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1.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(2): 179-186, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130062

ABSTRACT

Antiracist health policy research requires methodological innovation that creates equity-centered and antiracist solutions to health inequities by centering the complexities and insidiousness of structural racism. The development of effective health policy and health equity interventions requires sound empirical characterization of the nature of structural racism and its impact on public health. However, there is a disconnect between the conceptualization and measurement of structural racism in the public health literature. Given that structural racism is a system of interconnected institutions that operates with a set of racialized rules that maintain White supremacy, how can anyone accurately measure its insidiousness? This article highlights methodological approaches that will move the field forward in its ability to validly measure structural racism for the purposes of achieving health equity. We identify three key areas that require scholarly attention to advance antiracist health policy research: historical context, geographical context, and theory-based novel quantitative and qualitative methods that capture the multifaceted and systemic properties of structural racism as well as other systems of oppression.


Subject(s)
Health Equity , Mental Disorders , Racism , Health Policy , Humans , Racism/prevention & control
2.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226252, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO - Dentistry | ID: biblio-1366526

ABSTRACT

Universal health coverage is a global target included in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals agenda for 2030. Healthcare in Brazil has universal coverage through the Unified Health System (SUS), which guarantees health as basic right to the Brazilian population. Considering the principles of SUS, public oral healthcare management is a huge challenge. Aim: To identify good management practices for quality care adopted by local public oral healthcare managers and teams around Brazil. Methods: This study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017051639). Five databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus and Lilacs) as well as the reference lists and citations of the included publications were searched according to PRISMA guidelines. Results:A total of 30,895 references were initially found, which were evaluated according to the defined eligibility criteria. Twenty qualitative studies, eight surveys and two mixed-model studies were selected. The practices (codes) were organized into three main groups (families), and the Frequency of the Effect Size (FES) of each code was calculated. Among the 20 codes identified, the most relevant ones were: Diagnosis and Health Planning (FES=80%) and Family Health Strategy(FES=66,7). The Intensity of the Effect Size of each study was also calculated to demonstrate the individual contribution of each study to the conclusions. Conclusion: The evidence emerging from this review showed that healthcare diagnosis, planning, and performance based on the family health strategy principles were the most relevant practices adopted by public oral healthcare managers in Brazil. The widespread adoption of these practices could lead to improved oral healthcare provision and management in Brazil


Subject(s)
Humans , Unified Health System , Dental Care , Health Management , Health Policy , Brazil
3.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 20(1): 54, 2022 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence briefs for policy (EBPs) represent a potentially powerful tool for supporting evidence-informed policy-making. Since 2012, WHO Evidence-Informed Policy Network (EVIPNet) Europe has been supporting Member States in developing EBPs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the process of developing EBPs in Estonia, Hungary and Slovenia. METHODS: We used a rapid appraisal approach, combining semi-structured interviews and document review, guided by the Medical Research Council (MRC) process evaluation framework. Interviews were conducted with a total of 20 individuals familiar with the EBP process in the three study countries. Data were analysed thematically, and emerging themes were related back to the MRC framework components (implementation, mechanisms of impact, and context). We also reflected on the appropriateness of this evaluation approach for EVIPNet teams without evaluation research expertise to conduct themselves. RESULTS: The following themes emerged as important to the EBP development process: how the focus problem is prioritized, who initiates this process, EBP team composition, EBP team leadership, availability of external support in the process, and the culture of policy-making in a country. In particular, the EBP process seemed to be supported by early engagement of the Ministry of Health and other stakeholders as initiators, clear EBP team roles and expectations, including a strong leader, external support to strengthen EBP team capacity and cultural acceptance of the necessity of evidence-informed policy-making. Overall, the evaluation approach was considered feasible by the EBP teams and captured rich qualitative data, but may be limited by the absence of external reviewers and long lag times between the EBP process and the evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: This process occurs in a complex system and must be conceptualized in each country and each EBP project in a way that fits local policy-making culture, priorities, leadership and team styles, roles and available resources. The use of a rapid appraisal approach, combining qualitative interviews and document review, is a feasible method of process evaluation for EVIPNet member countries.


