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1.
Univ. salud ; 26(2): D16-D27, mayo-agosto 2024. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553971

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La pandemia por COVID-19 ha afectado significativamente la calidad de los servicios de cuidado de la salud. Objetivo: Analizar los efectos en los atributos de la calidad en salud de los servicios de atención de enfermedades diferentes a la COVID-19 en Colombia, durante el periodo 2020-2022. Materiales y métodos: Se analizaron 24 artículos de alcance nacional y otros específicos de departamentos como Antioquia, Córdoba, Santander y Cundinamarca. Resultados: La pandemia por COVID-19 impactó la calidad de los servicios en la atención de enfermedades como cáncer, accidentes cerebrovasculares y de eventos como la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo. Conclusión: La calidad de la salud se vio afectada en todas sus dimensiones durante las fases de la pandemia, especialmente en la población con enfermedades crónicas y relacionadas con la salud infantil y materna. Además, se destacaron respuestas como el uso de la telemedicina y de la atención domiciliaria para contribuir a la calidad de la salud en Colombia.


Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected the quality of health care services. Objective: To analyze the effects of COVID-19 on the quality of health care services focused on treating diseases other than COVID-19 in Colombia during the 2020-2022 period. Materials and methods: 24 articles were analyzed, which included some studies focused on national issues and others specific to the departments of Antioquia, Cordoba, Santander, and Cundinamarca. Results: The COVID-19 pandemic affected the quality of health services caring for diseases such as cancer, strokes, and critical circumstances like voluntary termination of pregnancy. Conclusion: All dimensions of health care were affected during the pandemic, especially impacting populations with chronic diseases and diseases related to child and maternal health. It is important to highlight that telemedicine and home care contributed to improving the quality of health in Colombia.


Introdução: A pandemia de COVID-19 afetou significativamente a qualidade dos serviços de saúde. Objetivo: Analisar os efeitos da COVID-19 nos atributos de qualidade em saúde dos serviços de atenção a outras doenças além da COVID-19 na Colômbia, durante o período 2020-2022. Materiais e métodos: foram analisados 24 artigos de âmbito nacional e outros específicos de departamentos como Antioquia, Córdoba, Santander e Cundinamarca. Resultados: A pandemia da COVID-19 impactou a qualidade dos serviços no cuidado de doenças como câncer, acidente vascular cerebral e eventos como a interrupção voluntária da gravidez. Conclusão: A qualidade da saúde foi afetada em todas as suas dimensões durante as fases da pandemia, especialmente na população com doenças crônicas e doenças relacionadas à saúde infantil e materna. Além disso, foram destacadas respostas como o uso da telemedicina e do atendimento domiciliar para contribuir para a qualidade da saúde na Colômbia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Delivery of Health Care , Health Services Accessibility
2.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2024-06-04.
in Portuguese | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-60170

