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2.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 37(1): 22-30, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36626154

ABSTRACT

Autonomy support is a concept that is derived from self-determination theory. Autonomy refers to the freedom to act as one chooses. The current study aimed to examine if autonomy support was associated with dried blood spot validated pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence, and whether the association was mediated by PrEP adherence goal setting and progress toward PrEP adherence goals. Our sample was drawn from Black men who have sex with men (MSM) from across three cities (Chapel Hill, NC; Los Angeles, CA; and Washington, DC) in the United States between February 2013 and September 2014. We used logistic regression to evaluate associations between study variables and path analysis to test mediation effects. Participants were, on average, 28 [standard deviation (SD) = 1.12] years old and 25% were unemployed. We found that MSM who experienced high autonomy support were more likely to adhere to PrEP [odds ratio (OR) = 1.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.38]. MSM who set PrEP adherence goals were more likely to adhere to PrEP. Moreover, MSM who reported making progress toward their goals were also more likely to adhere to PrEP. Finally, client perception of coordination quality enhanced the magnitude of the association between goal setting and goal progress and the effect size of goal progress on PrEP adherence. Autonomy support, goal setting, goal monitoring/evaluation, and care coordination quality influenced PrEP adherence among Black MSM. Our findings indicate that while it is important to set goals for PrEP adherence, goal setting may need to be accompanied by progress monitoring to achieve the maximal effect.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Male , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Infant , Homosexuality, Male , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Goals
3.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677931

ABSTRACT

The present paper is a narrative review focused on a few important aspects and moments of trends surrounding materials and methods in sustainable nuclear energy, as an expression of applied chemistry support for more efficiency and safety. In such context, the paper is focused firstly on increasing alloy performance by modifying compositions, and elaborating and testing novel coatings on Zr alloys and stainless steel. For future generation reactor systems, the paper proposes high entropy alloys presenting their composition selection and irradiation damage. Nowadays, when great uncertainties and complex social, environmental, and political factors influence energy type selection, any challenge in this field is based on the concept of increased security and materials performance leading to more investigations into applied science.


Subject(s)
Goals , Nuclear Energy , Alloys/chemistry , Stainless Steel/chemistry , Entropy , Materials Testing
4.
Global Health ; 19(1): 5, 2023 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36691068

ABSTRACT

Society continues to be confronted with the deep inadequacies of the current global order. Rampant income inequality between and within countries, dramatic disparities in access to resources, as seen during the COVID pandemic, persistent degradation of the environment, and numerous other problems are tied to existing systems of economy and government. Current global economic systems are implicated in perpetuating these problems. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were born out of the recognition that dramatic changes were needed to address these intersecting challenges. There is general recognition that transformation of global systems and the relationship between sectors is needed. We conduct a structured, theoretically-informed analysis of SDG documents produced by United Nations agencies with the aim of examining the framing of economic policy goals, a historically dominant domain of consideration in development policy, in relation to health, social and environmental goals. We apply a novel typology to categorize the framing of policy goals. This analysis identified that the formal discourse associated with the SDGs marks a notable change from the pre-SDG development discourse. The 'transformational' agenda issued in the SDG documents is in part situated in relation to a critique of previous and existing approaches to development that privilege economic goals over health, social and environmental goals, and position economic policy as the solution to societal concerns. At the same time, we find that there is tension between the aspiration of transformation and an overwhelming focus on economic goals. This work has implications for health governance, where we find that health goals are still often framed as a means to achieve economic policy goals. Health scholars and advocates can draw from our analysis to critically examine how health fits within the transformational development agenda and how sectoral policy goals can move beyond a crude emphasis on economic growth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sustainable Development , Humans , Global Health , Policy , Economic Development , Goals
5.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 23(1): 11, 2023 01 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Goal-Directed Fluid Therapy (GDFT) is recommended to decrease major postoperative complications. However, data are lacking in intra-cranial neurosurgery. METHODS: We evaluated the efficacy of a GDFT protocol in a before/after multi-centre study in patients undergoing elective intra-cranial surgery for brain tumour. Data were collected during 6 months in each period (before/after). GDFT was performed in high-risk patients: ASA score III/IV and/or preoperative Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) < 15 and/or history of brain tumour surgery and/or tumour greater size ≥ 35 mm and/or mid-line shift ≥ 3 mm and/or significant haemorrhagic risk. Major postoperative complication was a composite endpoint: re-intubation after surgery, a new onset of GCS < 15 after surgery, focal motor deficit, agitation, seizures, intra-cranial haemorrhage, stroke, intra-cranial hypertension, hospital-acquired related pneumonia, surgical site infection, cardiac arrythmia, invasive mechanical ventilation ≥ 48 h and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: From July 2018 to January 2021, 344 patients were included in 3 centers: 171 in the before and 173 in the after (GDFT) period. Thirty-six (21.1%) patients displayed a major postoperative complication in the Before period, and 50 (28.9%) in the After period (p = 0.1). In the propensity score analysis, we matched 48 patients in each period: 9 (18.8%) patients in the After period and 14 (29.2%) patients in the Before period displayed a major perioperative complication (p = 0.2). Sixty-two (35.8%) patients received GDFT in the After period, with great heterogeneity among centers (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In our before-after study, GDFT was not associated with a decrease in postoperative major complications in elective intra-cranial neurosurgery.