Subject(s)
Health Policy , Policy Making , Europe , Humans , Social Networking , World Health Organization
4.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 20(1): 51, 2022 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Timely knowledge mobilization has become increasingly critical during the COVID-19 pandemic and complicated by the need to establish or maintain lines of communication between researchers and decision-makers virtually. Our recent pan-Canadian research study on the mental health and substance use health (MHSUH) workforce during the pandemic identified key policy barriers impacting this essential workforce. To bridge the evidence-policy gap in addressing these barriers, we held a facilitated virtual policy dialogue. This paper discusses the insights generated at this virtual policy dialogue and highlights how this integrated knowledge mobilization strategy can help drive evidence-based policy in an increasingly digital world. METHODS: We held a 3-hour virtual policy dialogue with 46 stakeholders and policy decision-makers as the final phase in our year-long mixed-methods research study. The event was part of our integrated knowledge mobilization strategy and was designed to generate stakeholder-driven policy implications and priority actions based on our research findings. The data collected from the virtual policy dialogue included transcripts from the small-group breakout rooms and main sessions, reflective field notes and the final report from the external facilitator. Coded data were thematically analysed to inform our understanding of the prioritization of the policy implications and action items. RESULTS: Facilitated virtual policy dialogues generate rich qualitative insights that guide community-informed knowledge mobilization strategies and promote evidence-informed policy. Our policy dialogue identified actionable policy recommendations with equity as a cross-cutting theme. Adapting policy dialogues to virtual formats and including technology-assisted facilitation can offer advantages for equitable stakeholder participation, allow for deeper analysis and help build consensus regarding evidence-based policy priorities. CONCLUSIONS: Our facilitated virtual policy dialogue was a key knowledge mobilization strategy for our research on the capacity of the Canadian MHSUH workforce to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic. Our policy dialogue allowed us to engage a diverse group of MHSUH workforce stakeholders in a meaningful action-oriented way, provided an avenue to get feedback on our research findings, and generated prioritized action items that incorporated the knowledge and experience of these MHSUH workforce stakeholders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Canada , Health Policy , Health Workforce , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics
5.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(5)2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501067

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To systematically identify and describe approaches to prioritise primary research topics in any health-related area. METHODS: We searched Medline and CINAHL databases and Google Scholar. Teams of two reviewers screened studies and extracted data in duplicate and independently. We synthesised the information across the included approaches by developing common categorisation of relevant concepts. RESULTS: Of 44 392 citations, 30 articles reporting on 25 approaches were included, addressing the following fields: health in general (n=9), clinical (n=10), health policy and systems (n=10), public health (n=6) and health service research (n=5) (10 addressed more than 1 field). The approaches proposed the following aspects to be addressed in the prioritisation process: situation analysis/ environmental scan, methods for generation of initial list of topics, use of prioritisation criteria, stakeholder engagement, ranking process/technique, dissemination and implementation, revision and appeal mechanism, and monitoring and evaluation. Twenty-two approaches proposed involving stakeholders in the priority setting process. The most commonly proposed stakeholder category was 'researchers/academia' (n=17, 77%) followed by 'healthcare providers' (n=16, 73%). Fifteen of the approaches proposed a list of criteria for determining research priorities. We developed a common framework of 28 prioritisation criteria clustered into nine domains. The criterion most frequently mentioned by the identified approaches was 'health burden' (n=12, 80%), followed by 'availability of resources' (n=11, 73%). CONCLUSION: We identified and described 25 prioritisation approaches for primary research topics in any health-related area. Findings highlight the need for greater participation of potential users (eg, policy-makers and the general public) and incorporation of equity as part of the prioritisation process. Findings can guide the work of researchers, policy-makers and funders seeking to conduct or fund primary health research. More importantly, the findings should be used to enhance a more coordinated approach to prioritising health research to inform decision making at all levels.


