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2.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 149, 2024 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Various studies have demonstrated gender disparities in workplace settings and the need for further intervention. This study identifies and examines evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on interventions examining gender equity in workplace or volunteer settings. An additional aim was to determine whether interventions considered intersection of gender and other variables, including PROGRESS-Plus equity variables (e.g., race/ethnicity). METHODS: Scoping review conducted using the JBI guide. Literature was searched in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, ERIC, Index to Legal Periodicals and Books, PAIS Index, Policy Index File, and the Canadian Business & Current Affairs Database from inception to May 9, 2022, with an updated search on October 17, 2022. Results were reported using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension to scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR), Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidance, Strengthening the Integration of Intersectionality Theory in Health Inequality Analysis (SIITHIA) checklist, and Guidance for Reporting Involvement of Patients and the Public (GRIPP) version 2 checklist. All employment or volunteer sectors settings were included. Included interventions were designed to promote workplace gender equity that targeted: (a) individuals, (b) organizations, or (c) systems. Any comparator was eligible. Outcomes measures included any gender equity related outcome, whether it was measuring intervention effectiveness (as defined by included studies) or implementation. Data analyses were descriptive in nature. As recommended in the JBI guide to scoping reviews, only high-level content analysis was conducted to categorize the interventions, which were reported using a previously published framework. RESULTS: We screened 8855 citations, 803 grey literature sources, and 663 full-text articles, resulting in 24 unique RCTs and one companion report that met inclusion criteria. Most studies (91.7%) failed to report how they established sex or gender. Twenty-three of 24 (95.8%) studies reported at least one PROGRESS-Plus variable: typically sex or gender or occupation. Two RCTs (8.3%) identified a non-binary gender identity. None of the RCTs reported on relationships between gender and other characteristics (e.g., disability, age, etc.). We identified 24 gender equity promoting interventions in the workplace that were evaluated and categorized into one or more of the following themes: (i) quantifying gender impacts; (ii) behavioural or systemic changes; (iii) career flexibility; (iv) increased visibility, recognition, and representation; (v) creating opportunities for development, mentorship, and sponsorship; and (vi) financial support. Of these interventions, 20/24 (83.3%) had positive conclusion statements for their primary outcomes (e.g., improved academic productivity, increased self-esteem) across heterogeneous outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: There is a paucity of literature on interventions to promote workplace gender equity. While some interventions elicited positive conclusions across a variety of outcomes, standardized outcome measures considering specific contexts and cultures are required. Few PROGRESS-Plus items were reported. Non-binary gender identities and issues related to intersectionality were not adequately considered. Future research should provide consistent and contemporary definitions of gender and sex. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework https://osf.io/x8yae .


Subject(s)
Gender Equity , Workplace , Male , Female , Humans , Canada , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
3.
World J Urol ; 42(1): 174, 2024 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over the past 2 decades, there has been a growing interest in the significance of gender roles in healthcare and several efforts and initiatives have focused on increasing female representation in the medical field. Clinical trials play a very important role in shaping medical practice; moreover, the leaders of clinical trials often represent the upper echelon of researchers in any designated field. Presently, there is no data regarding women's representation in urological oncology clinical trials leadership. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the extent of female representation in leading urological clinical trials. METHODOLOGY: To thoroughly examine the representation of females as principal investigators (PIs) in urological cancer clinical trials between 2000 and 2020, we conducted a comprehensive search of completed trials focused on kidney, prostate, and bladder cancer on ClinicalTrials.gov. We extracted relevant information regarding the PIs and analyzed the data using univariate analyses to identify any significant differences between male and female PIs. RESULTS: A total of 9145 cancer clinical trials were conducted over the last 2 decades, and 11.3% (n = 1033) of them were urological cancer clinical trials. We were able to obtain detailed information about the principal investigators (PI) in 79.0% (n = 816) of the clinical trials, and we found that 16.8% (n = 137) of them were led by female investigators. Upon evaluating the characteristics of the PIs, female PIs had a significantly lower median age and median total citations as compared to male PIs (55.0 vs 59.0 and 5333 vs 7902; p-value < 0.001 and 0.006, respectively). However, there was no statistically significant difference between the termination rate, publication rate, funding source, cancer type, and the subject of conducting the clinical trials between male and female PIs. CONCLUSION: Between 2000 and 2020, only 16.8% of urological cancer clinical trials were led by a female PI, perhaps reflective of a low percentage of senior female researchers in the fields of urology, oncology and radiation oncology. Universities, research institutes and funding agencies should work to improve mentorship, representation and opportunities for female investigators to encourage more involvement for female researchers in these clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Urology , Humans , Male , Female , Leadership , Gender Equity , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/therapy , Medical Oncology
5.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1295050, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38435291