Subject(s)
Fluid Therapy , Goals , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Fluid Therapy/methods , Length of Stay , Craniotomy/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology
8.
Int J Med Inform ; 170: 104981, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603389

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to gain insight into how and to what extent social (i.e. private/group chat) and goal-setting (e.g. rewards) functionalities in digital interventions for health behavior change were used by clients and nurses in a preventive care program for disadvantaged women during or after pregnancy, and which factors influenced usage. METHODS: We collected quantitative and qualitative data on usage of these functionalities in 'Kindle', a mHealth intervention to prepare for health behavior change. RESULTS: We found that nurses (n = 5) and clients (n = 20) scarcely used both functionalities. They sent 862 messages in the social functionality whose security they appreciated, but habitually used WhatsApp likewise. Moreover, nurses were hesitant to let their clients interact in the group chat. Clients formulated 59 personal goals, which they found difficult to do. Nurses rewarded 846 points for clients' progress on goal attainment, but found it hard to determine how many points to reward. Clients and nurses indicated that the functionality made it more fun and easy to discuss clients' personal goals. CONCLUSIONS: To conclude, digital, social and goal-setting functionalities were used to a limited extent by nurses and clients, and need optimization before implementation to support disadvantaged groups to change their health behavior.


Subject(s)
Goals , Telemedicine , Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Health Behavior , Telemedicine/methods
9.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36613146

ABSTRACT

Music discipline that emphasizes expression, performance and collaboration may cause difficulties for shy students who are prone to anxiety about social interaction, which might cause low music academic engagement and achievement. According to Models of Personality and Affect regarding the role of psychological constructs in educational contexts, shyness and academic engagement are the first and third-level variables, respectively. We hypothesized that achievement goals might be the second-level variable between shyness and academic engagement. Two hypotheses were proposed in the study: (1) shyness is negatively related to music academic engagement; (2) the music achievement goals mediate shyness and music academic engagement. The research was conducted in May 2022. A total of 515 college students who major in music were randomly recruited from a public university in Shanxi province, China. A 20 min self-report questionnaire was conducted as the data collection method. The research results revealed the following: (1) shyness was negatively associated with musical academic engagement; (2) the music mastery goals and the music performance avoidance goals (excluding the performance approach goal) partially mediated the association between shyness and music academic engagement in music learning. These findings have implications for the research and practice of music academic engagement of shyness.


Subject(s)
Goals , Music , Humans , Shyness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36613168