Subject(s)
Health Policy , Public Health , Delivery of Health Care , Health Services , Humans , Stakeholder Participation
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e047435, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523489

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To review the overall planning, implementation and monitoring of adolescent and school health programmes currently implemented in India and determine if they are in alignment with the indicators for achieving universal health coverage for adolescents in India. METHODS: A rapid review, with key informant interviews and desk review, was conducted using World Health Organization's tool for Rapid Assessment of Implementation of Adolescent Health and School Health Programmes. Operational guidelines, reports and relevant publications (surveys, policy briefs and meeting proceedings) related to India's adolescent and school health programmes were reviewed. Key informant interviews were conducted in New Delhi (India) with senior officials from the health and education departments of the Government of India, representatives from the private health sector and civil society organisations. Data were analysed using World Health Organization's framework for universal health coverage for adolescents and summarised according to the key indicators. RESULTS: Key informant interviews were conducted with 18 participants: four each from health and education department of the government, one clinician from private health sector and nine representatives from civil society organisations. Manuals and operational guidelines of India's existing adolescent and school health programmes were reviewed. India's national adolescent and school health programmes align with many priority actions of the World Health Organization's framework for delivering universal health coverage for adolescents. These programmes require strengthening in their governance and implementation. While adolescent health and school health programmes have robust monitoring frameworks, however, there is a need to strengthen research and policy capacity. CONCLUSIONS: Various national health programmes have targeted adolescents as a priority population. A better translation of these programmes into implementation is needed so that the investments provided by the government offer sufficient opportunities for building collective national action for achieving universal health coverage with adolescents as an important section of the population.


Subject(s)
Private Sector , Universal Health Insurance , Adolescent , Adolescent Health , Health Policy , Humans , India
7.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(5): 703-712, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500191

ABSTRACT

We studied the effect of state punitive and supportive prenatal substance use policies on reports of infant maltreatment to child protection agencies. Punitive policies criminalize prenatal substance use or define it as child maltreatment, whereas supportive policies provide pregnant women with priority access to substance use disorder treatment programs. Using difference-in-differences methods, we found that total infant maltreatment reports increased by 19.0 percent after punitive policy adoption during the years of our study (2004-18). This growth was driven by a 38.4 percent increase in substantiated reports in which the mother was the alleged perpetrator. There were no changes in unsubstantiated reports after the adoption of punitive policies. We observed no changes in infant maltreatment reports after the adoption of supportive policies. Findings suggest that punitive policies lead to large increases in substantiated infant maltreatment reports, which in turn may lead to child welfare system involvement soon after childbirth in states with these policies. Policy makers should design interventions that emphasize support services and improve well-being for mothers and infants.


Subject(s)
Child Abuse , Substance-Related Disorders , Child Abuse/prevention & control , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Infant , Mothers , Pregnancy
8.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(5): 643-646, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500190

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine use has exploded during the past two years, but it has done so without sufficient attention to disparities by payer, age, race and ethnicity, income, English language proficiency, and geography. The process of designing permanent, postpandemic telehealth policies must center on equity. Current conversations on equity have focused on broadband access and payment parity between telemedicine modalities (audio only and audiovisual) and in-person care. However, creating telehealth policies that ensure equity will require a more comprehensive, cautious approach that acknowledges the unknowns about how to implement telemedicine to improve health, addresses the multilevel barriers to equity, and reconsiders the purpose and value of telemedicine.


Subject(s)
Telemedicine , Communication , Health Policy , Humans , Income
9.
Value Health ; 25(5): 677-684, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500942

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Healthcare policy makers should ensure optimal patient access to medical nutrition (MN) as part of the management of nutrition-related disorders and conditions. Questions remain whether current healthcare policies reflect the clinical and economic benefits of MN. The objective of this article is to characterize coverage and reimbursement of MN, defined as food for special medical purposes/medical food for a diverse set of countries, including Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Singapore, Spain, United Kingdom, and United States. METHODS: Data sources included published literature and online sources. ISPOR's Nutrition Economics Special Interest Group developed a data collection form to guide data extraction that included reimbursement coverage, years that reimbursement policies were established, and presence of a formal health technology assessment (HTA) for MN technologies. RESULTS: Reimbursement coverage of MN technologies varied across the countries that were reviewed. All but 3 countries limited coverage to specific formulations of products, regardless of demonstrated clinical benefit. The year that reimbursement policies were established varied across countries (ranging from 1984 to 2017), and only 4 countries regularly update policies. France and Brazil are the only countries with a formal HTA process for MN technologies. CONCLUSIONS: Most countries have limited MN reimbursement, have not updated reimbursement policies, and lack HTA for MN technologies. These limitations may lead to suboptimal access to MN technologies where they are indicated to manage nutrition-related disorders and conditions, with the potential of negatively affecting patient and healthcare system outcomes.