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Smoking is a major risk factor for premature death and health problems in which there are significant gender differences in the prevalence of smoking. This ecological study examines the correlation between changes in gender equality and prevalence of smoking among young adults (15-25 years old) in Germany over a period of 45 years (1960-2005). Methods: Gender inequality was measured using the United Nations Gender Inequality Index (GII), which is composed of three dimensions; health, empowerment and labour market. It was calculated for the entire registered German population in five-year intervals with values between 0 and 1 (1 = highest inequality). The smoking prevalence of young women and men in Germany was established using a reconstruction method. A gender smoking ratio (GSR) with values between 0 and 1 was determined (1 = identical smoking prevalence among men and women). The smoking behaviour was illustrated and stratified by education. The correlation between the GII and the GSR was analysed. Results: The GII decreased from 0.98 to 0.56 between 1960 and 2005. The GSR increased from 0.34 to 0.93. There was a strong negative correlation between the GII and the GSR (r = -0.71). The strength of the correlation fell slightly as the level of education decreased. An increase in gender equality as measured by the GII came along with similarities of smoking prevalence between young women and young men. Conclusion: Successful tobacco prevention among young women and men may benefit from involving experts in gender-specific public health research to develop counter-advertising and gender-specific information as needed.


Subject(s)
Gender Equity , Smoking , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Educational Status , Germany/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology
6.
J Affect Disord ; 354: 634-641, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492649

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: As one of the most severe public health issues, depressive symptoms have attracted wide attention around the world. This study aims to investigate the mediating role of marital life satisfaction in the relationship between gender inequality perception and depressive symptoms. METHODS: Data were obtained from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) conducted in 2020. This study incorporated a total of 13,409 married residents aged 20 and above. RESULTS: The residents with middle (B = 0.19, 95 % CI = 0.01, 0.40) or high perception of gender inequality (B = 0.55, 95 % CI = 0.34, 0.75) were more likely to develop depressive symptoms. Marital life satisfaction plays a mediating effect in the relationship between patterns of gender inequality perception and depressive symptoms, and the mediating effect accounted for 4.89 % or 1.37 % of the total impact in the residents with middle or high patterns of gender inequality perception. LIMITATIONS: Further studies need to understand the mechanisms of perceived patterns of gender inequality and depressive symptoms, because the cross-sectional design in this study cannot draw causal inferences. CONCLUSION: Patterns of gender inequality perception are significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Marital life satisfaction plays a mediating role in the relationship between patterns of gender inequality perception and depressive symptoms. It is plausible that nurturing healthy marital relationships could mitigate depressive symptoms in individuals who perceive high degrees of gender disparity.


Subject(s)
Depression , Marriage , Adult , Humans , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gender Equity , Personal Satisfaction , China/epidemiology , Perception
7.
Ann Glob Health ; 90(1): 24, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38550609

