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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13008, 2024 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844498

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between sport modalities practiced, physical fitness, body composition, and healthy habits in an active young population, using a statistical model for prediction. A total of 2255 (1528 boys and 727 girls) children and adolescents aged 6-17 years old who were involved in extracurricular sports from rural areas of Spain participated. Physical fitness was assessed through validated field test and, body composition was determinated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed by KIDMED questionnaire. The general sport variable was significant in VO2max when comparing the invasion and combat modalities to the reference level (court/net). The sex and age variables revealed significant differences in all physical fitness and body composition parameters. Health parameters, such as hours of additional practice, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and previous experience, showed significant differences. The study concludes that the sport modality variables of training, sex, age, and maturational period have an impact on body composition and fitness parameters in this population. Therefore, by focusing on factors associated with lower values in health indicators, we can prevent health problems during adulthood, such as cardiorespiratory deficits.


Subject(s)
Body Composition , Exercise , Physical Fitness , Humans , Male , Adolescent , Female , Child , Physical Fitness/physiology , Spain , Diet, Mediterranean , Sports , Surveys and Questionnaires , Habits
2.
Exerc Sport Sci Rev ; 52(3): 102-107, 2024 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865162

ABSTRACT

The influence of habit on physical activity is computationally modeled as the aggregated influence of past behavioral choices a person makes in a given context. We hypothesize that the influence of habit on behavior can be enhanced through engagement of the target behavior in a particular context or weakened through engagement of alternative behaviors in that context.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Habits , Humans , Exercise/psychology , Exercise/physiology , Health Behavior , Computer Simulation , Choice Behavior
3.
J Opioid Manag ; 20(2): 103-107, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700391

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To measure the number of unused prescription opioids and disposal habits of patients following orthopedic shoulder surgery. DESIGN: A prospective observational study. SETTING: Academic orthopedic sports medicine department. PATIENTS: Sixty-seven patients undergoing shoulder surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Nine-question opioid use questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Responses to an opioid use questionnaire were collected at 2 weeks post-surgery. Outcomes of interest included the amount of initial opioid prescription used and the disposal of excess opioids. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients completed the opioid use questionnaire. Forty-six (68.7 percent) patients reported having excess opioids at 2 weeks. Of the 46 patients with excess opioids, 57 percent disposed of the excess, and 43 percent planned to keep their opioids. CONCLUSION: Two-thirds of the patients reported having excess opioids, highlighting the issue of an overabundance of unused prescription opioids in America. Utilization of opioid-free pain management strategies and drug disposal kits should be explored to reduce the number of unused and improperly disposed opioids.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid , Pain, Postoperative , Humans , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Aged , Habits , Time Factors , Orthopedic Procedures/adverse effects , Shoulder/surgery , Practice Patterns, Physicians'
4.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 378, 2024 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To translate and culturally adapt the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) to a Swedish version, CSHQ-SWE, and to assess its validity and reliability for use with children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: A total of 84 children with ADHD (51 boys and 33 girls; 6-12 years) and parents (7 men and 77 women; 28-51 years) were included in the study. CSHQ was translated and culturally adapted to Swedish, and assessed for concurrent validity with sleep actigraphy (analyzed by Kendall's Tau) and for reliability by internal consistency (analyzed by McDonald's Omega H). Face and content validity was evaluated by parents (n = 4) and healthcare professionals (n = 6) qualitatively (comprehensiveness, relevance, and comprehensibility assessed by interviews and analyzed by thematic analysis) and quantitatively (analyzed by content validity ratio and content validity index for 33 items and four non-scored inquiries). RESULTS: Parent-reported sleep problems (CSHQ-SWE total score) were moderately correlated with less "Sleep Efficiency" (Tau = -0.305; p < 0.001) measured by sleep actigraphy. Parent-reported problems with "Sleep Onset Delay" was moderately correlated with measured time for "Sleep Onset Latency" (Tau = 0.433; p < 0.001). Parent-reported problems with "Night Wakings" were weakly correlated with measured time for "Wake After Sleep Onset" (Tau = 0.282; p < 0.001). Parents estimation of "Total daily sleep duration" was moderately correlated with measured "Total Sleep Time" (Tau = 0.386; p < 0.001). Five of the seven subscales reached an acceptable level for internal consistency (McDonald's Omega H > 0.700). Comprehensiveness, relevance, and comprehensibility of CSHQ-SWE were satisfactory overall. Content validity ratio was 0.80 to 1.00 for six items, 0.00 to 0.60 for 22 items, and < 0.00 for nine items. Content validity index was 0.22. CONCLUSIONS: CSHQ-SWE demonstrated acceptable concurrent validity with objectively measured sleep and internal consistency, whereas the overall results of face and content validity assessment varied. The instrument needs to be further evaluated regarding construct validity, responsiveness, test-retest reliability, and its generalization to other populations.