Subject(s)
Public Opinion , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Delivery of Health Care , Germany , Health Policy , Humans , United States
10.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-05-12. (OPS/HSS/HS/22-0002).
Non-conventional in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55981

ABSTRACT

El seguimiento del uso y la asignación de los recursos financieros asegura su congruencia con las políticas dirigidas a mejorar la equidad y eficiencia del sistema de salud teniendo en cuenta la sostenibilidad a largo plazo de los recursos. Las cuentas de salud permiten no solo visualizar los aciertos, sino también las brechas y oportunidades de mejora en la asignación de esos recursos. Sin embargo, la información que no se conoce, no existe y, por tanto, deja de ser relevante. De ahí que la elaboración de resúmenes de política constituya el punto culminante del proceso anual de generación de las cuentas de salud. Esta publicación presenta recomendaciones para lograr que la elaboración de resúmenes de política basados en las cuentas de salud sea un proceso que cumpla su objetivo de apoyar la discusión contextualizada para proponer intervenciones que se traduzcan en mejores y mayores prestaciones de salud para la población y que se adapten a sus necesidades.


Subject(s)
Health Services Accessibility , Healthcare Financing , Health Policy , Health Systems , Universal Health Coverage
11.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46, mayo 2022. Special Issue HEARTS
Article in Portuguese | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55964

ABSTRACT

[RESUMO]. A doença cardiovascular (DCV) é a principal causa de morte nas Américas, e a pressão arterial elevada é responsável por mais de 50% dos casos de DCV. Nas Américas, mais de um quarto das mulheres adultas e quatro de cada dez homens adultos têm hipertensão arterial, sendo que diagnóstico, tratamento e controle estão abaixo do ideal. Em 2021, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) divulgou uma atualização das diretrizes para o tratamento medicamentoso da hipertensão arterial em adultos. Esta publicação ressalta o papel facilitador da iniciativa Global HEARTS da OMS e da iniciativa HEARTS nas Américas para catalisar a implementação dessas diretrizes, oferece recomendações específicas de políticas para sua implementação e enfatiza a necessidade de uma abordagem estratégica abrangente para o controle da hipertensão arterial. Os autores clamam para que tanto as pessoas que advogam pela Saúde, quanto as autoridades responsáveis, priorizem a prevenção e o controle da hipertensão arterial como forma de melhorar a saúde e o bem-estar das populações e reduzir as disparidades de saúde cardiovascular dentro das populações das Américas e entre elas.


[ABSTRACT]. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Americas and raised blood pressure accounts for over 50% of CVD. In the Americas over a quarter of adult women and four in ten adult men have hypertension and the diagnosis, treatment and control are suboptimal. In 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) released an updated guideline for the pharmacological treatment of hypertension in adults. This policy paper highlights the facilitating role of the WHO Global HEARTS initiative and the HEARTS in the Americas initiative to catalyze the implementation of this guideline, provides specific policy advice for implementation, and emphasizes that an overarching strategic approach for hypertension control is needed. The authors urge health advocates and policymakers to prioritize the prevention and control of hypertension to improve the health and wellbeing of their populations and to reduce CVD health disparities within and between populations of the Americas.


