Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 4.745
Filter
1.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 79, 2024 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589920

ABSTRACT

People who nonmedically use drugs (PWUD) face intricate social issues that suppress self-actualization, communal integration, and overall health and wellness. "Strengths-based" approaches, an under-used pedagogy and practice in addiction medicine, underscore the significance of identifying and recognizing the inherent and acquired skills, attributes, and capacities of PWUD. A strengths-based approach engenders client affirmation and improves their capacity to reduce drug use-related harms by leveraging existing capabilities. Exploring this paradigm, we conducted and analyzed interviews with 46 PWUD who were clients at syringe services programs in New York City and rural southern Illinois, two areas with elevated rates of opioid-related morbidity and mortality, to assess respondents' perceived strengths. We located two primary thematic modalities in which strengths-based ethos is expressed: individuals (1) being and advocate and resource for harm reduction knowledge and practices and (2) engaging in acts of continuous self-actualization. These dynamics demonstrate PWUD strengths populating and manifesting in complex ways that both affirm and challenge humanist and biomedical notions of individual agency, as PWUD refract enacted, anticipated, and perceived stigmas. In conclusion, programs that blend evidence-based, systems-level interventions on drug use stigma and disenfranchisement with meso and micro-level strengths-based interventions that affirm and leverage personal identity, decision-making capacity, and endemic knowledge may help disrupt health promotion cleavages among PWUD.


Subject(s)
Drug Users , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Attitude , Harm Reduction
2.
Indian J Tuberc ; 71(2): 219-224, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589127

ABSTRACT

There are limitations to traditional treatment approaches in addressing the needs of individuals with dual comorbidity of TB and SUD. The concept of harm reduction as a distinct approach to addressing substance use, focusing on minimising the negative consequences associated with it rather than advocating for complete abstinence. Different harm reduction strategies, such as opioid substitution therapy, needle and syringe programmes, testing for viral infections etc. have been effectively employed for SUDs in past. Similarly, TB risk minimization approaches like improving housing and nutrition and focused testing strategies are considered as harm reduction strategies for TB management. The relationship between tuberculosis (TB) and substance use disorders (SUDs) involves a complex interplay of biopsychosocial factors. It is crucial to prioritise integrated and closely monitored care in order to address the treatment challenges and potential drug interactions that may arise. In light of the acknowledged challenges like limited awareness, infrastructure, drug resistance, and stigma, it is imperative to explore potential avenues for the implementation of harm reduction strategies targeting individuals with comorbid TB and SUD in India. Potential strategies for addressing the issue includes a range of measures, such as augmenting investments in healthcare, integrating policies, tackling social determinants, and establishing shared platforms for psychosocial rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Substance-Related Disorders , Tuberculosis , Humans , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/complications , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/rehabilitation , Harm Reduction , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Opiate Substitution Treatment
3.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 76, 2024 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580997

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding current substance use practices is critical to reduce and prevent overdose deaths among individuals at increased risk including persons who use and inject drugs. Because individuals participating in harm reduction and syringe service programs are actively using drugs and vary in treatment participation, information on their current drug use and preferred drugs provides a unique window into the drug use ecology of communities that can inform future intervention services and treatment provision. METHODS: Between March and June 2023, 150 participants in a harm reduction program in Burlington, Vermont completed a survey examining sociodemographics; treatment and medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) status; substance use; injection information; overdose information; and mental health, medical, and health information. Descriptive analyses assessed overall findings. Comparisons between primary drug subgroups (stimulants, opioids, stimulants-opioids) of past-three-month drug use and treatment participation were analyzed using chi-square and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Most participants reported being unhoused or unstable housing (80.7%) and unemployed (64.0%) or on disability (21.3%). The drug with the greatest proportion of participants reporting past three-month use was crack cocaine (83.3%). Fentanyl use was reported by 69.3% of participants and xylazine by 38.0% of participants. High rates of stimulant use were reported across all participants independent of whether stimulants were a participant's primary drug. Fentanyl, heroin, and xylazine use was less common in the stimulants subgroup compared to opioid-containing subgroups (p < .001). Current- and past-year MOUD treatment was reported by 58.0% and 77.3% of participants. Emergency rooms were the most common past-year medical treatment location (48.7%; M = 2.72 visits). CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate high rates of polysubstance use and the underrecognized effects of stimulant use among people who use drugs-including its notable and increasing role in drug-overdose deaths. Crack cocaine was the most used stimulant, a geographical difference from much of the US where methamphetamine is most common. With the increasing prevalence of fentanyl-adulterated stimulants and differences in opioid use observed between subgroups, these findings highlight the importance and necessity of harm reduction interventions (e.g., drug checking services, fentanyl test strips) and effective treatment for individuals using stimulants alongside MOUD treatment.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Stimulants , Crack Cocaine , Drug Overdose , Opioid-Related Disorders , Humans , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Harm Reduction , Vermont/epidemiology , Xylazine , Fentanyl , Drug Overdose/prevention & control , Opioid-Related Disorders/therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/prevention & control
4.
Lancet ; 403(10434): 1334-1335, 2024 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582554
5.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e078427, 2024 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580357

