HbA1c < 6.9% increased risk of frailty (HR, 1.41 95% CI 1.12 to 1.78) respectively. Last two studies showed that HbA1c < 6.5% associated with risk of any fracture (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.11) and HbA1c < 6.0% associated with increased risk of care need (3.45, 1.02 to 11.6) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Low glycaemia increases risk of frailty and functional decline in older people with type 2 diabetes. Management should minimise incidence of low glycaemia in these patients.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Frailty , Hypoglycemia , Aged , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemic Agents , Incidence
19.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 593, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cognitive frailty, a combination of physical frailty and cognitive impairment, is associated with functional decline in older adults. However, there is limited information if cognitive frailty predicts the incidence of falls, injuries, and disability. In this study, we aimed to determine the ability of cognitive frailty in predicting the incidence of falls, injuries and disability among multi-ethnic older adults in Malaysia at 5 years follow-up. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, a total of 400 participants aged 60 years and above were successfully followed up at 5 years. Participants' socio-demographic, medical history, psycho-social, physical, cognitive and dietary intake information was obtained. Cognitive frailty was defined as comorbid physical frailty (> 1 Fried criteria) and mild cognitive impairment (Petersen criteria). Univariate analysis was performed for all variables, followed by hierarchical binary logistic regression (BLR) analysis to identify the ability of CF in predicting the incidence of falls, injuries, and disability. The significant value was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Cognitive frailty was found to be associated with greater risk of adverse consequences after adjusting for covariates. Both cognitive frailty (Adjusted Odd ratio (Adj OR) = 2.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.78-4.99, p < 0.05) and physical frailty (Adj OR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.19-6.99, p < 0.05) were significant predictors of incidence of falls. Risk of injuries was also significantly increased with the presence of cognitive frailty (Adj OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.23-7.60, p < 0.05) and physical frailty (Adj OR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.75-5.28, p < 0.05). In addition, cognitive frailty (Adj OR = 5.17, 95% CI: 1.11-24.21, p < 0.05) and physical frailty (Adj OR = 4.99, 95% CI: 1.11-22.57, p < 0.05) were shown to significantly predict the incidence of disability among older adults. CONCLUSION: Cognitive frailty is a robust predictor of falls, injuries, and disability in older adults. Possible early multi-domain preventive and management strategies of cognitive frailty that contribute to adverse consequences are required to decrease further functional decline and promote independence in older adults.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Frailty , Accidental Falls , Aged , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Frail Elderly , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Independent Living , Prospective Studies
20.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 608, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706663

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between sleep duration and cognitive frailty among older adults dwelling in western China. METHODS: We used the baseline data from West China Health and Aging Trend (WCHAT) study. Sleep duration was classified as short sleep duration (< 6 h), normal sleep duration (6-8 h) and long sleep duration (≥ 9 h). Fried frailty criteria and Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire were used to measure cognitive frailty. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: A total of 4093 older adults (age = 67.8 ± 5.9 years, 1708 males and 2385 females) were included in the analysis. The prevalence of cognitive frailty was 11.8% among older adults in western China. Approximately 11.9% participants had short sleep duration (< 6 h); 22.2% had a long sleep duration (≥ 9 h). After adjusting for covariates, only long sleep duration was significantly associated with high risk of cognitive frailty (OR = 2.07, 95%CI = 1.60-2.68, P <  0.001) in western China older adults compared to normal sleep duration. CONCLUSIONS: Long sleep duration was significantly related to cognitive frailty in older adults. Intervention for long sleep duration may be helpful to prevent cognitive frailty. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR1800018895 .


Subject(s)
Frailty , Aged , Aging , China/epidemiology , Cognition , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Frail Elderly , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Independent Living , Male , Sleep
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