[RESUMEN]. Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la principal causa de muerte en la Región de las Américas y la hipertensión es la causa de más del 50% de ellas. En la Región, más de una cuarta parte de las mujeres adultas y cuatro de cada diez hombres adultos tienen hipertensión y su diagnóstico, tratamiento y control son deficientes. En el 2021, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) publicó directrices actualizadas sobre el tratamiento farmacológico de la hipertensión en personas adultas. En este artículo se destaca el papel facilitador de la iniciativa mundial HEARTS de la OMS y la iniciativa HEARTS en las Américas para catalizar la implementación de estas directrices, a la vez que se proporciona asesoramiento específico sobre políticas para dicha implementación y se destaca la necesidad de adoptar un enfoque estratégico general para el control de la hipertensión. Los autores instan a quienes abogan por la salud y a los responsables de las políticas a priorizar la prevención y el control de la hipertensión para mejorar la salud y el bienestar de la población, y a reducir las disparidades de salud en relación con las enfermedades cardiovasculares dentro de la población y entre las poblaciones de la Región de las Américas.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Practice Guideline , Clinical Protocols , Health Services , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Health Policy , Practice Guideline , Clinical Protocols , Health Services , Public Health , Cardiovascular Diseases , Americas , Hypertension , Health Policy , Practice Guideline , Health Services , Public Health , Cardiovascular Diseases , Americas
12.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46, mayo 2022. Special Issue HEARTS
Article in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55963

ABSTRACT

[RESUMEN ]. Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la principal causa de muerte en la Región de las Américas y la hipertensión es la causa de más del 50% de ellas. En la Región, más de una cuarta parte de las mujeres adultas y cuatro de cada diez hombres adultos tienen hipertensión y su diagnóstico, tratamiento y control son deficientes. En el 2021, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) publicó directrices actualizadas sobre el tratamiento farmacológico de la hipertensión en personas adultas. En este artículo se destaca el papel facilitador de la iniciativa mundial HEARTS de la OMS y la iniciativa HEARTS en las Américas para catalizar la implementación de estas directrices, a la vez que se proporciona asesoramiento específico sobre políticas para dicha implementación y se destaca la necesidad de adoptar un enfoque estratégico general para el control de la hipertensión. Los autores instan a quienes abogan por la salud y a los responsables de las políticas a priorizar la prevención y el control de la hipertensión para mejorar la salud y el bienestar de la población, y a reducir las disparidades de salud en relación con las enfermedades cardiovasculares dentro de la población y entre las poblaciones de la Región de las Américas.


[ABSTRACT]. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Americas and raised blood pressure accounts for over 50% of CVD. In the Americas over a quarter of adult women and four in ten adult men have hypertension and the diagnosis, treatment and control are suboptimal. In 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) released an updated guideline for the pharmacological treatment of hypertension in adults. This policy paper highlights the facilitating role of the WHO Global HEARTS initiative and the HEARTS in the Americas initiative to catalyze the implementation of this guideline, provides specific policy advice for implementation, and emphasizes that an over-arching strategic approach for hypertension control is needed. The authors urge health advocates and policymakers to prioritize the prevention and control of hypertension to improve the health and wellbeing of their populations and to reduce CVD health disparities within and between populations of the Americas.


[RESUMO]. A doença cardiovascular (DCV) é a principal causa de morte nas Américas, e a pressão arterial elevada é responsável por mais de 50% dos casos de DCV. Nas Américas, mais de um quarto das mulheres adultas e quatro de cada dez homens adultos têm hipertensão arterial, sendo que diagnóstico, tratamento e controle estão abaixo do ideal. Em 2021, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) divulgou uma atualização das diretrizes para o tratamento medicamentoso da hipertensão arterial em adultos. Essa publicação ressalta o papel facilitador da iniciativa Global HEARTS da OMS e da iniciativa HEARTS nas Américas para catalisar a implementação dessas diretrizes, oferece recomendações específicas de políticas para sua implementação e enfatiza a necessidade de uma abordagem estratégica abrangente para o controle da hipertensão arterial. Os autores clamam para que tanto as pessoas que advogam pela Saúde, quanto as autoridades responsáveis, priorizem a prevenção e o controle da hipertensão arterial como forma de melhorar a saúde e o bem-estar das populações e reduzir as disparidades de saúde cardiovascular dentro das populações das Américas e entre elas.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Health Policy , Practice Guideline , Clinical Protocols , Health Services , Public Health , Cardiovascular Diseases , Americas , Hypertension , Health Policy , Practice Guideline , Clinical Protocols , Health Services , Public Health , Cardiovascular Diseases , Americas , Hypertension , Health Policy , Practice Guideline , Health Services , Cardiovascular Diseases
13.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-05.
| PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55955