Subject(s)
Actigraphy , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Parents , Humans , Male , Female , Child , Reproducibility of Results , Sweden , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , Adult , Middle Aged , Translations , Sleep , Habits , Sleep Wake Disorders/diagnosis , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology
5.
Elife ; 122024 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722306

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the goal/habit imbalance theory of compulsion in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), which postulates enhanced habit formation, increased automaticity, and impaired goal/habit arbitration. It directly tests these hypotheses using newly developed behavioral tasks. First, OCD patients and healthy participants were trained daily for a month using a smartphone app to perform chunked action sequences. Despite similar procedural learning and attainment of habitual performance (measured by an objective automaticity criterion) by both groups, OCD patients self-reported higher subjective habitual tendencies via a recently developed questionnaire. Subsequently, in a re-evaluation task assessing choices between established automatic and novel goal-directed actions, both groups were sensitive to re-evaluation based on monetary feedback. However, OCD patients, especially those with higher compulsive symptoms and habitual tendencies, showed a clear preference for trained/habitual sequences when choices were based on physical effort, possibly due to their higher attributed intrinsic value. These patients also used the habit-training app more extensively and reported symptom relief post-study. The tendency to attribute higher intrinsic value to familiar actions may be a potential mechanism leading to compulsions and an important addition to the goal/habit imbalance hypothesis in OCD. We also highlight the potential of smartphone app training as a habit reversal therapeutic tool.


Subject(s)
Habits , Learning , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/physiopathology , Male , Adult , Female , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0299877, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722829

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the decision-making dynamics for pro-environmental behavior among Thai university students, focusing on reducing the consumption of single-use plastics (SUP). By adopting a dynamic approach to the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the research examined the influence of psychosocial factors, including attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms, on SUP reduction intention at different phases of behavior change. Using structural equation modelling, we analyzed quantitative data (n = 317) from the selected universities. The results revealed that attitudes predicted behavioral intentions only among individuals in the contemplation phase of reducing SUP. Attitudes had a small but limited influence on the behavioral intentions of students who had not yet acted. Perceived behavioral control, on the other hand, significantly impacted behavioral intentions across all phases of behavior change, highlighting its importance in SUP reduction. The study also confirmed subjective norms' positive influence on students' behavioral intentions in the pre-contemplation phase. Practical implications suggested segmenting residents based on their behavior change phase so that public policymakers can allocate resources more efficiently and effectively by tailoring campaigns to specific behavior change phases, ultimately promoting sustainable behavior among university students.


Subject(s)
Habits , Plastics , Students , Humans , Students/psychology , Universities , Male , Female , Thailand , Young Adult , Intention , Adult , Adolescent , Attitude , Surveys and Questionnaires , Southeast Asian People
7.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 88(6): 100713, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723898

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Prior studies have demonstrated that "learning to learn" (L2L) courses can lead to significant improvements in students' Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) scores immediately following the course. This study aimed to analyze whether improvements in LASSI scores are sustained 1 year following an L2L elective course. METHODS: First-year pharmacy students in the classes of 2024 and 2025 completed the LASSI at the start of the fall semester and again immediately following an L2L course. One year later, during the second professional year, students completed the LASSI a third time. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance was used to analyze within-participant differences in LASSI scores across each of the 10 LASSI scales. Univariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction was used for pairwise comparison. RESULTS: A total of 119 students completed all 3 LASSI assessments. LASSI scores improved in all 10 scales following completion of the L2L course. However, 1 year after the completion of the course, there was a statistically significant regression in all 10 scale scores (Wilks' Λ [20,98] = 8.7). Among the 10 scales, scores for the Attitude and Concentration scales were statistically significantly lower during the second professional year relative to baseline at the start of the first professional year. Selecting Main Ideas was the only scale with a higher score during the second professional year relative to baseline. CONCLUSION: Despite marked improvements in LASSI scores following the implementation of a "learning to learn" course for first-year pharmacy students, the improvements were not sustained after 1 year.