ABSTRACT

O "Manual operacional da OMS sobre tuberculose. Módulo 3: Diagnóstico - Testes para detecção de tuberculose infecção" é um novo manual operacional sobre testes para a infecção por TB. Três classes de testes são agora recomendadas nas últimas diretrizes consolidadas sobre testes para infecção por tuberculose. Isso inclui pela primeira vez uma nova classe de testes cutâneos baseados em antígenos do Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TBSTs), e as duas classes existentes de testes: o teste cutâneo de tuberculina (TST) e os ensaios de liberação de interferon-gama (IGRAs). Os IGRAs e TBSTs utilizam antígenos específicos do complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis e representam um avanço significativo em relação ao TST, que tem sido utilizado há mais de meio século. O manual operacional fornece como parceiros, pessoal de laboratório, clínicos, bem como ministérios da saúde e técnicos, com orientações detalhadas sobre como implementar as recomendações baseadas em evidências da OMS sobre testes de infecção por TB. O documento descreve os testes recomendados pela OMS, os procedimentos de teste, um algoritmo modelo e os passos necessários para ampliar os testes de infecção por TB dentro de um programa de saúde.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , HIV , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Health Services Accessibility , Sustainable Development
3.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1477, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mainstreaming HIV and AIDS across sectors is crucial to close the disparities in service provision and coverage. However, evidence has shown that certain social groups are left behind in receiving HIV/AIDS services. The objective of this study was twofold: to understand the reasons behind the existing inequities and to explore challenges of equity in HIV/AIDS services in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. METHODS: Twenty-two adults (aged 26-57 years) from eighteen sectors that are mainstreaming HIV and AIDS were purposefully selected until the point of saturation and participated in a semi-structured in-depth interview conducted between January 20 and February 17, 2023. Interviewees were asked to describe their mainstreaming experiences in equitable HIV/AIDS services, reflect on the challenges and barriers that impede equitable service provision, or explain the reasons behind the existence of inequity in HIV/AIDS services. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, translated, and iteratively analysed, with early analysis informing subsequent interviews. An inductive-reflexive thematic analysis was conducted, whereby themes and subthemes were identified, and the relationships between subthemes and patterns were critically reviewed. RESULTS: The challenges to equitable HIV/AIDS service provision were grouped into eight thematic areas: (1) changing contexts that shifts public and government attention to emerging diseases, war and political instability, and poverty; (2) leadership-related, such as the lack of supervision and monitoring, not politicising HIV/AIDS (not providing political attention to HIV/AIDS) and weak intersectoral collaboration; (3) financial constraints due to a random budgeting and contract interruption with non-governmental organisations (NGOs); (4) lack of resources due to scarcity and unfair distribution; (5) inadequate skilled personnel due to inadequate numbers and lack of continuous professional and career development; (6) lack of equity-related evidence-based tools and guidelines; (7) inadequate understanding of equity due to lack of training and misunderstanding, and lack of access to equity-oriented tools and guidelines; and (8) cultural norms, values, and perceptions. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified critical challenges faced in the equitable HIV/AIDS services provision. To achieve equity in HIV/AIDS services, mainstreaming sectors need to invest in mechanisms to sustain services in emergency situations; identify effective leaders to maintain collaboration, monitoring, and evaluation; institutionalise responsive budgeting and establish alternative funds to maintain non-governmental organisations initiatives; provide continuous up-to-date training and create a common evidence-sharing platform; implement proper recruitment, education, and professional development of HIV/AIDS focal persons; and promote and practice culturally safe care. It is, therefore, essential to optimise sectors that are mainstreaming HIV/AIDS and incorporate equity considerations in their strategic plans and working guidelines.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Humans , Ethiopia , Adult , HIV Infections/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Female , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/therapy , Healthcare Disparities , Health Services Accessibility , Qualitative Research , Interviews as Topic , Health Equity
4.
Reprod Health ; 21(1): 76, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2006, a Constitutional Court ruling partially decriminalized abortion in Colombia, allowing the procedure in cases of rape, risk to the health or life of the woman, and fetal malformations incompatible with life. Despite this less prohibitive law, some women and pregnant people preferred self-managing their abortions outside the formal healthcare system, often without accurate information. In 2018, we undertook a study to understand what motivated women to self-manage using medications that they acquired informally. Colombia has since adopted a progressive law in 2022, permitting abortion on request through the 24th week of pregnancy. However, the implementation of this law is still underway. Examining the reasons why women chose to informally self-manage an abortion after 2006 may not only highlight how barriers to legal services persisted at that time, but also could inform strategies to increase knowledge of the current abortion law and improve access to services going forward. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted in 2018 with 47 women aged 18 and older who used misoprostol obtained outside of health facilities to induce an abortion, and who were receiving postabortion care in two private clinics. Interviews explored what women knew about the 2006 abortion law which was then in effect, and the reasons why they preferred informal channels for abortion care over formal healthcare services. RESULTS: Women's motivations to use misoprostol obtained outside the formal healthcare system were influenced by lack of trust in the healthcare system along with incomplete and inaccurate knowledge of the abortion law. Conversely, women considered misoprostol obtained outside the healthcare system to be effective, affordable, and easier to access. CONCLUSIONS: Obtaining misoprostol outside the formal healthcare system offered a more accessible and appealing prospect for some women given fears of legal repercussion and stigma toward abortion. Though this preference will likely continue despite the more liberal abortion law, strategies should be implemented to broaden knowledge of the recent change in law and to combat misinformation and stigma. This would support knowledge of and access to legal abortion for those who wish to avail themselves of these services.