ABSTRACT

Het gebruik van psychoactieve middelen heeft diverse sociale en gezondheidsgevolgen, die vanuit het perspectief van volksgezondheid en maatschappelijk welzijn kunnen worden aangepakt door middel van beleid dat door overheidsinstanties wordt geformuleerd overeenkomstig hun specifieke mandaten. Met een expliciet beleid ten aanzien van de gezondheid en het gebruik van psychoactieve middelen kunnen de benodigde oplossingen worden ontwikkeld ter bescherming en bevordering van het recht op gezondheid van de bevolking in verband met dit complexe probleem. Deze handleiding is een instrument dat is gebaseerd op technieken en methoden voor beleidsanalyse en ontwikkeld met het doel de toepassing van de beginselen van de volksgezondheid te faciliteren bij het vinden van antwoorden op problemen in verband met het gebruik van psychoactieve middelen. Daarom bevat de handleiding voorbeelden en oefeningen die de verschillende fases van het planningsproces illustreren en die kunnen worden gebruikt in workshops en andere opleidingsactiviteiten. Het is bedoeld voor degenen die verantwoordelijk zijn voor het formuleren, uitvoeren en evalueren van beleid, plannen en programma's gericht op het verminderen van de effecten van middelengebruik op de collectieve gezondheid, van volksgezondheidsinstanties en andere relevante sectoren tot de burgermaatschappij.


Subject(s)
Noncommunicable Diseases , Substance-Related Disorders , Public Health , Public Policy , Health Policy
14.
Value Health ; 25(5): 699-708, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500944

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Most countries have adopted public activity intervention policies to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Nevertheless, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of different interventions on the containment of the epidemic was inconsistent. METHODS: We retrieved time-series intervention policy data for 145 countries from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker from December 31, 2019, to July 1, 2020, which included 8 containment and closure policies. We investigated the association of timeliness, stringency, and duration of intervention with cumulative infections per million population on July 1, 2020. We introduced a novel counterfactual estimator to estimate the effects of these interventions on COVID-19 time-varying reproduction number (Rt). RESULTS: There is some evidence that earlier implementation, longer durations, and more strictness of intervention policies at the early but not middle stage were associated with reduced infections of COVID-19. The counterfactual model proved to have controlled for unobserved time-varying confounders and established a valid causal relationship between policy intervention and Rt reduction. The average intervention effect revealed that all interventions significantly decrease Rt after their implementation. Rt decreased by 30% (22%-41%) in 25 to 32 days after policy intervention. Among the 8 interventions, school closing, workplace closing, and public events cancellation demonstrated the strongest and most consistent evidence of associations. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides more reliable evidence of the quantitative effects of policy interventions on the COVID-19 epidemic and suggested that stricter public activity interventions should be implemented at the early stage of the epidemic for improved containment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Policy , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Schools
15.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 20(1): 50, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501898

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The shift in the global burden of disease from communicable to noncommunicable was a factor in mobilizing support for a broader post-Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) health agenda. To curb these and other global health problems, 193 Member States of the United Nations (UN) became signatories of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and committed to achieving universal health coverage (UHC) by 2030. In the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the importance of health systems governance (HSG) is felt now more than ever for addressing the pandemic and continuing to provide essential health services. However, little is known about the successes and challenges of HSG with respect to UHC and health security. This study, therefore, aims to synthesize the evidence and identify successes and challenges of HSG towards UHC and health security. METHODS: We conducted a structured narrative review of studies published through 28 July 2021. We searched the existing literature using three databases: PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. Search terms included three themes: HSG, UHC and health security. We synthesized the findings using the five core functions of HSG: policy formulation and strategic plans; intelligence; regulation; collaboration and coalition; and accountability. RESULTS: A total of 58 articles were included in the final review. We identified that context-specific health policy and health financing modalities helped to speed up the progress towards UHC and health security. Robust health intelligence, intersectoral collaboration and coalition were also essential to combat the pandemic and ensure the delivery of essential health services. On the contrary, execution of a one-size-fits-all HSG approach, lack of healthcare funding, corruption, inadequate health workforce, and weak regulatory and health government policies were major challenges to achieving UHC and health security. CONCLUSIONS: Countries, individually and collectively, need strong HSG to speed up the progress towards UHC and health security. Decentralization of health services to grass root levels, support of stakeholders, fair contribution and distribution of resources are essential to support the implementation of programmes towards UHC and health security. It is also vital to ensure independent regulatory accreditation of organizations in the health system and to integrate quality- and equity-related health service indicators into the national social protection monitoring and evaluation system; these will speed up the progress towards UHC and health security.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Universal Health Insurance , Global Health , Government Programs , Health Policy , Humans
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(19): e2117292119, 2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503914

