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1.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(2): 157, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130068
2.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268006, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507569

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to quantify the magnitude of absolute and relative oral health inequality in countries with similar socio-political environments, but differing oral health care systems such as Canada, the United States (US), and the United Kingdom (UK), in the first decade of the new millennium. Clinical oral health data were obtained from the Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007-2009, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008, and the Adult Dental Health Survey 2009, for Canada, the US and UK, respectively. The slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII) were used to quantify absolute and relative inequality, respectively. There was significant oral health inequality in all three countries. Among dentate individuals, inequality in untreated decay was highest among Americans (SII:28.2; RII:4.7), followed by Canada (SII:21.0; RII:3.09) and lowest in the UK (SII:15.8; RII:1.75). Inequality for filled teeth was negligible in all three countries. For edentulism, inequality was highest in Canada (SII: 30.3; RII: 13.2), followed by the UK (SII: 10.2; RII: 11.5) and lowest in the US (SII: 10.3; and RII: 9.26). Lower oral health inequality in the UK speaks to the more equitable nature of its oral health care system, while a highly privatized dental care environment in Canada and the US may explain the higher inequality in these countries. However, despite an almost equal utilization of restorative dental care, there remained a higher concentration of unmet needs among the poor in all three countries.


Subject(s)
Health Status Disparities , Oral Health , Adult , Canada , Humans , Nutrition Surveys , Socioeconomic Factors , United Kingdom , United States
4.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(4): ES124221, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508026

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to identify the most frequent barriers in access to abortions in both clandestine and legal clinical contexts, from the perspective of accompanying persons, namely feminist activists who accompanied women that opted for voluntary abortions with medication. We performed 14 semi-structured interviews with accompanying persons in three regions of Mexico: Baja California and Chiapas, both of which are restrictive contexts, and Mexico City, where elective abortion is legal up to 12 weeks' gestational age. We identified four categories in which the social vulnerabilities of women who elect to undergo abortion intersect, namely lack of information, persistence of stigma, influence of the legal framework, and flaws in abortion care, including in clinics for legal termination of pregnancy (in Mexico City), and poor quality of the services provided, with verbal abuse, conscientious objection, and healthcare provider complaints, and finally the antichoice groups and their strategies. In the three regions, access to abortion clinics is still a privilege reserved for women with the necessary economic, logistic, and socials resources for the procedure in these settings. The existence of a program for legal termination of pregnancy (Interrupción Legal de Embarazo) in only one entity reveals the existence of a legal and health inequality. The study's findings on accompanying persons for women undergoing abortions provide backing for the Mexican government to improve access to safe abortions for all women, especially now that the country's Supreme Court has decreed the procedure's decriminalization and its imminent nationwide legalization.


El objetivo de esta investigación fue la identificación de las barreras más recurrentes de acceso a abortos en contextos clínicos (clandestinos o legales), desde la perspectiva de acompañantes, activistas feministas que acompañan a mujeres que optaron por abortos autogestionados con medicamentos. Realizamos 14 entrevistas semiestructuradas con acompañantes en tres regiones mexicanas: Baja California y Chiapas, ambos contextos restrictivos, y la Ciudad de México, donde el aborto por voluntad es legal hasta las 12 semanas. Identificamos cuatro categorías en las cuales se entretejen las vulnerabilidades sociales de las mujeres que deciden abortar, la falta de información, persistencia de estigma, y la influencia del marco legal, los fallos en la atención del aborto, incluso en las clínicas de interrupción legal de embarazo (en la Ciudad de México), y mala calidad de los servicios prestados -maltrato, objeción de conciencia y denuncia de los proveedores de salud-, y, por último, los grupos anti-derechos y sus estrategias. En las tres regiones, el acceso a abortos clínicos sigue siendo un privilegio reservado para las mujeres que cuentan con los recursos económicos, logísticos y sociales indispensables para realizarlo en esos espacios. La existencia de un programa Interrupción Legal de Embarazo en solamente una entidad denota la existencia de una desigualdad jurídica y sanitaria. Los hallazgos de este estudio sobre mujeres acompañantes de abortos aportan elementos para que el Estado mexicano mejore el acceso a abortos seguros para todas las mujeres, sobre todo ahora que la Suprema Corte de la Justicia de la Nación decretó la despenalización, y la legalización inminente en todo el país.