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The high prevalence of cannabis use and the potential for negative effects indicate the need for effective prevention strategies and treatment of people who use cannabis. Studies show that harm reduction (HR) in cannabis use is effective in minimising the harmful consequences of the substance. However, health professionals often misunderstand it and resist its adoption due to various obstacles. To our knowledge, there has been no review of the scientific literature on the factors that facilitate or hinder practitioners' adoption of HR in cannabis use. To fill this gap, we aim to identify, through a scoping review, facilitators and barriers to healthcare providers' adoption of HR in cannabis use in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Our methodology will be guided by the six-step model initially proposed by Arksey and O'Malley (2005). The search strategy will be executed on different databases (Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, Embase, Sociological Abstracts, Érudit, BASE, Google Web and Google Scholar) and will cover articles published between 1990 and October 2022. Empirical studies published in French or English in an OECD country and identifying factors that facilitate or hinder healthcare providers' adoption of HR in cannabis use, will be included. Reference lists of the selected articles as well as relevant systematic reviews will be scanned to identify any missed publications by the electronic searches. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required. The results will be disseminated through various activities (eg, publication in peer-reviewed journals, conferences, webinars and knowledge translation activities). The results will also allow us to conduct a future study aiming to develop and implement a knowledge translation process among healthcare practitioners working with youth in Quebec in order to enhance their adoption of HR in cannabis use.


Subject(s)
Cannabis , Adolescent , Humans , Harm Reduction , Health Personnel , Quebec , Health Services Accessibility , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic
6.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 77, 2024 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Drug overdose deaths in the United States exceeded 100,000 in 2021 and 2022. Substance use stigma is a major barrier to treatment and harm reduction utilization and is a priority target in ending the overdose epidemic. However, little is known about the relationship between stigma and overdose, especially in rural areas. We aimed to characterize the association between felt stigma and non-fatal overdose in a multi-state sample of rural-dwelling people who use drugs. METHODS: Between January 2018 and March 2020, 2,608 people reporting past 30-day opioid use were recruited via modified chain-referral sampling in rural areas across 10 states. Participants completed a computer-assisted survey of substance use and substance-related attitudes, behaviors, and experiences. We used multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to test the association between felt stigma and recent non-fatal overdose. RESULTS: 6.6% of participants (n = 173) reported an overdose in the past 30 days. Recent non-fatal overdose was significantly associated with felt stigma after adjusting for demographic and substance use-related covariates (aOR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.20-1.81). The association remained significant in sensitivity analyses on component fear of enacted stigma items (aOR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.20-1.83) and an internalized stigma item (aOR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.07-2.14). CONCLUSIONS: Felt stigma related to substance use is associated with higher risk of non-fatal overdose in rural-dwelling people who use drugs. Stigma reduction interventions and tailored services for those experiencing high stigma are underutilized approaches that may mitigate overdose risk.