Subject(s)
Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal , Abortion, Induced , Misoprostol , Motivation , Qualitative Research , Humans , Female , Misoprostol/administration & dosage , Misoprostol/therapeutic use , Adult , Colombia , Pregnancy , Abortion, Induced/legislation & jurisprudence , Abortion, Induced/psychology , Abortion, Induced/methods , Young Adult , Aftercare , Adolescent , Health Services Accessibility
5.
Ann Glob Health ; 90(1): 35, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827539

ABSTRACT

Many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) grapple with shortages of health workers, a crucial component of robust health systems. The COVID-19 pandemic underscored the imperative for appropriate staffing of health systems and the occupational health (OH) threats to health workers. Issues related to accessibility, coverage, and utilization of OH services in public sector health facilities within LMICs were particularly accentuated during the pandemic. This paper draws on the observations and experiences of researchers engaged in an international collaboration to consider how the South African concept of Ubuntu provides a promising way to understand and address the challenges encountered in establishing and sustaining OH services in public sector health facilities. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, the collaborators actively participated in implementing and studying OH and infection prevention and control measures for health workers in South Africa and internationally as part of the World Health Organizations' Collaborating Centres for Occupational Health. The study identified obstacles in establishing, providing, maintaining and sustaining such measures during the pandemic. These challenges were attributed to lack of leadership/stewardship, inadequate use of intelligence systems for decision-making, ineffective health and safety committees, inactive trade unions, and the strain on occupational health professionals who were incapacitated and overworked. These shortcomings are, in part, linked to the absence of the Ubuntu philosophy in implementation and sustenance of OH services in LMICs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , South Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Occupational Health Services/organization & administration , Developing Countries , Health Services Accessibility , Pandemics
6.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1305458, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827604

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthcare service utilization is unequal among different subpopulations in low-income countries. For healthcare access and utilization of healthcare services with partial or full support, households are recommended to be enrolled in a community-based health insurance system (CBHIS). However, many households in low-income countries incur catastrophic health expenditure. This study aimed to assess the spatial distribution and factors associated with households' enrollment level in CBHIS in Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study design with two-stage sampling techniques was used. The 2019 Ethiopian Mini Demographic and Health Survey (EMDHS) data were used. STATA 15 software and Microsoft Office Excel were used for data management. ArcMap 10.7 and SaTScan 9.5 software were used for geographically weighted regression analysis and mapping the results. A multilevel fixed-effect regression was used to assess the association of variables. A variable with a p < 0.05 was considered significant with a 95% confidence interval. Results: Nearly three out of 10 (28.6%) households were enrolled in a CBHIS. The spatial distribution of households' enrollment in the health insurance system was not random, and households in the Amhara and Tigray regions had good enrollment in community-based health insurance. A total of 126 significant clusters were detected, and households in the primary clusters were more likely to be enrolled in CBHIS. Primary education (AOR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.31), age of the head of the household >35 years (AOR: 2.47, 95% CI: 2.04, 3.02), poor wealth status (AOR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.21, 1.31), media exposure (AOR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.27), and residing in Afar (AOR: 0.01, 95% CI: 0.003, 0.03), Gambela (AOR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.08), Harari (AOR: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.18), and Dire Dawa (AOR: 0.02, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.06) regions were significant factors for households' enrollment in CBHIS. The secondary education status of household heads, poor wealth status, and media exposure had stationary significant positive and negative effects on the enrollment of households in CBHIS across the geographical areas of the country. Conclusion: The majority of households did not enroll in the CBHIS. Effective CBHIS frameworks and packages are required to improve the households' enrollment level. Financial support and subsidizing the premiums are also critical to enhancing households' enrollment in CBHIS.