O objetivo dessa pesquisa era identificar as barreiras mais recorrentes no acesso a abortos em contextos medicalizados (clandestinos ou legais), desde o ponto de vista de acompanhantes, ativistas feministas que acompanham mulheres que optaram por abortos autogeridos com medicamentos. Realizamos 14 entrevistas semiestruturadas com acompanhantes em três regiões mexicanas; Baja California e Chiapas, ambas com legislações restritivas, e Cidade de México, onde o aborto voluntário é legal até 12 semanas de gestação. Identificamos quatro categorias nas quais se mesclam as vulnerabilidades sociais das mulheres que decidem abortar, a falta de informação, a persistência de estigma, e a influência do marco legal, as falhas no atendimento para o aborto, inclusive nas clínicas de interrupção legal de gravidez (na Cidade de México), e a baixa qualidade dos serviços prestados - maus tratos, objeção de consciência e denúncia contra os profissionais de saúde -, e, por último, os grupos antiaborto e suas estratégias. Nas três regiões, o acesso a abortos medicalizados continua sendo um privilégio reservado as mulheres que dispõem dos recursos económicos, logísticos e sociais imprescindíveis para realizá-lo naqueles espaços. A presença de um programa de interrupção legal de gravidez (Interrupción Legal de Embarazo) em apenas uma entidade denota a existência de uma desigualdade jurídica e sanitária. Os resultados desse estudo sobre mulheres acompanhantes de abortos trazem elementos para que o Estado mexicano melhore o acesso a abortos seguros para todas as mulheres, sobre tudo agora que a Suprema Corte de Justiça do México decretou a descriminalização e que a legalização é iminente no país como um todo.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Induced , Abortion, Legal , Brazil , Female , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Mexico , Pregnancy
5.
Trials ; 23(1): 287, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35410308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Positive Choices is a whole-school social-marketing intervention to promote sexual health among secondary school students. Intervention comprises the following: school health promotion council involving staff and students coordinating delivery, student survey to inform local tailoring, teacher-delivered classroom curriculum, student-run campaigns, parent information and review of sexual/reproductive health services to inform improvements. This trial builds on an optimisation/pilot-RCT study which met progression criteria, plus findings from another pilot RCT of the Project Respect school-based intervention to prevent dating and relationship violence which concluded such work should be integrated within Positive Choices. Young people carry a disproportionate burden of adverse sexual health; most do not report competence at first sex. Relationships and sex education in schools can contribute to promoting sexual health but effects are small, inconsistent and not sustained. Such work needs to be supplemented by 'whole-school' (e.g. student campaigns, sexual health services) and 'social marketing' (harnessing commercial marketing to social ends) approaches for which there is good review-level evidence but not from the UK. METHODS: We will conduct a cluster RCT across 50 schools (minimum 6440, maximum 8500 students) allocated 1:1 to intervention/control assessing outcomes at 33 months. Our primary outcome is non-competent first sex. Secondary outcomes are non-competent last sex, age at sexual debut, non-use of contraception at first and last sex among those reporting heterosexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, dating and relationship violence, sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy and unintended pregnancy for girls and initiation of pregnancy for boys. We will recruit 50 school and undertake baseline surveys by March 2022, implement the intervention over the 2022-2024 school years and conduct the economic and process evaluations by July 2024; undertake follow-up surveys by December 2024; complete analyses, all patient and policy involvement and draft the study report by March 2025 and engage in knowledge exchange from December 2024. DISCUSSION: This trial is one of a growing number focused on whole-school approaches to public health in schools. The key scientific output will be evidence about the effectiveness, costs and potential scalability and transferability of Positive Choices. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN No: ISRCTN16723909 . Registered on 3 September 2021.