Subject(s)
Drug Overdose , Opioid-Related Disorders , Humans , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Fear , Harm Reduction , Social Stigma , Analgesics, Opioid
7.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 58, 2024 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38449029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The United States (US) continues to experience unprecedented rates of overdose mortality and there is increased need to identify effective harm reduction practices. Research from Canada describes cannabis donation through harm reduction agencies as an adjunctive strategy to mitigate the negative consequences of more harmful drugs. This case study describes the operational logistics, feasibility, and potential benefits of a cannabis donation program that was operated through a harm reduction program in rural Michigan. CASE PRESENTATION: We applied a community driven research approach to gather information from harm reduction program staff about the implementation and evolution of cannabis donation efforts in Michigan. We also examined 20-months (September 2021 through May 2023) of administrative data from a cannabis company to compare the sale and donation of cannabis products. Ten cannabis-experienced harm reduction clients received cannabis donations, with clinical staff determining client interest and appropriateness, and providing weekly pick-up or delivery. To expand product availability and sustainability, we examined administrative data from a commercialcannabis company that volunteered to provide donations. This administrative data suggests that while flower products constitute most of the adult and medical sales, edible, oil, and topical products predominated donations. Further, cost analysis suggests that donations represent only 1% of total gross sales and account for much less than the expected yearly donation amount. CONCLUSIONS: Research suggests there is potential to reduce alcohol and drug use related harms of more dangerous substances through substitution with cannabis. This case study is the first to document cannabis donation as a harm reduction practice in the US and suggests potential for sustainability dependent on state laws. Findings from this case study provide a starting point for inquiry into cannabis donation as a harm reduction strategy in the US; future research is needed to fully understand the individual-level outcomes, public health impacts, necessary legal regulations, and best practices for cannabis donation programs through harm reduction organizations.


Subject(s)
Cannabis , Hallucinogens , Adult , Humans , Canada , Commerce , Harm Reduction
8.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 63, 2024 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Drug checking services aim to provide compositional information for the illicit drug supply and are being employed in public health responses to extreme rates of overdose associated with fentanyl within street opioids. The technologies used within these services range from basic qualitative tests, such as immunoassay test strips, to comprehensive quantitative analyses, such as mass spectrometry. In general, there is concern that heterogeneity of a drug mixture adds significant uncertainty when using drug checking results based on a small subsamples. The presence of hot spots of active drug components in this context is often termed the 'chocolate chip cookie effect'. Establishing the limitations of the service are essential for interpretation of the results. METHODS: This study assesses the consequence of drug heterogeneity and sampling of consumer level opioid purchased in Victoria, British Columbia ( n = 21 , 50-100 mg each) on quantitative fentanyl results determined from testing with paper spray mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Using descriptive statistics, such as relative standard deviation and interquartile range, the results demonstrate varied distributions of fentanyl concentrations within a single drug batch. However, the presence of hot spots, defined as outliers, were relatively rare. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the variability in fentanyl concentration from drug heterogeneity and sampling is greater than that attributed to the analytical technique. On a practical level, this provides data to help guide communication of limitations of drug checking services, supporting the aim of trust and transparency between services and people who use drugs. However, if drug checking services continue to be restricted from fully engaging with the reality of manufacturing, buying, selling, mixing and dosing practices, the accuracy, usefulness, and impact will always be limited.


Subject(s)
Drug Overdose , Illicit Drugs , Humans , Analgesics, Opioid/analysis , Harm Reduction , Fentanyl/analysis , Illicit Drugs/analysis
9.
BMJ Open ; 14(3): e083983, 2024 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431295

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Many rural communities bear a disproportionate share of drug-related harms. Innovative harm reduction service models, such as vending machines or kiosks, can expand access to services that reduce drug-related harms. However, few kiosks operate in the USA, and their implementation, impact and cost-effectiveness have not been adequately evaluated in rural settings. This paper describes the Kentucky Outreach Service Kiosk (KyOSK) Study protocol to test the effectiveness, implementation outcomes and cost-effectiveness of a community-tailored, harm reduction kiosk in reducing HIV, hepatitis C and overdose risk in rural Appalachia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: KyOSK is a community-level, controlled quasi-experimental, non-randomised trial. KyOSK involves two cohorts of people who use drugs, one in an intervention county (n=425) and one in a control county (n=325). People who are 18 years or older, are community-dwelling residents in the target counties and have used drugs to get high in the past 6 months are eligible. The trial compares the effectiveness of a fixed-site, staffed syringe service programme (standard of care) with the standard of care supplemented with a kiosk. The kiosk will contain various harm reduction supplies accessible to participants upon valid code entry, allowing dispensing data to be linked to participant survey data. The kiosk will include a call-back feature that allows participants to select needed services and receive linkage-to-care services from a peer recovery coach. The cohorts complete follow-up surveys every 6 months for 36 months (three preceding kiosk implementation and four post-implementation). The study will test the effectiveness of the kiosk on reducing risk behaviours associated with overdose, HIV and hepatitis C, as well as implementation outcomes and cost-effectiveness. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The University of Kentucky Institutional Review Board approved the protocol. Results will be disseminated in academic conferences and peer-reviewed journals, online and print media, and community meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05657106.