Subject(s)
Curriculum , Education, Pharmacy , Educational Measurement , Learning , Students, Pharmacy , Students, Pharmacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Education, Pharmacy/methods , Female , Male , Habits , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult , Adult
8.
Epilepsy Res ; 203: 107379, 2024 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38754255

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize seizure tracking patterns of people with focal epilepsy using electronic seizure diary entries, and to assess for risk factors associated with poor tracking. METHODS: We analyzed electronic seizure diary data from 410 participants with newly diagnosed focal epilepsy in the Human Epilepsy Project 1 (HEP1). Each participant was expected to record data each day during the study, regardless of seizure occurrence. The primary outcome of this post-hoc analysis was whether each participant properly tracked a seizure diary entry each day during their study participation. Using finite mixture modeling, we grouped patient tracking trajectories into data-driven clusters. Once defined, we used multinomial modeling to test for independent risk factors of tracking group membership. RESULTS: Using over up to three years of daily seizure diary data per subject, we found four distinct seizure tracking groups: consistent, frequent at study onset, occasional, and rare. Participants in the consistent tracking group tracked a median of 92% (interquartile range, IQR: 82%, 99%) of expected days, compared to 47% (IQR:34%, 60%) in the frequent at study onset group, 37% (IQR: 26%, 49%) in the occasional group, and 9% (IQR: 3%, 15%) in the rare group. In multivariable analysis, consistent trackers had lower rates of seizure days per tracked year during their study participation, compared to other groups. SIGNIFICANCE: Future efforts need to focus on improving seizure diary tracking adherence to improve quality of outcome data, particularly in those with higher seizure burden. In addition, accounting for missing data when using seizure diary data as a primary outcome is important in research trials. If not properly accounted for, total seizure burden may be underestimated and biased, skewing results of clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Seizures , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Seizures/physiopathology , Seizures/diagnosis , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Epilepsies, Partial/physiopathology , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Diaries as Topic , Adolescent , Habits
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11035, 2024 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745043

ABSTRACT

This study focuses on adolescents' cognitive processes, behaviors and social support (SS) as they relate to physical activity (PA) before and after the pandemic. The aims of the study were: (1) to investigate the changes in adolescents' engagement in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and examine the changes in PA-related attitudes and behaviors before and after the COVID-19 pandemic; (2) to analyze the correlations between the significant changes that were found, PA engagement, and SS. The survey targeted third-year middle school students of Italian nationality, attending male and female mixed classes, residents in urban, periphery and sub-urban areas, living in families with different incomes, and different habits of engaging in PA. A longitudinal study was developed using a standardized questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered in April-May 2023 to a sample of 952 students aged 11/14 residing in the Marche region in Central Italy. Increasing values were found in the post-COVID-19 phase for all the cognitive processes and attitudes, in particular, those regarding habits (0.66 vs 0.50, + 32%) and identity (0.70 vs 0.55, + 27%) related to PA. Significant correlations were found between these values and VPA engagement and between the values of the same indicators and SS (p < 0.01). The strongest relationship was found with the dimension of identity (r = 0.51; r = 054).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Social Support , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Male , Female , Adolescent , Exercise/psychology , Italy/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Child , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Attitude , Habits , Students/psychology , Adolescent Behavior/psychology
10.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4461, 2024 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38796491

ABSTRACT

Behaving efficiently and flexibly is crucial for biological and artificial embodied agents. Behavior is generally classified into two types: habitual (fast but inflexible), and goal-directed (flexible but slow). While these two types of behaviors are typically considered to be managed by two distinct systems in the brain, recent studies have revealed a more sophisticated interplay between them. We introduce a theoretical framework using variational Bayesian theory, incorporating a Bayesian intention variable. Habitual behavior depends on the prior distribution of intention, computed from sensory context without goal-specification. In contrast, goal-directed behavior relies on the goal-conditioned posterior distribution of intention, inferred through variational free energy minimization. Assuming that an agent behaves using a synergized intention, our simulations in vision-based sensorimotor tasks explain the key properties of their interaction as observed in experiments. Our work suggests a fresh perspective on the neural mechanisms of habits and goals, shedding light on future research in decision making.