Subject(s)
Community-Based Health Insurance , Family Characteristics , Humans , Ethiopia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Male , Adult , Community-Based Health Insurance/statistics & numerical data , Spatial Analysis , Middle Aged , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data
8.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 35(2): 583-604, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828583

ABSTRACT

Sexual minority women (SMW) experience worse health than their heterosexual counterparts but have largely been omitted from health services research. To address this gap, we conducted 25 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with SMW. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis, and findings were organized using a modified socioecological framework. Key themes at each socioecological level include (1) structural: stigma, sociocultural norms, health infrastructure; (2) organizational: stigma, patient-provider relationship, hours and location, linkage to care and co-location of services; (3) interpersonal: stigma and social support; (4) individual: internalized stigma, self-efficacy, socioeconomic status, health literacy, and intersecting identities. Stigma is the central theme affecting vulnerabilized SMW's experiences accessing care. Anti-stigma initiatives and factors that lead to personal resilience and can mitigate care access barriers were identified at each level. Interventions should focus on building inclusive policies/infrastructure and using SMW's unique social networks to empower and improve care access and health outcomes among vulnerabilized SMW.


Subject(s)
Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Social Stigma , Humans , Female , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Adult , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Social Support , Qualitative Research , Health Services Accessibility , Interviews as Topic
9.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 35(2): 707-725, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828590

ABSTRACT

Using a social-ecological model (SEM), this qualitative study explored the facilitators of access to primary health care (PHC) among Ethiopian immigrant women in the U.S. Data were collected through in-depth interviews (N=21, ≥18 years) and analyzed thematically using Nvivo12. At the individual level, stable employment, insurance, immigration status, proactivity, education, communication skills, and internet usage were identified as facilitators of PHC access. Interpersonal support from family and friends was highlighted as a key facilitator. Institutional facilitators included interpretation services and the sociocultural background of health care providers. On the community level, support from community organizations and residing in certain locations were recognized as facilitators of PHC access. No policy-level facilitators were identified. The findings underscore the importance of strengthening individual and interpersonal capacities, including job opportunities, social support, legal assistance for immigration status, and education and communication skills. Further research is needed to analyze policy gaps and suggest viable solutions.


Subject(s)
Emigrants and Immigrants , Health Services Accessibility , Primary Health Care , Qualitative Research , Humans , Female , Ethiopia/ethnology , Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology , Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , Adult , United States , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Social Support , Interviews as Topic , Adolescent
10.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 35(2): 636-657, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828586

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand attitudes towards telemedicine and to further elucidate benefits, disadvantages, and visit preferences in a largely minority, urban safety-net setting. METHODS: Between 2020 and 2021, pregnant people, and parents of children younger than two years old were recruited from outpatient clinics. Interviews were conducted via phone, recorded, transcribed, and translated. Data were analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: Seventy-four (74) individuals participated including 42 pregnant people and 32 parents. Most participants cited advantages to telemedicine including safety, convenience, improved access, and less disruption of work schedules, and wished to continue to have the telemedicine option available after the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Patients seeking care in safety-net settings, many of whom are working parents, noted that telemedicine improves access to care by providing an efficient and accessible option that overcomes barriers related to transportation and work schedules. Their experiences highlight the importance of continuing to offer telemedicine services.


Subject(s)
Parents , Safety-net Providers , Telemedicine , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Parents/psychology , Safety-net Providers/organization & administration , Male , Infant , Urban Population , Young Adult , Health Services Accessibility , Middle Aged , Attitude to Health
11.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 35(2): 731-742, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828592

ABSTRACT

Despite facing many social and structural challenges inside and outside of health systems, transgender and gender diverse (TGD) Brazilian immigrants in the U.S. are understudied, and their barriers to care are largely unnamed. In this commentary, we build on existing literature and our experiences at a safety-net community health system that sees a high volume of Brazilian patients to discuss challenges facing TGD Brazilian immigrant populations. We highlight that while Brazilian TGD populations face discrimination in Brazil, major challenges persist upon immigrating to the U.S., and include: difficulty updating identity documents and changing immigration status, barriers seeking general and specialized health care (including finding bilingual and bicultural providers), challenges navigating complex health and insurance systems, and a lack of community supports. We end by recommending more coordinated efforts between health care and community organizations to help ensure the health and wellness of TGD Brazilian immigrants in the United States.