Subject(s)
Drug Overdose , HIV Infections , Hepatitis C , Humans , Kentucky , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Harm Reduction , Rural Population , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepacivirus , Drug Overdose/prevention & control , Appalachian Region , HIV Infections/prevention & control
10.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 64, 2024 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491467

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Xylazine is an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist that has emerged as a contaminant in the illicit drug supply of fentanyl. Xylazine use may be suspected in naloxone-resistant overdoses and atypical, chronic wounds in people who use drugs (PWUD). This case is unique because it is the first case to our knowledge describing wound care for a xylazine-induced wound with a confirmatory xylazine test strip (XTS) in the setting of a syringe services program (SSP) and in the state of Florida. CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old woman with a past medical history of severe opioid use disorder and stimulant use disorder presented to a student-run clinic at a Miami SSP for wound care. She had multiple ulcerations diffusely over her bilateral forearms with surrounding erythema and warmth. Seven weeks later, she presented to clinic again for wound care because her wounds had progressed. At this visit, a XTS was used to confirm the presence of xylazine in her urine. Wound care management and harm reduction strategies employed at both visits were informed by best clinical judgement due to lack of formal guidelines at the time. Wound outcomes are unknown as the patient has not returned to clinic. CONCLUSIONS: Many PWUD at highest risk for acute and chronic health consequences of xylazine-adulterated fentanyl do not have access to healthcare outside of low barrier clinics and SSPs due to lack of insurance or mistrust of the traditional healthcare system due to stigma. There is an urgent need for access to XTS for PWUD and clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of xylazine-related wounds in outpatient clinics.


Subject(s)
Drug Overdose , Skin Ulcer , Female , Humans , Adult , Xylazine/adverse effects , Florida , Fentanyl/adverse effects , Harm Reduction , Analgesics, Opioid
11.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 67, 2024 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is drug of high prevalence in Aotearoa New Zealand and is the primary drug analysed by legal drug checking services. We aimed to address the gap in literature pertaining to MDMA-related harm reduction behaviour and harm experiences within the country. METHODS: An online survey was used to assess the harm reduction behaviours (e.g., limiting consumption, planning use, seeking information) of people who use MDMA, in addition to their use of reagent testing and the major national drug checking and harm reduction service, KnowYourStuffNZ. RESULTS: In total, 915 people completed the survey (60.7% females, aged 18-65, median = 24, IQR = 20-28). Frequency of various MDMA-related harm reduction behaviours differed, although these were carried out relatively frequently by most participants. Those who reported experiencing harm (physical, psychological, spiritual, social) from MDMA, or another drug presumed to be MDMA, reported less frequent harm reduction behaviours than non-harmed consumers. Reagent testing of MDMA had been conducted by 42.3% of the sample. Approximately 27% of the sample had used KnowYourStuffNZ services. Of KnowYourStuffNZ clients, 95.9% reported learning about harm reduction, and 53.3% reported changing their behaviour because of the service. Reasons for not using the KnowYourStuffNZ service were primarily lack of availability in local area (32.8%) or at relevant events (51.8%), and lack of concern with substance quality (29.8%). MDMA harm was reported by 14.4% of the sample, whilst reported harm was more common from consumption of presumably non-MDMA substances, self-reported as being mistaken for MDMA. Harm was primarily physical or psychological. Potential MDMA dependence was apparent in 6.9% of the sample. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight potential targets for harm reduction education and interventions and emphasize the need for greater availability of readily accessible drug checking services in Aotearoa New Zealand.


Subject(s)
N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine , Substance-Related Disorders , Female , Humans , Male , N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine/analysis , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Harm Reduction , New Zealand/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298005, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517885

ABSTRACT

The global gambling sector has grown significantly over recent years due to liberal deregulation and digital transformation. Likewise, concerns around gambling-related harms-experienced by individuals, their families, their local communities or societies-have also developed, with growing calls that they should be addressed by a public health approach. A public health approach towards gambling-related harms requires a multifaceted strategy, comprising initiatives promoting health protection, harm minimization and health surveillance across different strata of society. However, there is little research exploring how a public health approach to gambling-related harms can learn from similar approaches to other potentially harmful but legal sectors such as the alcohol sector, the tobacco sector, and the high in fat, salt and sugar product sector. Therefore, this paper presents a conceptual framework that was developed following a scoping review of public health approaches towards the above sectors. Specifically, we synthesize strategies from each sector to develop an overarching set of public health goals and strategies which-when interlinked and incorporated with a socio-ecological model-can be deployed by a range of stakeholders, including academics and treatment providers, to minimise gambling-related harms. We demonstrate the significance of the conceptual framework by highlighting its use in mapping initiatives as well as unifying stakeholders towards the minimization of gambling-related harms, and the protection of communities and societies alike.