ABSTRACT

SignificanceFor effective pandemic response, policymakers need tools that can assess policy impacts in near real-time. This requires policymakers to monitor changes in public well-being due to policy interventions. Particularly, containment measures affect people's mental well-being, yet changes in public emotions and sentiments are challenging to assess. Our work provides a solution by using social media posts to compute salient concerns and daily public sentiment values as a proxy of mental well-being. We demonstrate how public sentiment and concerns are impacted by various containment policy sub-types. This approach provides key benefits of using a data-driven approach to identify public concerns and provides near real-time assessment of policy impacts by computing daily public sentiment based on postings on social media.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Policy , Public Opinion , Social Media , Attitude , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emotions , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
18.
South Med J ; 115(5): 322-327, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504614

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Legislation dictating federal healthcare policy is drafted largely by members of the US Senate and House of Representatives. As such, their personal and professional backgrounds play important roles in setting the national healthcare agenda. We examine the professional and legislative records of the 28 federal physician legislators with voting privileges between 2011 and 2020. METHODS: Two researchers compiled the names of every federal legislator in both the US Senate and the US House of Representatives who served at any time between 2011 and 2020. The researchers used publicly available records to abstract information regarding their professional and legislative records. Data were then analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: The majority of the 28 federal physician legislators are Doctor of Medicine graduates (96%), Republican (86%), represent southern states (71%), were in private practice before serving as legislators (78.5%), and have not previously held elected positions as legislators (57%). Approximately 15% of the bills that they sponsor are related to health policy. Obstetrics/Gynecology, Surgery, and Family Medicine are the most common specialties. On average, it takes 25 years from medical school graduation to election to their federal legislative position. Approximately half represent states, or districts within states, in which they attended medical school or completed residency. CONCLUSIONS: To engage in meaningful healthcare policy advocacy, professional organizations must support and encourage leadership training for physicians, increase the geographic and professional diversity of physician legislators, prioritize the election of physicians from both political parties, and inculcate deep and lasting professional relationships to physicians in Congress.


Subject(s)
Internship and Residency , Physicians , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Politics , Pregnancy
19.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(2): 7014, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506156

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This article attempts to investigate whether inclusive health systems increase societal welfare, with the latter expressed through estimates of healthy life expectancy (HLE). METHODS: The analysis uses publicly available data by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and explores the relationship of HLE at the age of 65 years (HLE_65) with four variables that are representative of institutional inclusivity or extractiveness of health systems. RESULTS: Results indicate that HLE_65 is positively associated with healthcare system institutional inclusivity as expressed in terms of the share of public healthcare expenditure and the spending on preventive care. HLE_65 is inversely associated with the strength of extracting characteristics of the system, such as the market power of physicians and the share of specialists in the total number of physicians. CONCLUSION: In this light, the development of health policies that aim to strengthen inclusive institutions, such as the focus on prevention, financial protection and primary care, could have a significant positive impact in collective welfare and social cohesion - especially for populations in rural, remote and less developed parts of the world.


Subject(s)
Life Expectancy , Aged , Government Programs , Health Policy , Humans , Medical Assistance
20.
Internet resource in Portuguese | LIS -Health Information Locator | ID: lis-48745

ABSTRACT

Governo Federal, por meio do Ministério da Saúde, investiu pelo menos R$ 128 milhões em ações da Política Nacional de Promoção à Saúde (PNPS) no ano de 2021. O investimento fortaleceu o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) no estímulo à amamentação, no combate à obesidade infantil e na execução das ações do Programa Saúde na Escola.


Subject(s)
Health Policy/economics , Primary Health Care , Unified Health System , Breast Feeding , Health Promotion , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , School Health Services , Brazil
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