ABSTRACT

Background: Women constitute almost two thirds of the health and social workforce. Yet, the proportion of women in decision-making positions remains significantly low leading to gender inequities in access to and appropriateness of healthcare. Several barriers which limit women's advancement to leadership positions have been documented and they generally constitute of gender stereotypes, discrimination and inhibiting systems; these hinderances are compounded by intersection with other social identities. Amelioration of the barriers has the potential to enhance women's participation in leadership and strengthen the existing health systems. Objective: This protocol describes a proposed study aimed at addressing the organisational and individual barriers to the advancement of women to leadership positions in the Tanzanian health sector, and to evaluate the influence on leadership competencies and career advancement actions of the female health workforce. Method: The study utilises a gender transformative approach, co-design and implementation science in the development and integration of a leadership and mentorship intervention for women in the Tanzanian health context. The key steps in this research include quantifying the gender ratio in healthcare leadership; identifying the individual and organisational barriers to women's leadership; reviewing existing leadership, mentorship and career advancement interventions for women; recruiting programme participants for a leadership and mentorship programme; running a co-design workshop with programme participants and stakeholders; implementing a leadership and mentorship programme; and conducting a collaborative evaluation and lessons learnt. Conclusions: This research underscores the notion that progression towards gender equality in healthcare leadership is attained by fashioning a system that supports the advancement of women. We also argue that one of the pivotal indicators of progress towards the gender equality sustainable development goal is the number of women in senior and middle management positions, which we hope to further through this research.


Subject(s)
Mentoring , Female , Humans , Mentors , Tanzania , Gender Equity , Leadership , Delivery of Health Care
8.
BMC Prim Care ; 25(1): 97, 2024 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521895

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient reported experiences (PREMs) are important indices of quality of care. Similarities in demography between patient and doctor, known as social concordance, can facilitate patient-doctor interaction and may be associated with more positive patient experiences. The aim of this research is to study associations between gender concordance, age concordance and PREMs (doctor-patient communication, involvement in decision making, comprehensiveness of care and satisfaction) and to investigate whether these associations are dependent on a countries' Gender Equality Index (GEI). METHODS: Secondary analysis on a multinational survey (62.478 patients, 7.438 GPs from 34 mostly European countries) containing information on general practices and the patient experiences regarding their consultation. Multi-level analysis is used to calculate associations of both gender and age concordance with four PREMs. RESULTS: The female/female dyad was associated with better experienced doctor-patient communication and patient involvement in decision making but not with patient satisfaction and experienced comprehensiveness of care. The male/male dyad was not associated with more positive patient experiences. Age concordance was associated with more involvement in decision making, more experienced comprehensiveness, less satisfaction but not with communication. No association was found between a country's level of GEI and the effect of gender concordance. CONCLUSION: Consultations in which both patient and GP are female are associated with higher ratings of communication and involvement in decision making, irrespective of the GEI of the countries concerned. Age concordance was associated with all PREMs except communication. Although effect sizes are small, social concordance could create a suggestion of shared identity, diminish professional uncertainty and changes communication patterns, thereby enhancing health care outcomes.


Subject(s)
Gender Equity , General Practice , Humans , Male , Female , Communication , Europe/epidemiology , Patient Reported Outcome Measures
10.
Cell ; 187(6): 1335-1342, 2024 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490175

ABSTRACT

Gender inequality in STEM fields remains pervasive and undermines the ability for talented individuals to excel. Despite advances, women still encounter obstacles in pursuing academic careers and reaching leadership positions. This commentary discusses the "scissor-shaped curve" and examines effective strategies to fix it, including data-driven initiatives that we have implemented at our university.


Subject(s)
60649 , Gender Equity , Humans , Female , Leadership , Universities
12.
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7609, 2024 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556520

ABSTRACT

To address women's underrepresentation in high-status positions, many organizations have committed to gender equality. But is women's professional success viewed less positively when organizations commit to women's advancement? Do equality commitments have positive effects on evaluations of successful men? We fielded a survey experiment with a national probability sample in Germany (N = 3229) that varied employees' gender and their organization's commitment to equality. Respondents read about a recently promoted employee and rated how decisive of a role they thought intelligence and effort played in getting the employee promoted from 1 "Not at all decisive" to 7 "Very decisive" and the fairness of the promotion from 1 "Very unfair" to 7 "Very fair." When organizations committed to women's advancement rather than uniform performance standards, people believed intelligence and effort were less decisive in women's promotions, but that intelligence was more decisive in men's promotions. People viewed women's promotions as least fair and men's as most fair in organizations committed to women's advancement. However, women's promotions were still viewed more positively than men's in all conditions and on all outcomes, suggesting people believed that organizations had double standards for success that required women to be smarter and work harder to be promoted, especially in organizations that did not make equality commitments.