Subject(s)
Bayes Theorem , Goals , Habits , Humans , Intention , Decision Making/physiology , Brain/physiology
11.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 59(3)2024 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725398

ABSTRACT

AIMS: This study aimed to compare reward, relief, and habit treatment-seeking individuals on recent drinking, alcohol use disorder (AUD) phenomenology, and mood. The second aim of the study was to evaluate the predictive validity of reward, relief, and habit profiles. METHOD: Treatment-seeking individuals with an AUD (n = 169) were recruited to participate in a medication trial for AUD (NCT03594435). Reward, relief, and habit drinking groups were assessed using the UCLA Reward Relief Habit Drinking Scale. Group differences at baseline were evaluated using univariate analyses of variance. A subset of participants were enrolled in a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled medication trial (n = 102), and provided longitudinal drinking and phenomenology data. The predictive validity of group membership was assessed using linear regression analyses. RESULTS: At baseline, individuals who drink primarily for relief had higher craving and negative mood than those who drink for reward and habit. Prospectively, membership in the relief drinking group predicted greater alcohol use, greater heavy drinking, and fewer days abstinent compared to those in the reward drinking group. Membership in the relief drinking group also predicted greater alcohol craving, more alcohol-related consequences, and more anxiety symptoms over 12 weeks compared to those in the reward drinking group. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides support for reward and relief drinking motive profiles in treatment-seeking individuals with an AUD. Membership in the relief drinking motive group was predictive of poorer drinking outcomes and more negative symptomology over 12 weeks, indicating that individuals who drink for relief may be a particularly vulnerable sub-population of individuals with AUD.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Alcoholism , Habits , Reward , Humans , Male , Female , Alcoholism/therapy , Alcoholism/psychology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcohol Drinking/therapy , Adult , Middle Aged , Double-Blind Method , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Affect , Craving
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e54375, 2024 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38787601

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the development of emerging technologies, digital behavior change interventions (DBCIs) help to maintain regular physical activity in daily life. OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively understand the design implementations of habit formation techniques in current DBCIs, a systematic review was conducted to investigate the implementations of behavior change techniques, types of habit formation techniques, and design strategies in current DBCIs. METHODS: The process of this review followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Item for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. A total of 4 databases were systematically searched from 2012 to 2022, which included Web of Science, Scopus, ACM Digital Library, and PubMed. The inclusion criteria encompassed studies that used digital tools for physical activity, examined behavior change intervention techniques, and were written in English. RESULTS: A total of 41 identified research articles were included in this review. The results show that the most applied behavior change techniques were the self-monitoring of behavior, goal setting, and prompts and cues. Moreover, habit formation techniques were identified and developed based on intentions, cues, and positive reinforcement. Commonly used methods included automatic monitoring, descriptive feedback, general guidelines, self-set goals, time-based cues, and virtual rewards. CONCLUSIONS: A total of 32 commonly design strategies of habit formation techniques were summarized and mapped to the proposed conceptual framework, which was categorized into target-mediated (generalization and personalization) and technology-mediated interactions (explicitness and implicitness). Most of the existing studies use the explicit interaction, aligning with the personalized habit formation techniques in the design strategies of DBCIs. However, implicit interaction design strategies are lacking in the reviewed studies. The proposed conceptual framework and potential solutions can serve as guidelines for designing strategies aimed at habit formation within DBCIs.


Subject(s)
Habits , Humans , Behavior Therapy/methods , Exercise , Health Behavior
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(7)2024 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610241

ABSTRACT

People living alone encounter well-being challenges due to unnoticed personal situations. Thus, it is essential to monitor their activities and encourage them to adopt healthy lifestyle habits without imposing a mental burden, aiming to enhance their overall well-being. To realize such a support system, its components should be simple and loosely coupled to handle various internet of things (IoT)-based smart home applications. In this study, we propose an exercise promotion system for individuals living alone to encourage them to adopt good lifestyle habits. The system comprises autonomous IoT devices as agents and is realized using an agent-oriented IoT architecture. It estimates user activity via sensors and offers exercise advice based on recognized conditions, surroundings, and preferences. The proposed system accepts user feedback to improve status estimation accuracy and offers better advice. The proposed system was evaluated from three perspectives through experiments with subjects. Initially, we demonstrated the system's operation through agent cooperation. Then, we showed it adapts to user preferences within two weeks. Third, the users expressed satisfaction with the detection accuracy regarding their stay-at-home status and the relevance of the advice provided. They were also motivated to engage in exercise based on a subjective evaluation, as indicated by preliminary results.