ABSTRACT

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the second leading cause of death in Canada with many modifiable risk factors. Pharmacists at a Canadian university delivered a novel CVD risk management program, which included goal-setting and medication management. Aim: This study aimed to describe what CVD prevention goals are composed of in a workplace CVD risk reduction program, and how might these goals change over time. Methods: A longitudinal, descriptive qualitative study using a retrospective chart review of clinical care plans for 15 patients enrolled in a CVD prevention program. Data across 6 visits were extracted from charts (n = 5413 words) recorded from May 2019-November 2020 and analyzed using quantitative content analysis and descriptive statistics. Results: Behavioural goals were most popular among patients and were more likely to change over the 12-month follow-up period, compared to health measure goals. Behavioural goals included goals around diet, physical activity (PA), smoking, medication, sleep and alcohol; health measure goals centered on weight measures, blood pressure (BP) and blood lipid levels. The most common behavioural goals set by patients were for diet (n = 11) and PA (n = 9). Over time, goals around PA, medication, alcohol and weight were adapted while others were added (e.g. diet) and some only continued. Patients experienced a number of barriers to their goal(s) which informed how they adapted their goal(s). These included environmental limitations (including COVID-19) and work-related time constraints. Conclusions: This study found CVD goal-setting in the pharmacist-led workplace wellness program was complex and evolved over time, with goals added and/or adapted. More detailed qualitative research could provide further insights into the patient-provider goal-setting experience in workplace CVD prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Pharmacists , Goals , Risk Factors , Canada , Workplace , Heart Disease Risk Factors
11.
J Med Syst ; 47(1): 15, 2023 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710276

ABSTRACT

Goal-setting is often used in eHealth applications for behavior change as it motivates and helps to stay focused on a desired outcome. However, for goals to be effective, they need to meet criteria such as being specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and time-bound (SMART). Moreover, people need to be confident to reach their goal. We thus created a goal-setting dialog in which the virtual coach Jody guided people in setting SMART goals. Thereby, Jody provided personalized vicarious experiences by showing examples from other people who reached a goal to increase people's confidence. These experiences were personalized, as it is helpful to observe a relatable other succeed. Data from an online study with a between-subjects with pre-post measurement design (n=39 participants) provide credible support that personalized experiences are seen as more motivating than generic ones. Motivational factors for participants included information about the goal, path to the goal, and the person who accomplished a goal, as well as the mere fact that a goal was reached. Participants also had a positive attitude toward Jody. We see these results as an indication that people are positive toward using a goal-setting dialog with a virtual coach in eHealth applications for behavior change. Moreover, contrary to hypothesized, our observed data give credible support that participants' self-efficacy was lower after the dialog than before. These results warrant further research on how such dialogs affect self-efficacy, especially whether these lower post-measurements of self-efficacy are associated with people's more realistic assessment of their abilities.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Goals , Motivation , Humans , Self Efficacy
12.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279292, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652463

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lower limb orthoses intend to improve walking in adults with neuromuscular disorders (NMD). Yet, reported group effects of lower limb orthoses on treatment outcomes have generally been small and heterogeneous. We propose that guideline-based orthotic care within a multidisciplinary expert setting may improve treatment outcomes. AIM: To examine the effectiveness of specialist care orthoses compared to usual care orthoses on personal goal attainment and walking ability. DESIGN: Cohort study. POPULATION: Adults with NMD who experienced walking problems due to calf and/or quadriceps muscle weakness and were provided with a specialist care lower limb orthosis between October 2011 and January 2021. METHODS: Three months after provision, the specialist care orthosis was compared to the usual care orthosis worn at baseline in terms of personal goal attainment (Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS)), comfortable walking speed (m/s), net energy cost (J/kg/m) (both assessed during a 6-minute walk test), perceived walking ability and satisfaction. RESULTS: Sixty-four adults with NMD were eligible for analysis. The specialist care orthoses comprised 19 dorsiflexion-restricting ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs), 22 stance-control knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) and 23 locked KAFOs. Overall, 61% of subjects showed a clinically relevant improvement in GAS score. Perceived safety, stability, intensity, fear of falling and satisfaction while walking all improved (p≤0.002), and subjects were satisfied with their specialist care orthosis and the services provided. Although no effects on walking speed or net energy cost were found in combined orthosis groups, specialist care AFOs significantly reduced net energy cost (by 9.5%) compared to usual care orthoses (from mean (SD) 3.81 (0.97) to 3.45 (0.80) J/kg/m, p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Guideline-based orthotic care within a multidisciplinary expertise setting could improve treatment outcomes in adults with NMD compared to usual orthotic care by improvements in goal attainment and walking ability. A randomized controlled trial is now warranted to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
Foot Orthoses , Neuromuscular Diseases , Humans , Adult , Cohort Studies , Goals , Fear , Walking/physiology , Lower Extremity , Biomechanical Phenomena , Gait/physiology
13.
Psychol Aging ; 38(1): 30-48, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36701535