Subject(s)
Gambling , Humans , Gambling/prevention & control , Gambling/epidemiology , Public Health , Harm Reduction , Drive , Ethanol
13.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 19(1): 21, 2024 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) remain a high priority population under the federal Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative with 11% of new HIV infections attributable to injection drug use. There is a critical need for innovative, efficacious, scalable, and community-driven models of healthcare in non-stigmatizing settings for PWID. We seek to test a Comprehensive-TeleHarm Reduction (C-THR) intervention for HIV prevention services delivered via a syringe services program (SSP). METHODS: The CHARIOT trial is a hybrid type I effectiveness-implementation study using a parallel two-arm randomized controlled trial design. Participants (i.e., PWID; n = 350) will be recruited from a syringe services program (SSP) in Miami, Florida. Participants will be randomized to receive either C-THR or non-SSP clinic referral and patient navigation. The objectives are: (1) to determine if the C-THR intervention increases engagement in HIV prevention (i.e., HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis; PrEP or medications for opioid use disorder; MOUD) compared to non-SSP clinic referral and patient navigation, (2) to examine the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the C-THR intervention, and (3) to assess the barriers and facilitators to implementation and sustainment of the C-THR intervention. The co-primary outcomes are PrEP or MOUD engagement across follow-up at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. For PrEP, engagement is confirmed by tenofovir on dried blood spot or cabotegravir injection within the previous 8 weeks. For MOUD, engagement is defined as screening positive for norbuprenorphine or methadone on urine drug screen; or naltrexone or buprenorphine injection within the previous 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes include PrEP adherence, engagement in HCV treatment and sustained virologic response, and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. The short and long term cost-effectiveness analyses and mixed-methods implementation evaluation will provide compelling data on the sustainability and possible impact of C-THR on comprehensive HIV prevention delivered via SSPs. DISCUSSION: The CHARIOT trial will be the first to our knowledge to test the efficacy of an innovative, peer-led telehealth intervention with PWID at risk for HIV delivered via an SSP. This innovative healthcare model seeks to transform the way PWID access care by bypassing the traditional healthcare system, reducing multi-level barriers to care, and meeting PWID where they are. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05897099. Trial registry name: Comprehensive HIV and Harm Prevention Via Telehealth (CHARIOT). Registration date: 06/12/2023.


Subject(s)
Drug Users , HIV Infections , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Humans , Harm Reduction , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Methadone/urine , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/complications
15.
Sex Health ; 212024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chemsex, a type of sexualised drug use, is expanding among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM), with physical and mental health risks. Health-seeking behaviours of GBMSM practising chemsex is not clear. METHODS: Harm reduction (HR) consultations for GBMSM engaging in chemsex and seeking comprehensive services including HR were offered in a Parisian infectious disease unit. From December 2021 to January 2022, HR consultation patients completed an online survey on their consumption, health, used services, and perspective on consultations. We generated descriptive statistics, and tested (χ 2 ) the relationship between reporting a specialised follow-up and perceived usefulness of intervention. RESULTS: Of 172 patients, a total of 96 GBMSM (55.2%) completed the survey. Most ever consumed substance was 3-methylmethcathinone (3MMC; 92/96; 95.8%). Before consultations, about half consumed at least once a week (50/96; 52%), most reported negative impacts of chemsex on their social (60/96, 62.5%), professional (56/96, 58.3%), intimate (53/96; 55.21%), or sexual life (52/96; 54.17%). Also, more than two-thirds (n =57; 69.38%) had received a follow-up in specialised services: one-third had been followed in addictology (28/96, 29.2%) and/or psychotherapy (32/96, 33.3%), and one-fourth (24/96, 25.0%) had used emergency services. After consultations, three-quarters perceived the intervention as useful (n =74; 77.08%); we found no significant relationship with receiving a specialised follow-up; and most were satisfied with professionals' listening (90/96; 93.8%), and reported reduced risks (80/96; 83.3%). DISCUSSION: Multidisciplinary HR, preventive, diagnostical, and therapeutic sexological and psychiatric interventions are greatly needed among GBMSM practising chemsex. HR interventions accessible in services already attended by GBMSM are a valuable option.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Substance-Related Disorders , Male , Humans , Homosexuality, Male/psychology , Harm Reduction , Sexual Behavior , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , HIV Infections/prevention & control
16.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 59, 2024 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While community pharmacies have been successful in providing harm reduction support for illicit substance consumers, little research has explored their role in addressing the needs of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) consumers. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to triangulate the attitudes and experiences of AAS consumers and community pharmacist's regarding AAS harm reduction. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with AAS consumers (n = 8) and community pharmacists (n = 15) between December 2022 and August 2023 in Australia. Interview data were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: While consumers emphasised easy access to pharmacies, particularly in urban areas, challenges were noted in rural regions. AAS consumers expressed a preference for community pharmacies, perceiving them as less confronting and a feasible avenue for accessing professional advice, highlighting the potential role of pharmacists in nurturing therapeutic alliances with AAS consumers. Similarly, pharmacists expressed receptivity to providing harm reduction information but acknowledged knowledge gaps, suggesting a need for tailored education programs to support AAS consumers effectively. CONCLUSIONS: Community pharmacies can be an important environment for AAS harm reduction. Strategies include utilising private spaces for open discussions with AAS consumers and enhancing pharmacists' understanding of AAS to foster trust and support. Further research is needed to address knowledge gaps and training needs for pharmacy staff, with the aim of creating a safer environment for AAS consumers.