Subject(s)
Employment , Gender Equity , Female , Humans , Male , Germany
14.
Clin Sports Med ; 43(2): 221-232, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38383105

ABSTRACT

Great progress has been made toward gender equality in athletics, whereas true equality has not yet been realized. Concurrently, women orthopedists along with advocate men have paved the way toward gender equity in orthopedics as a whole and more specifically in sports medicine. The barriers that contribute to gender disparities include lack of exposure, lack of mentorship, stunted career development, childbearing considerations and implicit gender bias and overt gender discrimination.


Subject(s)
Sexism , Sports Medicine , Humans , Female , Male , Gender Equity
15.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol ; 74(2): 57-69, 2024 Feb.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316434

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: From the very beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, gender was shown to play a significant role in how people were affected by it, while aspects related to sexual and gender minorities (SGM) have been rather understudied. The aim of this review was to synthesize systematic reviews and meta-analyses that explicitly addressed the impact of gender within the context of the pandemic, with a focus on SGM. METHODS: We based the narrative synthesis of results on a literature search of PubMed. We included systematic reviews and meta-analyses as of 2019 with an identifiable gender comparison or SGM reference and a specified clinical outcome. RESULTS: The search yielded 2 658 hits; 29 systematic reviews were included for content synthesis. Of these, we identified 23 systematic reviews with gender comparisons and 8 related to SGM. Men showed higher prevalence, severity, and mortality of COVID-19 compared with women, but the psychological consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic affected women more compared with men. Evidence suggests that women are at higher risk for Long-COVID-19. SGM experienced increased mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the general population. DISCUSSION: It appears that biological and social risks led to differential susceptibility to infection and manifestation of COVID-19 disease and also accounted for differences in mortality between men and women. Insights on prevalence, disease burden, and mortality among SGM during the COVID-19 pandemic are lacking. This suggests an underrepresentation of SGM in COVID-19-related research. Despite the abundance of COVID-19 publications, gender effects have not often been explicitly and adequately studied. CONCLUSION: Future studies should examine gender differences and needs and concerns of SGM in mental disorders and further understudied entities like Long-COVID-19, to gain insights and help to provide preventive measures and adequate treatments for all, for potential future pandemics as well.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Male , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Gender Equity , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Gender Identity
16.
CJEM ; 26(4): 271-279, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342855

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Women-identifying emergency physicians face gender-based discrimination throughout their careers. The purpose of this study was to explore emergency physician's perceptions and experiences of gender equity in emergency medicine. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a previously conducted survey of Canadian emergency physicians on barriers to gender equity in emergency medicine. Survey responses were analyzed using logistic regression to determine the impact that gender, practice setting, years since graduation, race, equity-seeking status, and parental status had on agreement about gender equity in emergency medicine and five of the problem statements. RESULTS: A total of 710 participants completed the survey. Most identified as women (58.8%), white (77.4%), graduated between 2010 and 2019 (40%), had CCFP (Emergency Medicine) designation (47.9%), an urban practice (84.4%), were parents (62.4%) and did not identify as equity-seeking (79.9%). Women-identifying physicians were less likely to perceive gender equity in emergency medicine, OR 0.52, CI [0.38, 0.73]. Women-identifying physicians were more likely to agree with statements about microaggressions, OR 4.39, CI [2.66, 7.23]; barriers to leadership, OR 3.51, CI [2.25, 5.50]; gender wage gap, OR 13.46, CI [8.27, 21.91]; lack of support for parental leave, OR 2.85, CI [1.82, 4.44]; and education on allyship, OR 2.23 CI [1.44, 3.45] than men-identifying physicians. CONCLUSION: In this study, women-identifying physicians were less likely to perceive that there was gender equity in emergency medicine than men-identifying physicians. Women-identifying physicians agreed that there are greater barriers for career advancement including fewer opportunities for leadership, a gender wage gap, a lack of parental leave policies to support a return to work and a lack of education for men to become allies. Men-identifying physicians were less aware of these inequities. Health systems must work to improve gender equity in emergency medicine and this will require education and allyship from men-identifying physicians.