ABSTRACT

People are generally able to selectively attend and remember high-value over low-value information. Here, we investigated whether young and older adults would display typical value-based memory selectivity effects for to-be-learned item-value associations when goal-directed information about the meaning of associated values was presented before and after encoding. In two experiments, both young and older adults were presented with one (Experiment 1) or multiple (Experiment 2) lists of words that were arbitrarily paired with different numerical values (e.g., "door-8") or font colors (e.g., "door" presented in red), which indicated each word's value. In Experiment 1, participants were told that the numerical value indicated the relative importance of each item either before they studied the list (preencoding), after they studied it (postencoding), or not at all (no value control instructions). Older adults were significantly more selective in the preencoding condition relative to the other conditions, whereas younger adults were not selective in any condition on this single-list (numerical) value task of Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, young and older adults were tested on four additional lists of both pre- and postencoding trials each after studying and recalling four lists of words without any value instructions. Results from Experiment 2 revealed that both young and older adults selectively prioritized high-value words on the preencoding trials, but not on postencoding trials, on this color-based categorical (low-medium-high) value task. The present study highlights a critical role of goal-directed knowledge of value-based instructions prior to encoding to facilitate typically observed value-directed memory selectivity for important information. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Aging , Goals , Humans , Aged , Mental Recall , Learning , Motivation
14.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280221, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662801

ABSTRACT

From the perspective of news topic modeling, this paper investigated how the Communist Youth League of China (CYLC) uses organizational information communication to serve organizational goals-"Keep the Party Assured and the Youth Satisfied" (", "). Using the Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) algorithm, we performed a topic analysis on 1898 news articles published on the CYLC website. We discovered that nearly all of the CYLC's news centered on the achievement of its organizational goals, reflecting the characteristics of information dissemination that is highly supportive of organizational objectives. We discovered distinct differences in the dissemination of organizational information between the central, provincial, municipal, county, and school league committees through cluster analysis. The various league organizations have distinct positioning and distinguishing characteristics. In addition, correlation analysis reveals that higher-level league organizations prioritize the dissemination of "Keep the Party Assured" information. While lower-level organizations gradually implement "Keep the Youth Satisfied" initiatives. This paper fills a gap in research on mass organizations in the field of information dissemination and serves as a resource for other political organizations involved in public information dissemination.


Subject(s)
Goals , Organizations , Adolescent , Humans , Organizational Objectives , China , Information Dissemination
15.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 905, 2023 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650228

Subject(s)
Goals , Hunting , Fraud , Africa , DNA , Europe
16.
J Environ Manage ; 330: 117155, 2023 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603272

ABSTRACT

Ecosystem carbon sequestration service (ECSS) is the benefits humans derive from the ecosystem carbon sequestration process, which is key to regulating climate, stabilising the natural foundation for development, and supporting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) achievement. However, how ECSS contributes to the SDGs still needs to be discovered. Here, based on downscaling localisation SDG indicators, regression methods, and mechanism analysis, we identified the contribution of ECSS to the SDGs, taking China's Loess Plateau (LP) region as an example. The results showed that the LP made higher progress on resource and environmental SDGs, such as SDGs 13, 12, 6, and 7 (climate, consumption and production, water, and energy) in the last two decades. As for the relationships between ECSS and SDGs, the progress of SDGs 6, 7, 13 and 15 (water, energy, climate, and ecosystems) showed positive linear responses to ECSS. The response of SDGs 1, 4, 8, and 12 (poverty reduction, education, economic growth, and consumption and production) to ECSS showed a threshold when the standardised ECSS value was 0.11. To improve ECSS for a more sustainable ecological foundation underpinning the SDGs, ECSS management should be improved to protect the ecosystem carbon pool and improve carbon sequestration function, as well as to promote the social-ecological co-benefits. This work links carbon sequestration service to sustainable development and can help in leveraging nature's contributions towards carbon neutrality and the 2030 Agenda.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Sustainable Development , Humans , Carbon Sequestration , Economic Development , Carbon , Goals
17.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 45(1): 41-48, 2023 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634308

ABSTRACT

Minimizing the temporal gap between behavior and reward enhances persistence, but the effect of other outcomes is unknown. Two concurrently run studies aimed to investigate whether persistence on a physical task would be influenced according to whether participants expected immediate versus delayed goal feedback. Furthermore, whether this effect occurs via intrinsic motivation (Studies 1 and 2) or delaying the desire-goal conflict (Study 2) was examined. Using a counterbalanced within-person design, 34 participants in each study (Study 1: 16 males, 18 females; Study 2: 15 males, 19 females) completed two wall-sit persistence tasks, one with immediate feedback expected (regarding the participant's position on a leader board) and the other with feedback expected to be provided 1 week later. A two-way mixed analysis of variance found no significant differences in persistence between conditions in either study. Furthermore, no indirect effects were found via intrinsic motivation or delayed desire-goal conflict. Study findings did not support the hypothesis that the timing of expected feedback enhances persistence.