Subject(s)
Sexual Health , Adolescent , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Female , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , School Health Services , Schools , Social Marketing
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 844656, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35425747

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused major catastrophes worldwide. In Indonesia, the pandemic has caused greater barriers for individuals to access mental health services. This article aims to capture the state of public mental health in Indonesia using data from various national surveys. Four main problems were identified: the increase in depression, loneliness, and distress in the general population, disruption in accessing mental health services, mental health problems among vulnerable populations, and the limited scope of available mental health services and facilities in the community. This article provided practical recommendations for the Indonesian government that focuses on preparing a resilient mental healthcare system for future crises, reducing barriers to access mental health services, and expanding the available resources and programs to ensure equal and sustainable access to mental health services in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Right to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 40, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35382055

ABSTRACT

The inequality in access to oral health care in Nigeria is driven by the low numbers of trained health care workers, disproportionate distribution of oral health facilities, low level of oral health awareness, and the challenge associated with out-of-pocket expenditures. The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted oral health care delivery, access to oral health care services, thereby further entrenched inequality by increasing the out-of-pocket expenditure for health due to COVID-19 associated increased cost of medical services; high risk of worsening oral health care needs by patients who have routine and special oral health care needs; increased risk for oral health care needs by persons worse affected by COVID-19; and the high risk for general health problems by those whose access to routine and special health care needs were disrupted by the pandemic. The pandemic has however, also created opportunities to reduce the inequalities in the oral health care sector through adoption of teledentistry; integrated oral and general health care; improving oral health insurance coverage for the informal sector; and increasing public financing for health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Expenditures , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Oral Health , Pandemics
13.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(3): e00136921, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416895

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to estimate social and racial inequalities in self-rated oral health in adults from the Brazilian birth cohort study. This study belongs to 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study. Data from this study was collected for oral health conditions 31 years old (Oral Health Study). The outcome was self-rated oral health, dichotomized into positive (good/very good) and negative (regular/bad/very bad). Analyses were stratified by gender, racial/skin color groups, schooling level and income. For statistical analysis, the slope index of inequality (SII) and the concentration index (CIX) were used. The prevalence of negative self-rated oral health was 36.1%. Social inequalities were observed in self-rated oral health in both absolute and relative terms. A SII of -30.0 (95%CI: -43.6; -16.4) was observed for income, and -27.7 (95%CI: -41.9; -13.4) for schooling level. Both the individuals' income and the schooling level had negative CIX (CIXincome -14.6 [95%CI: -21.2; -8.0] and CIXschooling level -14.1 [95%CI: -20.7; -7.5]). Furthermore, the prevalence of negative self-rated oral health in black/brown/indigenous individuals from the highest income/schooling level was comparable to prevalence of the outcome in the white individuals belonging to the lowest income/schooling levels. This study results demonstrate racial disparities in oral health regardless of income and schooling levels. Furthermore, a higher concentration of negative self-rated oral health was identified among the most socioeconomically vulnerable individuals. Our findings reinforce the presence of racial and socioeconomic inequalities in oral health.


Subject(s)
Health Status Disparities , Oral Health , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Income , Socioeconomic Factors
15.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 56, 2022 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35461294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Monitoring health inequalities is an important task for health research and policy, to uncover who is being left behind - and where - and to inform effective and equitable policies and programmes to tackle existing inequities. The choice of which measure to use to monitor and analyse health inequalities is thereby not trivial. This article explores a new measure of socioeconomic deprivation status (SDS) to monitor health inequalities. METHODS: The SDS measure was constructed using the Alkire-Foster method. It includes eight indicators across two equally weighted dimensions (education and living standards) and specifies a four-level gradient of socioeconomic deprivation at the household-level. We conducted four exercises to examine the value-added of the proposed SDS measure, using Demographic and Health Surveys data. First, we examined the discriminatory power of the new measure when applied to outcomes in four select reproductive, maternal, neonatal, and child health (RMNCH) indicators across six countries: skilled birth attendance, stunting, U5MR, and DTP3 immunisation. Then, we analysed the behaviour and association of the new SDS measure vis-à-vis the DHS Wealth Index, including chi-squared test and Pearson correlation coefficient. Third, we analysed the robustness of the SDS measure results to changes in its structure, using pairwise comparisons and Kendal Tau-b rank correlation. Finally, we illustrated some of the advantageous properties of the new measure, disaggregation and decomposition, on Haitian data. RESULTS: 1) Higher levels of socioeconomic deprivation are generally consistently associated with lower levels of achievements in the RMNCH indicators across countries. 2) 87% of all pairwise rank comparisons across a range of SDS measure structures were robust. 3) SDS and DHS Wealth Index are associated, but with considerable cross-country variation, highlighting their complementarity. 4) Haitian households in rural areas experienced, on average, more severe socioeconomic deprivation as well as lower levels of RMNCH achievement than urban households. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed SDS measure adds analytical possibilities to the health inequality monitoring literature, in line with ethically and conceptually well-founded notions of absolute, multidimensional disadvantage. In addition, it allows for breakdown by its dimensions and components, which may facilitate nuanced analyses of health inequality, its correlates, and determinants.