Subject(s)
Internet of Things , Humans , Life Style , Exercise , Habits , Healthy Lifestyle
15.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612987

ABSTRACT

This study assesses the enduring impact of combined school- and family-based interventions on reducing the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) among schoolchildren in China. Two primary schools were assigned at random to either the Intervention Group or the Control Group, in Nanjing, eastern China. All students were in grade three and received an invitation to participate. In the first year, students in the Intervention Group received one-year intervention measures, including monthly monitoring, aiming to decrease the consumption of SSBs. Students in the Control Group only received regular monitoring without interventions. In the second year, both groups received only regular monitoring, without active interventions. A generalized estimating equations model (GEE) was used to assess the intervention effects. After two years, relative to the Control Group, the Intervention Group had a significantly improved knowledge of SSBs and an improved family environment with parents. In the Intervention Group, 477 students (97.3%) had adequate knowledge about SSBs, compared to 302 students (83.2%) in the Control Group (X2 = 52.708, p < 0.001). Two years later, the number of students who stated 'my home always has SSBs' in the Intervention Group (7.8%) was fewer than that in the Control Group (12.4%), which was a statistically significant finding (p < 0.05). One year later, both the frequency and the quantity of SSB consumption in the Intervention Group were less than those in the Control Group; such differences between the groups remained statistically significant for the quantity but not for the frequency of SSB consumption two years later. In the Intervention Group, the frequency of SSB consumption was significantly reduced by 1.0 times per week, compared to a reduction of 0.1 times per week in the Control Group in the first year (p < 0.05). In the second year, the frequency of SSB consumption was reduced by 0.8 times per week in the Intervention Group, compared to 0.5 times per week in the Control Group (p > 0.05). In the first year, the volume of SSB consumption was significantly reduced by 233 mL per week in the Intervention Group, compared to an increase of 107 mL per week in the Control Group (p < 0.05). In the second year, the volume of SSB consumption was reduced by 122 mL per week in the Intervention Group compared to an increase of 31 mL per week in the Control Group (p > 0.05). The combined school-based and family-based interventions had a positive effect on the students' knowledge of SSBs and their family dynamics during the first and second year. Relative to the Control Group, the Intervention Group had a statistically significant reduction in SSB consumption after 1 year, but not after 2 years.


Subject(s)
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Humans , Child , Asian People , China , Schools , Habits
16.
Pediatr Neurol ; 155: 114-119, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631079

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate sleep habits, quality of life (QoL), and the relationship between them in children with epilepsy. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, children aged two to 18 years being followed up for epilepsy were assessed using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). Pearson or Spearman correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationship between normally distributed and non-normally distributed variables, respectively. Linear regression analysis was used to examine independent variables associated with PedsQL total scale score. Level of significance was accepted as P < 0.05. RESULTS: The study included 112 children with a mean age of 10.5 ± 4.4 years (51.8% female). The frequency of poor sleep habits was 96.4%. There was a good level of agreement between children's and parents' PedsQL total, physical health, and psychosocial health scores (P < 0.001). Correlation analysis between QoL and sleep parameters revealed negative correlations between total sleep score and self-assessed PedsQL total scale, physical health, and psychosocial health scores (P < 0.05) and parent-assessed PedsQL total scale and psychosocial health scores (P < 0.05). The results of linear regression analysis indicated that the factors most significantly associated with lower QoL were high CSHQ total sleep score and exclusively daytime seizures (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: It was found that children with epilepsy had poor sleep habits and low QoL and that poor sleep habits have a negative impact on QoL.


Subject(s)
Epilepsy , Quality of Life , Humans , Female , Male , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Adolescent , Child, Preschool , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/physiopathology , Sleep/physiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Habits
17.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 283, 2024 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38678194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adequate sleep and exercise are important components of the human lifestyle. Paying attention to these two factors is very important to improve the condition of children with type 1 diabetes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of exercise on sleep habits in children with type 1 diabetes. MATERIAL & METHODS: 62 children with type 1 diabetes participated in this clinical trial. They will be divided into the intervention group (31) and the control group (31). Sleep habits were measured using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). All children's parents completed the CSHQ. The intervention for the experimental group consisted of 8 weeks of regular exercise program. The exercise program was prepared as an educational video and provided to parents. Paired sample t-test and ANCOVA test were used with SPSS 23. RESULTS: 62 children with an average age of 9.32 ± 2.02 were studied. Fifty-four and eight% of the children were girls and the rest were boys. The analysis of the variance test showed a significant difference (F = 144.72, P ≤ 0.01) between the average score of the sleep habits of the control group (62.45 ± 5.12) and the experimental group (47.06 ± 4.39). CONCLUSION: Sleep habits in the experimental group improved after 8 weeks of exercise training using educational videos. Exercise as a non-pharmacological treatment is an effective way to manage diabetes and improve sleep quality in diabetic children.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Exercise , Sleep , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Male , Female , Child , Sleep/physiology , Exercise Therapy/methods , Habits , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed ; 40(3): e12966, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616381