RéSUMé: INTRODUCTION: Les femmes médecins urgentistes sont confrontées à une discrimination fondée sur le sexe tout au long de leur carrière. L'objectif de cette étude était d'explorer les perceptions et les expériences des médecins urgentistes en matière d'équité entre les sexes en médecine d'urgence. MéTHODES: Nous avons procédé à une analyse secondaire des données d'une enquête menée précédemment auprès des médecins urgentistes canadiens sur les obstacles à l'équité entre les sexes en médecine d'urgence. Les réponses au sondage ont été analysées à l'aide d'une régression logistique pour déterminer l'incidence que le sexe, le milieu de pratique, les années écoulées depuis l'obtention du diplôme, la race, le statut de demandeur d'équité et le statut parental avaient sur l'accord sur l'équité entre les sexes en médecine d'urgence et cinq des énoncés de problème. RéSULTATS: Au total, 710 participants ont répondu à l'enquête. La plupart d'entre eux sont des femmes (58.8 %), de race blanche (77.4 %), ont obtenu leur diplôme entre 2010 et 2019 (40 %), ont le titre de CCMF (médecine d'urgence) (47.9 %), exercent en milieu urbain (84.4 %), sont parents (62.4 %) et ne se déclarent pas en quête d'équité (79.9 %). Les médecins s'identifiant à des femmes étaient moins susceptibles de percevoir l'équité entre les sexes en médecine d'urgence, OR 0.52, IC [0.38,0.73]. Les médecins s'identifiant comme femmes étaient plus susceptibles d'être d'accord avec les déclarations sur les microagressions, OR 4.39, IC [2.66, 7.23] ; obstacles au leadership, OR 3.51, IC [2.25, 5.50] ; écart salarial entre les hommes et les femmes, OR 13.46, IC [8.27, 21.91] ; le manque de soutien pour le congé parental, OR 2.85, IC [1.82, 4.44]; et l'éducation sur l'alliance, OR 2.23 IC [1.44, 3.45] que les médecins s'identifiant comme hommes. CONCLUSION: Dans cette étude, les médecins s'identifiant à des femmes étaient moins susceptibles de percevoir qu'il y avait une équité entre les sexes en médecine d'urgence que les médecins s'identifiant à des hommes. Les femmes médecins s'accordent à dire qu'il existe davantage d'obstacles à l'avancement professionnel, notamment moins d'opportunités de leadership, un écart salarial entre les hommes et les femmes, un manque de politiques de congé parental pour favoriser le retour au travail et un manque d'éducation des hommes pour qu'ils deviennent des alliés. Les médecins s'identifiant à des hommes étaient moins conscients de ces inégalités. Les systèmes de santé doivent s'efforcer d'améliorer l'équité entre les sexes dans la médecine d'urgence, ce qui nécessitera une formation et un allié de la part des médecins qui s'identifient aux hommes.


Subject(s)
Emergency Medicine , Physicians, Women , Physicians , Male , Humans , Female , Canada , Gender Equity
17.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 209, 2024 Feb 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38424518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low household income (HI), comorbidities and female sex are associated with an increased risk of dementia. The aim of this study was to measure the mediating effect of comorbidity and HI on the excess risk due to gender in relation to the incidence and prevalence of dementia in the general population. METHODS: A retrospective and observational study using real-world data analysed all people over 60 who were registered with the Basque Health Service in Gipuzkoa. The study measured HI level, the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), age and sex. The prevalence and incidence of dementia were analysed using logistic regression and Poisson regression models, respectively, adjusted by HI, sex, comorbidity and age. We estimated the combined mediation effect of HI and comorbidity on the prevalence of dementia associated with gender. RESULTS: Of the 221,777 individuals, 3.85% (8,549) had a diagnosis of dementia as of 31 December 2021. Classification by the CCI showed a gradient with 2.90% in CCI 0-1, 10.60% in CCI 2-3 and 18.01% in CCI > 3. Both low HI and gender were associated with a higher crude prevalence of dementia. However, in the CCI-adjusted model, women had an increased risk of dementia, while HI was no longer statistically significant. The incidence analysis produced similar results, although HI was not significant in any model. The CCI was significantly higher for men and for people with low HI. The mediation was statistically significant, and the CCI and HI explained 79% of the gender effect. CONCLUSIONS: Comorbidity and low HI act as mediators in the increased risk of dementia associated with female sex. Given the difference in the prevalence of comorbidities by HI, individual interventions to control comorbidities could not only prevent dementia but also reduce inequalities, as the risk is greater in the most disadvantaged population.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Gender Equity , Male , Humans , Female , Retrospective Studies , Comorbidity , Research Design , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology
18.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 76, 2024 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38262976