Subject(s)
Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Child , Haiti , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Social Class , Socioeconomic Factors
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e228161, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442451

ABSTRACT

Importance: Disparities that affect Black persons with various hematological malignant neoplasms are substantial, yet little is known about disparities related to the use of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved chimeric antigen receptor-T cell (CAR-T) therapy. Objective: To examine the enrollment of Black participants in clinical trials that resulted in a subsequent FDA approval of CAR-T products in hematological malignant neoplasms. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional study was performed using publicly available data on drug products and demographic subgroups from Drugs@fda in the period of August 2017 to May 2021. Data analysis included patients with large B cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and multiple myeloma who were enrolled into 7 clinical trials that investigated various CAR-T products. The study was conducted from July 1, 2021, to November 30, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Frequencies of participation of Black participants were calculated with adjustment for disease prevalence. Results: Of the 1057 enrolled patients included in the study, CAR-T products were given to 746 patients (71%), and efficacy was reported for 729 enrolled patients (69%) across all the approved CAR-T products and indications. Most patients (1015 patients [96%]) were enrolled in the US. Black participants were included in the racial category other in the study that supported tisagenlecleucel approval in acute lymphoblastic leukemia; otherwise, their enrollment was specified either in the study publication and/or the demographic subgroup information available under the FDA product labeling information. The number of Black participants who received the CAR-T product and had reported efficacy varied between studies (range, 1-12 participants [2%-5%]). Adjusted prevalence measures showed the lowest participation to prevalence ratio of 0.2 for multiple myeloma and 0.6 for large B cell lymphoma. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that there are substantial disparities affecting Black patients across all approved CAR-T products used to treat hematological malignant neoplasms with otherwise limited effective treatment options. The study findings might aid policy discussions regarding the immediate need of regulations that enforce certain thresholds of Black patients' enrollment before granting FDA approval.


Subject(s)
African Americans , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Approval , Hematologic Neoplasms , Patient Participation , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Status Disparities , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/ethnology , Humans , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/drug therapy , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/ethnology , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Multiple Myeloma/ethnology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/ethnology , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/therapeutic use , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
17.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 30(5): 1116-1125, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35470976

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have observed that racial or ethnic adult health disparities revealed in national data dissipate in racially integrated communities, supporting the theory that "place, not race" shapes the nature and magnitude of racial/ethnic health disparities. This study tested this theory among children. METHODS: In 2020, the racial/ethnic childhood obesity disparities within integrated schools and between segregated schools were estimated using statewide cross-sectional data collected in 2019 on fifth, seventh, and ninth grade students from California public schools. RESULTS: School segregation accounted for a large part of the obesity disparities between White children and children of color (Latino, Black, and Filipino children). In racially integrated schools, obesity disparities were much smaller than those in statewide data, whereas racial or ethnic childhood obesity disparities were larger when comparing children in majority-White schools with those attending schools with a majority enrollment of children of color, except for Asian children, who generally had lower obesity rates than their White peers. CONCLUSIONS: School-level racial segregation is a salient contributor to racial/ethnic childhood obesity disparities. Reducing obesity disparities may be particularly effective if place-level interventions target socioeconomically disadvantaged integrated schools and segregated schools attended primarily by children of color.