Subject(s)
Community Pharmacy Services , Pharmacies , Humans , Pharmacists , Anabolic Androgenic Steroids , Harm Reduction , Professional Role , Steroids
17.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 68, 2024 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-acting injectable depot buprenorphine may increase access to opioid agonist treatment (OAT) for patients with opioid use disorder in different treatment phases. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of depot buprenorphine among Swedish patients with ongoing substance use and multiple psychiatric comorbidities. METHOD: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with OAT patients with experience of depot buprenorphine. Recruitment took place at two OAT clinics with a harm reduction focus, specializing in the treatment of patients with ongoing substance use and multiple comorbidities. Nineteen participants were included, 12 men and seven women, with a mean age of 41 years (range 24-56 years), and a mean of 21 years (5-35 years) of experience with illicit substance use. All participants had ongoing substance use and psychiatric comorbidities such as ADHD, anxiety, mood, psychotic and eating disorders. Interviews were transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis was conducted both manually and using qualitative data analysis software. RESULTS: Participants reported social benefits and positive changes in self-perception and identity. In particular, depot buprenorphine contributed to a realization that it was possible to make life changes and engage in activities not related to substance use. Another positive aspect that emerged from the interviews was a noticeable relief from perceived pressure to divert OAT medication, while some expressed the lack of income from diverted oral/sublingual OAT medication as a negative, but still acceptable, consequence of the depot buprenorphine. Many participants considered that the information provided prior to starting depot buprenorphine was insufficient. Also, not all patients found depot buprenorphine suitable, and those who experienced coercion exhibited particularly negative attitudes towards the medication. CONCLUSIONS: OAT patients with ongoing substance use and multiple psychiatric comorbidities reported clear benefits of depot buprenorphine, including changes in self-perception which has been theorized to play an important role in recovery. Clinicians should consider the specific information needs of this population and the extensive diversion of traditional OAT medications in this population to improve the treatment experience and outcomes. Overall, depot buprenorphine is a valuable treatment option for a population in need of harm reduction and may also contribute to psychological changes that may facilitate recovery in those with the greatest need.


Subject(s)
Buprenorphine , Opioid-Related Disorders , Male , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods , Harm Reduction , Opioid-Related Disorders/complications , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Qualitative Research , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use
18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38541289

ABSTRACT

Community Pharmacy Needle Exchanges are a harm reduction measure that have been established in a number of countries to provide access to sterile injecting equipment for people who inject drugs (PWID). To ensure that they are meeting needs, it is important to monitor the use of the services. This study aimed to determine patterns of needle distribution and return in community pharmacies in Ireland over time. The number of pharmacies, needle packs, clean needles and returned packs was obtained from the Health Service Executive (HSE) Planning and Business Information Unit (PBI). Yearly totals were calculated to show patterns from 2015 to 2022. There has been an 18% decline in the number of pharmacies providing the service since 2015, with a 19% decline in the number of packs provided and a 21% decline in the number of packs returned. The proportion of packs returned was 23% in 2015 and 18% in 2022. There has been a 16% decline in the number of sterile needles provided and a 6% reduction in the average number of needles per individual since 2017. Declining needle use and low rates of used needle return (against a backdrop of large numbers of PWID that have not significantly reduced over time) suggest that there is a need to investigate if community pharmacies in Ireland have the scope to improve their harm reduction impact. This raises questions in terms of the need to both improve and adapt the service against a backdrop of changing drug markets. Key recommendations include the need to review the harm reduction services employed by participating pharmacies when providing new equipment and organising the return of used equipment.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Pharmacies , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Humans , Needle-Exchange Programs , Ireland , Syringes , Harm Reduction
19.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 56, 2024 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38439094