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Organ transplant recipients (OTR) are more likely to develop skin cancer than the general population. One of the main components of the exposome that triggers the development of skin tumours is solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To reduce the incidence of harmful consequences of sun exposure, sun protection education is needed for patients taking long-term immunosuppressive drugs. METHODS: In a previous study, we assessed the sun-safe behaviour of 221 OTR using a questionnaire before and after transplantation and personally educated the patients about proper sun protection. After the education, there were no further reminder presentations. Presently, the sun protection and sun seeking habits of the available 176 of these patients were questioned to assess the long-term effect of the previous sun protection education. RESULTS: Two-four years after the education, more patients wore hats and protected their skin with long-sleeved clothing than before the education. In terms of sun seeking habits, both occupational and recreational sun exposure decreased significantly. Significantly fewer people went on holiday after transplantation, but those who went on holiday spent significantly less time in the sun. CONCLUSION: The long-term positive effects of education can be seen both in the patients' sun protection and in their sun seeking habits. However, the long-term goal is to maintain these results and thereby reduce the likelihood of skin tumours and consequently the associated tumour death.


Subject(s)
Kidney Transplantation , Skin Neoplasms , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Educational Status , Skin Neoplasms/etiology , Skin Neoplasms/prevention & control , Habits , Immunosuppressive Agents
19.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 42(1): 46-51, 2024 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nutritive sucking and nonnutritive sucking (NNS) may affect the craniofacial development, differently. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between NNS habits (NNSHs), developing malocclusion, and various feeding practices in 3-6-year-old children. METHODOLOGY: A sample of 350 children 3-6-year-old from various preschools were selected for this case-control study (94 with NNSH and 256 without NNSH). NNSH (outcome) and feeding practices and developing malocclusions (exposures) were assessed using a structured study tool. RESULTS: The prevalence of NNSH in 3-6-year-old children was 26.8%. The odds (95% [confidence interval (CI)]) of boys compared to girls having NNSH were 0.66 (0.4121-1.706) (P = 0.0290). The overall prevalence of developing malocclusion in 3-6-year-old children was 34.01% out of which open bite was most commonly reported with 12.57% followed by spacing 8.5%, increased overjet 6.8%, crowding 2.2%, posterior crossbite and rotation 1.4%, and overbite 1.14%. Breastfeeding was found to be the most commonly used mode of feeding reported by 53.42% of mothers. It was found that the odds (95% [CI]) of subjects having NNSH were 0.66 (0.4694-0.9460) (P < 0.0001) who were not breastfed as compared to those who were breastfed. Among developing malocclusions, increased overjet with P = 0.0019, open bite with P = 0.0416, and spacing with P = 0.0243 were found to be associated with feeding practices. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of NNSH and developing malocclusions (increased overjet, open bite, and spacing) was 26.8% and 34.01%, respectively. Breastfeeding played a protective role against developing NNSH.


Subject(s)
Malocclusion , Open Bite , Male , Child , Female , Child, Preschool , Humans , Open Bite/epidemiology , Open Bite/etiology , Case-Control Studies , Urban Population , Malocclusion/epidemiology , Malocclusion/etiology , Habits
20.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed ; 40(3): e12967, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Nowadays, there are emerging trends in customized and personalized photoprotection, focusing on the innovative approaches to enhance sun protection efficacy tailored to individual needs. METHODS: We conducted an electronic search of the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Skin Register, and TESEO. Specific search terms related to personalized photoprotection and the variables of age, genetic predisposition, skin phototype, photodermatosis, and physiological conditions such as pregnancy, as well as lifestyle habits were used. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: The article highlights the challenges and opportunities in adopting personalized photoprotection strategies, aiming to promote skin health and prevent the harmful effects of UV radiation in the era of precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Sunscreening Agents , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Sunscreening Agents/therapeutic use , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Habits , Life Style
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