Subject(s)
Pediatric Obesity , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Schools
18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409431

ABSTRACT

For nearly two decades, mobile health or (m-Health) was hailed as the most innovative and enabling area for the digital transformation of healthcare globally. However, this profound vision became a fleeting view since the inception and domination of smart phones, and the reorientation of the concept towards the exclusivity of global smart phone application markets and services. The global consumerization of m-Health in numerous disciplines of healthcare, fitness and wellness areas is unprecedented. However, this divergence between 'mobile health capitalism' and the 'science of mobile health' led to the creation of the 'm-Health schism'. This schism was sustained by the continued domination of the former on the expense of the latter. This also led to increased global m-Health inequality and divide between the much-perceived health and patient benefits and the markets of m-Health. This divergence was more evident in low and middle income (LMIC) countries compared to the developed world. This powerful yet misguided evolution of the m-Health was driven essentially by complex factors. These are presented in this paper as the 'known unknowns' or 'the obvious but sanctioned facts' of m-Health. These issues had surreptitiously contributed to this reorientation and the widening schism of m-Health. The collateral damage of this process was the increased shift towards understanding 'digital health' as a conjecture term associated with mobile health. However, to date, no clear or scientific views are discussed or analyzed on the actual differences and correlation aspects between digital and mobile health. This particular 'known unknown' is presented in detail in order to provide a rapprochement framework of this correlation and valid presentations between the two areas. The framework correlates digital health with the other standard ICT for the healthcare domains of telemedicine, telehealth and e-health. These are also increasingly used in conjunction with digital health, without clear distinctions between these terms and digital health. These critical issues have become timelier and more important to discuss and present, particularly after the world has been caught off guard by the COVID-19 pandemic. The much hyped and the profiteering digital health solutions developed in response of this pandemic provided a modest impact, and the benefits were mostly inadequate in mitigating the massive health, human, and economic impact of this pandemic. This largely commercial reorientation of mobile health was unable not only to predict the severity of the pandemic, but also unable to provide adequate digital tools or effective pre-emptive digital epidemiological shielding and guarding mechanisms against this devastating pandemic. There are many lessons to be learnt from the COVID-19 pandemic from the mobile and digital health perspectives, and lessons must be learnt from the past and to address the critical aspects discussed in this paper for better understanding of mobile health and effective tackling of future global healthcare challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Pandemics
20.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 769, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35428294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The burden of under-5 deaths is disproportionately high among poor households relative to economically viable ones in developing countries. Despite this, the factors driving this inequality has not been well explored. This study decomposed the contributions of the factors associated with wealth inequalities in under-5 deaths in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: We analysed data of 856,987 children from 66,495 neighbourhoods across 59 LMICs spanning recent Demographic and Health Surveys (2010-2018). Under-5 mortality was described as deaths among live births within 0 to 59 months of birth and it was treated as a dichotomous variable (dead or alive). The prevalence of under-five deaths was stratified using household wealth status. A Fairlie decomposition analysis was utilized to investigate the relative contribution of the factors associated with household wealth inequality in under-5 deaths at p<0.05. The WHO health equity assessment toolkit Plus was used to assess the differences (D) ratios (R), population attributable risk (PAR), and population attributable fraction (PAF) in household wealth inequalities across the countries. RESULTS: The proportion of children from poor households was 45%. The prevalence of under-5 deaths in all samples was 51 per 1000 children, with 60 per 1000 and 44 per 1000 among children from poor and non-poor households (p<0.001). The prevalence of under-5 deaths was higher among children from poor households than those from non-poor households in all countries except in Ethiopia, Tanzania, Zambia, Lesotho, Gambia and Sierra Leone, and in the Maldives. Thirty-four of the 59 countries showed significantly higher under-5 deaths in poor households than in non-poor households (pro-non-poor inequality) and no significant pro-poor inequality. Rural-urban contexts, maternal education, neighborhood socioeconomic status, sex of the child, toilet kinds, birth weight and preceding birth intervals, and sources of drinking water are the most significant drivers of pro-poor inequities in under-5 deaths in these countries. CONCLUSIONS: Individual-level and neighbourhood-level factors were associated with a high prevalence of under-5 deaths among poor households in LMICs. Interventions in countries should focus on reducing the gap between the poor and the rich as well as improve the education and livelihood of disadvantaged people.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Health Status Disparities , Child , Female , Humans , Poverty , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors
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