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although harm reduction is highlighted as an effective intervention for alcohol and drug use, a funding gap for harm reduction interventions has been identified, mainly in low- and middle-income countries. In these countries, tensions between abstinence and harm reduction models have impaired the shift from punitive practices to evidence-based interventions committed to guaranteeing the human rights of people who use drugs. Since 2015, the Brazilian government has adopted a more punitive and abstinence-focused drug policy that jeopardizes the care of people who use alcohol and other drugs and the comprehension of the harm reduction workers' perspective in relation to their practice. Therefore, this study aimed to comprehend the meanings constructed by Brazilian harm reduction workers regarding their practices with vulnerable populations amidst a context of political tension. METHODS: We conducted 15 in-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews with harm reduction workers employed in public health services for at least 6 months. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The thematic axis "The joy and pain of being a harm reduction worker in Brazil" was constructed and divided into four major themes: (1) Invisibility of harm reduction work; (2) Black, poor, and people who use drugs: identification with the service users; (3) Between advocacy and profession: harm reduction as a political act; (4) Small achievements matter. Despite the perceived invisibility of harm reduction workers in the public health and alcohol and drug fields, valuing small achievements and advocacy were important resources to deal with political tension and punitive strategies in Brazil. The findings also highlight the important role of harm reduction workers due to their personal characteristics and understanding of drug use behavior, which bring the target audience closer to actions within the public health system. CONCLUSION: There is an urgent need to acknowledge harm reduction based on peer support as a professional category that deserves adequate financial support and workplace benefits. Additionally, expanding evidence-based harm reduction interventions and community-based voluntary drug use treatment centers should be prioritized by public policies to address the human rights violations experienced by people who use drugs.


Subject(s)
Harm Reduction , Pain , Humans , Brazil , Qualitative Research , Ethanol
20.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 19(1): 9, 2024 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to synthetize the evidence on the effectiveness of harm minimization interventions on reducing blood-borne infection transmission and injecting behaviors among people who inject drugs (PWID) through a comprehensive overview of systematic reviews and evidence gap mapping. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted with searches in PubMed and Scopus to identify systematic reviews assessing the impact of interventions aimed at reducing the harms associated with injectable drug use. The overall characteristics of the studies were extracted and their methodological quality was assessed using AMSTAR-2. An evidence gap map was constructed, highlighting the most frequently reported outcomes by intervention (CRD42023387713). RESULTS: Thirty-three systematic reviews were included. Of these, 14 (42.2%) assessed the impact of needle/syringe exchange programs (NSEP) and 11 (33.3%) examined opioid agonist therapy (OAT). These interventions are likely to be associated with reductions of HIV/HCV incidence (10-40% risk reduction for NSEP; 50-60% for OAT) and sharing injecting paraphernalia (50% for NSEP, 25-85% for OAT), particularly when combined (moderate evidence). Behavioral/educational interventions were assessed in 12 reviews (36.4%) with most authors in favor/partially in favor of the use of these approaches (moderate evidence). Take-home naloxone programs and supervised-injection facilities were each assessed in two studies (6.1%), which reported inconclusive results (limited/inconsistent evidence). Most authors reported high levels of heterogeneity and risk of bias. Other interventions and outcomes were inadequately reported. Most systematic reviews presented low or critically low quality. CONCLUSION: The evidence is sufficient to support the effectiveness of OAT, NSEP and their combination in reducing blood-borne infection transmission and certain injecting behaviors among PWID. However, evidence of other harm minimizations interventions in different settings and for some outcomes remain insufficient.


Subject(s)
Drug Users , HIV Infections , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Humans , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/complications , Harm Reduction , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Blood-Borne Infections , Evidence Gaps , Systematic Reviews as Topic
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...