Subject(s)
Goals , Motivation , Male , Female , Humans , Feedback , Attention , Reward
18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673668

ABSTRACT

Exercise resolutions are the most common goals people set each New Year. However, research has rarely examined adaptive goal processes and motives that may maintain wellbeing and resolution pursuit. We therefore investigated if (1) personal goal flexibility and tenacity maintain mental wellbeing and adherence to New Year exercise resolutions and if (2) underlying intrinsic and extrinsic motives maintain wellbeing and sustained exercise resolution adherence. A community sample (N = 297) completed an online longitudinal study. At baseline, participants listed their most important exercise-related New Year resolution. Participants then completed measures to assess goal flexibility and tenacity, resolution motives, and mental wellbeing at baseline. At three follow-up surveys over a two-month period, participants completed self-report measures of wellbeing and adherence to their exercise resolution. As predicted, goal flexibility and tenacity each independently predicted wellbeing across time. Counter to prediction, neither goal flexibility nor tenacity predicted sustained exercise adherence. Notably, underlying intrinsic motives (but not extrinsic motives) maintained mental wellbeing and exercise adherence across time. Our findings indicate that goal flexibility and tenacity are beneficial in maintaining mental wellbeing and that pursuing resolutions for internalised motives is beneficial for one's mental wellbeing and exercise adherence.


Subject(s)
Goals , Motivation , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Exercise
19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673706

ABSTRACT

The existing literature on the influencing factors of carbon emissions ignores the relationship between financial agglomeration and carbon emissions. Based on the analysis of the emission reduction history of major countries, this paper mainly uses the provincial-level data of China from 2002 to 2018 to explore the impact of financial agglomeration on carbon emissions. The conclusions are as follows: (1) China lacks carbon tax policies; there are many drawbacks in the carbon trading market, and a "bottom-up" voluntary emission reduction mechanism has not been formed. (2) China's carbon emissions and financial development are characterized by spatial agglomeration. (3) Financial agglomeration can reduce carbon emissions. In central China, the low-carbon region, and the pilot regions for carbon trading, financial agglomeration has a greater impact on reducing emissions. (4) Financial agglomeration can reduce emissions by reducing the proportion of the secondary industry and increasing the proportion of the third industry. (5) Financial agglomeration can still lower carbon emissions when the spacing effect is taken into account. Finally, according to the conclusion, this paper puts forward relevant suggestions to help China reduce carbon emissions.


Subject(s)
Carbon , Goals , Carbon/analysis , China , Industry , Social Conditions , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Economic Development
20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674033

ABSTRACT

Chronic pain, experienced as pain persisting for three months or longer, is associated with risk of poor mental health and disability. Research has implicated adaptive goal processes as important to mental wellbeing in a range of populations. However, research has rarely assessed these mechanisms in relation to pain characteristics and mental wellbeing in chronic pain populations. This study aimed to examine the potentially mediating roles of goal flexibility and goal tenacity in the relationships between pain intensity and pain interference and mental wellbeing among individuals with chronic pain. Community members who self-identified as experiencing non-cancer chronic pain (N = 315) completed an online self-report survey on goal tenacity, goal flexibility, mental wellbeing, pain intensity, and pain interference. Unexpectedly, pain intensity was not significantly related to mental wellbeing, when controlling for pain interference. However, pain interference was directly and significantly associated with mental wellbeing. Both goal flexibility and goal tenacity mediated the relationship between pain interference and mental wellbeing, whilst controlling for pain intensity. The results provide support for the protective role of adaptive goal processes in mental wellbeing in those with chronic pain and highlight the importance of pain interference in relation to mental wellbeing.


Subject(s)
Chronic Pain , Disabled Persons , Humans , Chronic Pain/psychology , Goals , Mental Health
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