Subject(s)
Health Services Accessibility , Transgender Persons , Humans , Brazil , Transgender Persons/statistics & numerical data , Transgender Persons/psychology , United States , Female , Male , Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data
12.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 35(2): 726-730, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828591

ABSTRACT

The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program is a unique federal program to provide HIV care, treatment, and support services for people living with HIV in the United States. Through the distinctive structure of the program that allows for addressing both medical needs and some of the social determinants of health that can pose barriers to accessing care, the program has been instrumental in improving outcomes for people with HIV with documented improvement in HIV viral suppression and decreased disparities in that outcome over the past decade. To reach the goal of ending the HIV epidemic in the U.S., the program must expand services to people with HIV who are not regularly engaged in medical care.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , United States/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/therapy , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Social Determinants of Health , Government Programs , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/therapy , White
13.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 25: e32, 2024 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826073

ABSTRACT

AIM: To explore how patients and general practice professionals in low-income neighborhoods experienced the increase of remote care during COVID-19. BACKGROUND: As the GP (general practitioner) is the first point of contact in Dutch health care, there are concerns about access to remote care for patients from low-income neighborhoods. Now that general practice professionals have returned to the pre-pandemic ways of healthcare delivery, this paper looks back at experiences with remote care during COVID-19. It investigates experiences of both patients and general practice professionals with the approachability and appropriateness of remote care and their satisfaction. METHODS: In this qualitative study, 78 patients and 18 GPs, 7 nurse practitioners and 6 mental health professionals were interviewed. Interviews were held on the phone and face-to-face in the native language of the participants. FINDINGS: Remote care, especially telephone consultation, was generally well-approachable for patients from low-income neighborhoods. Contrarily, video calling was rarely used. This was partly because patients did not know how to use it. The majority of patients thought remote care was possible for minor ailments but would also still like to see the doctor face-to-face regularly. Patients were generally satisfied with remote care at the time, but this did not necessarily reflect their willingness to continue using it in the future. Moreover, there was lack in consensus among general practice professionals on the appropriateness of remote care for certain physical and mental complaints. Nurse practitioners and mental health professionals had a negative attitude toward remote care. In conclusion, it is important to take the opinions and barriers of patients and care providers into account and to increase patient-centered care elements and care provider satisfaction in remote care. Integrating remote care is not only important in times of crisis but also for future care that is becoming increasingly digitalized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Practice , Poverty , Qualitative Research , Humans , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Male , Middle Aged , Adult , Netherlands , Aged , Telemedicine , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Attitude of Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2 , Remote Consultation , Health Services Accessibility
14.
J Robot Surg ; 18(1): 239, 2024 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833043

ABSTRACT

Robot-assisted kidney transplantation (RAKT) is a relatively novel, minimally invasive option for kidney transplantation. However, clarity on recipient selection in the published literature is lacking thereby significantly limiting interpretation of safety and other outcomes. This systematic review aimed to identify and synthesize the data on selection of RAKT recipients, compare the synthesized data to kidney transplant recipients across the USA, and explore geographical clusters of availability of RAKT. Systematic literature review, in accordance with PRISMA, via OVID MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of science from inception to March 5, 2023. All data entry double blinded and quality via Newcastle Ottawa Scale. 44 full-text articles included, encompassing approximately 2402 kidney transplant recipients at baseline but with considerable suspicion for overlap across publications. There were significant omissions of information across studies on patient selection for RAKT and/or analysis. Overall, the quality of studies was very low. Given suspicion of overlap across studies, it is difficult to determine how many RAKT recipients received living (LD) versus deceased donor (DD) organs, but a rough estimate suggests 89% received LD. While the current RAKT literature provides preliminary evidence on safety, there are significant omissions in reporting on patient selection for RAKT which limits interpretation of findings. Two recommendations: (1) international consensus is needed for reporting guidelines when publishing RAKT data and (2) larger controlled trials consistently reporting recipient characteristics are needed to clearly determine selection, safety, and outcomes across both LD and DD recipients.


Subject(s)
Kidney Transplantation , Patient Selection , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Humans , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Robotic Surgical Procedures/standards , Health Services Accessibility
15.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ; 33(3): 307-317, 2024 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823805

ABSTRACT

We provide an overview of the systems of care and the barriers faced by minoritized youth. We discuss ways to address barriers by forging alliances, improving communication with cultural humility, and a nonjudgmental approach. We underscore the importance of a holistic evaluation of minoritized children while leveraging their resilience to create a comprehensive and multipronged plan of action.