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gender inequality may be associated with the burden of orofacial clefts (OFCs), particularly in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). To investigate the OFCs' burden and its association with gender inequality in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). METHODS: Country-specific data on the OFCs' prevalence and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) from 1990 to 2019 were gathered from the Global Burden of Disease database by age and gender. Estimated annual percentage change (EAPCs) was used to investigate the OFCs' trends. The association of the Gender Inequality Index (GII) with prevalence and DALY rates was determined using multiple linear regression. Human Development Index (HDI), Socio-Demographic Index (SDI), and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) were also considered as potential confounders. RESULTS: In 2019, the overall regional OFCs' prevalence and DALYs (per 100,000 person-years) were 93.84 and 9.68, respectively. During the 1990-2019 period, there was a decrease in prevalence (EAPC = -0.05%), demonstrating a consistent trend across genders. Moreover, within the same timeframe, DALYs also declined (EAPC = -2.10%), with a more pronounced reduction observed among females. Gender differences were observed in age-specific prevalence rates (p-value = 0.015). GII was associated with DALYs (ßmale= -0.42, p-value = 0.1; ßfemale = 0.48, p-value = 0.036) and prevalence (ßmale= -1.86, p-value < 0.001, ßfemale= -2.07, p-value < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Despite a declining prevalence, the burden of OFCs remained notably significant in the EMR. Gender inequality is associated with the burden of OFCs in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Countries in the region should establish comprehensive public policies to mitigate gender inequalities in healthcare services available for OFCs.


Subject(s)
Cleft Lip , Cleft Palate , Humans , Female , Male , Gender Equity , Global Burden of Disease , Mediterranean Region
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2436, 2024 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38287131

ABSTRACT

Past studies have demonstrated that higher perceived social support among coupled individuals and greater gender equality foster a more supportive social context. Less is known about how the link between relationship status and perceived social support may vary across countries that differ in gender equality. Employing the data collected from the COVIDiSTRESS I (39 countries; N = 99,075) and COVIDiSTRESS II (23 countries; N = 8293) projects, we examined whether country-level gender equality moderates the link between relationship status and perceived social support. Multilevel regression analyses indicated that gender equality moderated the link between relationship status and perceived social support. Single people in countries with less gender equality reported less perceived social support than was reported by both coupled people and single people from countries with moderate and high levels of gender equality, however, the effect of the interaction between relationship status and gender equality on perceived social support was very low. The results suggest that gender equality fosters perceived social support, both for single people and for partnered people.


Subject(s)
Gender Equity , Social Support , Humans , Regression Analysis , Employment , Social Environment
20.
Annu Rev Psychol ; 75: 555-572, 2024 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38236650

ABSTRACT

In this review we examine two classes of interventions designed to achieve workplace gender equality: (a) those designed to boost motivations and ambition, such as those that aim to attract more women into roles where they are underrepresented; and (b) those that try to provide women with needed abilities to achieve these positions. While such initiatives are generally well meaning, they tend to be based upon (and reinforce) stereotypes of what women lack. Such a deficit model leads to interventions that attempt to "fix" women rather than address the structural factors that are the root of gender inequalities. We provide a critical appraisal of the literature to establish an evidence base for why fixing women is unlikely to be successful. As an alternative, we focus on understanding how organizational context and culture maintain these inequalities by looking at how they shape and constrain (a) women's motivations and ambitions, and (b) the expression and interpretation of their skills and attributes. In doing so, we seek to shift the interventional focus from women themselves to the systems and structures in which they are embedded.


Subject(s)
Career Choice , Gender Equity , Workforce , Female , Humans , Motivation
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