Subject(s)
Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Adolescent , Child , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Adolescent Health Services
16.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 108, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Syringe services programs (SSPs) are critical healthcare access points for people with opioid use disorder (OUD) who face treatment utilization barriers. Co-locating care for common psychiatric comorbidities, like posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at SSPs may reduce harms and enhance the health of individuals with OUD. To guide the development of onsite psychiatric care at SSPs, we collected quantitative survey data on the prevalence of PTSD, drug use patterns, treatment experiences associated with a probable PTSD diagnosis, and attitudes regarding onsite PTSD care in a convenience sample of registered SSP clients in New York City. METHODS: Study participants were administered the PTSD Checklist for the DSM-5 (PCL-5) and asked about sociodemographic characteristics, current drug use, OUD and PTSD treatment histories, and desire for future SSP services using a structured interview. Probable PTSD diagnosis was defined as a PCL-5 score ≥ 31. RESULTS: Of the 139 participants surveyed, 138 experienced at least one potentially traumatic event and were included in the present analysis. The sample was primarily male (n = 108, 78.3%), of Hispanic or Latinx ethnicity (n = 76, 55.1%), and middle-aged (M = 45.0 years, SD = 10.6). The mean PCL-5 score was 35.2 (SD = 21.0) and 79 participants (57.2%) had a probable PTSD diagnosis. We documented frequent SSP utilization, significant unmet PTSD treatment need, and high interest in onsite PTSD treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings point to the ubiquity of PTSD in people with OUD who visit SSPs, large gaps in PTSD care, and the potential for harm reduction settings like SSPs to reach people underserved by the healthcare system who have co-occurring OUD and PTSD.


Subject(s)
Mental Health Services , Needle-Exchange Programs , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Male , Female , Adult , Needle-Exchange Programs/statistics & numerical data , New York City/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Patient Preference , Health Services Needs and Demand/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data
17.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 19(1): 2361494, 2024 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824661

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine the lived experiences of children and adolescents coping with mental health issues and seeking mental health services in Saskatchewan during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In our descriptive phenomenological qualitative study, we interviewed forty-six individuals, including children aged 8-15 and their parents. Thematic analysis was applied to interpret the interview data. RESULTS: Our analysis identified three key themes: pyscho-behavioural impact, academic impact, and social impact. The pandemic adversely affected children due to factors like changes in behaviours such as increased screen time and decreased physical activity, limited access to mental health services, and disruptions to schooling and social interactions. Coping mechanisms varied, ranging from the utilization of available mental health supports and services to individual and family-based strategies. Disparities in timely access to mental health services were evident, with financially stable families accessing private services, while others struggled, particularly in rural areas. Families demonstrated resilience through parental efforts to seek balance and prioritize safety amidst COVID-19 challenges. CONCLUSIONS: Social connectedness served as a crucial buffer against pandemic-induced stress. Children faced difficulty in accessing timely mental health services and supports. Echoing participant experiences, our findings emphasize the urgency of targeted interventions and policy adjustments to address existing gaps in mental health service accessibility and availability.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19 , Mental Health Services , Mental Health , Qualitative Research , Humans , COVID-19/psychology , Saskatchewan , Adolescent , Child , Male , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Parents/psychology , Family/psychology , Health Services Accessibility , Adult , Pandemics
18.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 19(1): 2361492, 2024 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824662

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cancer survivors experience barriers to primary healthcare (PHC) services. The aim was to explore reactions to and opinions about perceived challenges associated with PHC access and quality among cancer survivors in Sweden, including how they have acted to adapt to challenges. METHODS: Five semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with cancer survivors (n = 20) from Skåne, Sweden, diagnosed with breast, prostate, lung, or colorectal cancer or malignant melanoma. Focus groups were mixed in regard to diagnosis. Data were analysed using a descriptive template analysis approach. RESULTS: In light of perceived challenges associated with access to adequate PHC, participants experienced that they had been forced to work hard to achieve functioning PHC contacts. The demands for self-sufficiency were associated with negative feelings such as loneliness and worry. Participants believed that cancer survivors who lack the ability to express themselves, or sufficient drive, risk missing out on necessary care due to the necessity of being an active patient. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight negative patient experiences. They have implications for the organization of care for cancer survivors as they indicate a need for more efficient post-treatment coordination between cancer specialist care and PHC providers, as well as increased support for patients leaving primary cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Cancer Survivors , Focus Groups , Neoplasms , Primary Health Care , Humans , Cancer Survivors/psychology , Female , Male , Sweden , Middle Aged , Aged , Adult , Neoplasms/psychology , Neoplasms/therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Qualitative Research , Loneliness/psychology , Perception
19.
Rural Remote Health ; 24(2): 8520, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826130

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Ninety-seven per cent of Indigenous Peoples live in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). A previous systematic integrative review of articles published between 2000 and 2017 identified numerous barriers for Indigenous women in LMICs in accessing maternal healthcare services. It is timely given the aim of achieving Universal Health Coverage in six years' time, by 2030, to undertake another review. This article updates the previous review exploring the recent available literature on Indigenous women's access to maternal health services in LMICs identifying barriers to services. METHODS: An integrative review of literature published between 2018 and 2023 was undertaken. This review followed a systematic process using Whittemore and Knafl's five-step framework for integrative reviews and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 944 articles were identified from six databases: Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, APA PsycInfo, CINAHL Plus with Full Text and APA PsycArticles (through EBSCOhost). The search was undertaken on 16 January 2023. After screening of the title/abstract and the full text using inclusion and exclusion criteria 26 articles were identified. Critical appraisal resulted in 24 articles being included in the review. Data were extracted using a matrix informed by Penchansky and Thomas's taxonomy, extended by Saurman, which focused on six dimensions of access to health care: affordability, accessibility, availability, accommodation, acceptability and awareness. Ten studies took place in Asia, 10 studies were from the Americas and four studies took place in the African region. Seventeen articles were qualitative, two were quantitative and five were mixed methods. The methods for the integrative review were prespecified in a protocol, registered at Open Science Framework. RESULTS: Barriers identified included affordability; community awareness of services including poor communication between providers and women; the availability of services, with staff often missing from the facilities; poor quality services, which did not consider the cultural and spiritual needs of Indigenous Peoples; an overreliance on the biomedical model; a lack of facilities to enable appropriate maternal care; services that did not accommodate the everyday needs of women, including work and family responsibilities; lack of understanding of Indigenous cultures from health professionals; and evidence of obstetric violence and mistreatment of Indigenous women. CONCLUSION: Barriers to Indigenous women's access to maternal health services are underpinned by the social exclusion and marginalisation of Indigenous Peoples. Empowerment of Indigenous women and communities in LMICs is required as well as initiatives to challenge the stigmatisation and marginalisation that they face. The importance of community involvement in design and interventions that support the political and human rights of Indigenous Peoples are required. Limitations of this review include the possibility of missing articles as it was sometimes unclear from the articles whether a particular group was from an Indigenous community. More research on access to services in the postnatal period is still needed, as well as quality quantitative research. There is also a lack of research on Indigenous groups in North Africa, and in sub-Saharan Africa - especially hunter-gatherer groups - as well as the impact of COVID-19 on access to services.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Health Services Accessibility , Indigenous Peoples , Maternal Health Services , Humans , Maternal Health Services/organization & administration , Female , Health Services, Indigenous/organization & administration , Pregnancy
20.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 35(2): 439-464, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828575

ABSTRACT

Between 1990 and 2020, 334 rural hospitals closed in the United States, and since 2011 hospital closures have outnumbered new hospital openings. This scoping review evaluates peer-reviewed studies published since 1990 with a focus on rural hospital closures, synthesizing studies across six themes: 1) health care policy environment, 2) precursors to rural hospital closures, 3) economic impacts, 4) effects of rural hospital closures on access to care, 5) health and community impacts, and 6) definitions of rural hospitals and communities. In the 1990s, rural hospitals that closed were smaller, while rural hospitals that closed in the 2010s tended to have more beds. Many studies of the health impacts of rural hospital closures yielded null findings. However, these studies differed in their definitions of "rural hospital closure." Given the accelerated rate of hospital closures, more attention should be paid to hospitals that serve rural communities of color and low-income communities.


Subject(s)
Health Facility Closure , Health Services Accessibility , Hospitals, Rural , Humans , United States , Health Policy
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