Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 26.132
Filter
1.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-8, 01/jan./2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361739

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: contribuir para a compreensão do desenvolvimento histórico do conceito de ansiedade, das classificações dos transtornos ansiosos e suas manifestações clínicas, bem como para a atualização sobre o processo de avaliação diagnóstica. Métodos: todas as edições das classificações da Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) - CID e da Associação Psiquiátrica Americana (APA) - DSM foram examinadas, além de livros-texto de referência de psiquiatria clínica, de publicações sobre a história e a evolução desses diagnósticos e de publicações produzidas pelas equipes responsáveis pela revisão das classificações atuais. Resultados: entende-se por ansiedade um estado afetivo normal, como um sintoma ou um termo para nomear um grupo de transtornos mentais. Nas primeiras e subsequentes edições das classificações da OMS e da APA, entre 1948 e 1975, os quadros ansiosos faziam parte do grupo das psiconeurose/neuroses. A partir do DSM-III (1980), o grupo das neuroses foi fragmentado em diversos outros, entre os quais os transtornos de ansiedade, o que foi seguido pela CID-10 (1992), apesar de alguma distinção na composição dos subtipos. Para as últimas versões, houve um empenho de compatibilização entre as duas, contudo restaram diferenças: o DSM-5 (2013) adota critérios diagnósticos; a CID-11 (2019) utiliza descrições clínicas e diretrizes diagnósticas, além de abordagens dimensionais para alguns transtornos. Conclusão: ocorreram modificações nas classificações psiquiátricas atuais, no grupo dos transtornos de ansiedade, que precisam ser disseminadas e agregadas a estratégias de formação e qualificação profissionais, incrementando habilidades diagnósticas e permitindo uma comunicação mais uniforme e precisa na prática clínica.


Objectives: to contribute to the understanding of the historical development of the concept of anxiety, the classifications of anxiety disorders and their clinical manifestations, as well as to update on the diagnostic evaluation process. Methods: all editions of the classifications of the World Health Organization (WHO) - ICD and the American Psychiatric Association (APA) - DSM were examined, in addition to reference textbooks on clinical psychiatry, publications on the history and evolution of these diagnoses, and scientific articles produced by the teams responsible for reviewing the current classifications. Results: anxiety is understood as a normal affective state, as a symptom, or as a term to name a group of mental disorders. In the first and subsequent editions of the WHO and APA classifications, between 1948 and 1975, anxiety disorders were part of the psychoneuroses/neuroses group. As of DSM-III (1980) onwards, the neuroses group was fragmented into several others, including anxiety disorders, which was followed by ICD-10 (1992), despite some different choices of subtypes. For the latest versions, there was a compatibility effort between them. However, differences remained: DSM-5 (2013) adopts diagnostic criteria; ICD-11 (2019) uses clinical description and diagnostic guidelines, in addition to dimensional approaches for some disorders. Conclusion: modifications have occurred in current psychiatric classifications, in the group of anxiety disorders, which need to be disseminated and added to professional training and qualification strategies, increasing diagnostic skills and providing for more uniform and accurate communication in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders , Psychiatry , Health , Health Strategies , Diagnosis , History , Mental Disorders
3.
Salud Colect ; 18: e3921, 2022 May 05.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896325

ABSTRACT

The objective of this article is to analyze the meanings and scope of the concept of normality as used in the study of child development, highlighting its implications in clinic and research settings. Concepts and theoretical approaches from various disciplinary fields are intertwined in order to propose themes for discussion and reflection. The first is related to the definitions of normality applied to human development and their translation into instruments, models, and forms of intervention. The second refers to the importance of transcending dualist visions, making way for approaches that consider the diversity of development trajectories as historically and ecologically situated processes. The third seeks to reflect on the ethical implications of routine ways of approaching and accompanying children whose developmental trajectories differ greatly from normative models. This article aims to contribute to the creation and preservation of spaces for interdisciplinary dialogue and work, as well as the training of professionals in the field of child development.


El objetivo de este artículo es analizar los sentidos y alcances del concepto de normalidad en el abordaje del desarrollo infantil, considerando sus implicancias en la labor clínica y de investigación. Se articulan conceptos y enfoques teóricos de diversos campos disciplinares con el fin de proponer ejes de discusión y reflexión. El primer eje se vincula con las definiciones de normalidad aplicadas al desarrollo humano y su traducción en instrumentos, modelos y formas de intervención. El segundo, refiere a la importancia de trascender visiones dualistas, dando lugar a enfoques que consideren la diversidad de las trayectorias de desarrollo, en tanto procesos histórica y ecológicamente situados. El tercer eje busca plantear las implicancias a nivel ético de formas de abordar y acompañar a niños y niñas que despliegan trayectorias que se alejan de modelos normativos. Este artículo pretende contribuir a la creación y sostenimiento de espacios de diálogo y trabajo interdisciplinarios, y a la formación de profesionales en el campo del desarrollo infantil.


Subject(s)
Child Development , Health , Child , Humans
5.
JAMA ; 328(2): 184-197, 2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35819420

ABSTRACT

Importance: Despite growing evidence, the role of spirituality in serious illness and health has not been systematically assessed. Objective: To review evidence concerning spirituality in serious illness and health and to identify implications for patient care and health outcomes. Evidence Review: Searches of PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science identified articles with evidence addressing spirituality in serious illness or health, published January 2000 to April 2022. Independent reviewers screened, summarized, and graded articles that met eligibility criteria. Eligible serious illness studies included 100 or more participants; were prospective cohort studies, cross-sectional descriptive studies, meta-analyses, or randomized clinical trials; and included validated spirituality measures. Eligible health outcome studies prospectively examined associations with spirituality as cohort studies, case-control studies, or meta-analyses with samples of at least 1000 or were randomized trials with samples of at least 100 and used validated spirituality measures. Applying Cochrane criteria, studies were graded as having low, moderate, serious, or critical risk of bias, and studies with serious and critical risk of bias were excluded. Multidisciplinary Delphi panels consisting of clinicians, public health personnel, researchers, health systems leaders, and medical ethicists qualitatively synthesized and assessed the evidence and offered implications for health care. Evidence-synthesis statements and implications were derived from panelists' qualitative input; panelists rated the former on a 9-point scale (from "inconclusive" to "strongest evidence") and ranked the latter by order of priority. Findings: Of 8946 articles identified, 371 articles met inclusion criteria for serious illness; of these, 76.9% had low to moderate risk of bias. The Delphi panel review yielded 8 evidence statements supported by evidence categorized as strong and proposed 3 top-ranked implications of this evidence for serious illness: (1) incorporate spiritual care into care for patients with serious illness; (2) incorporate spiritual care education into training of interdisciplinary teams caring for persons with serious illness; and (3) include specialty practitioners of spiritual care in care of patients with serious illness. Of 6485 health outcomes articles, 215 met inclusion criteria; of these, 66.0% had low to moderate risk of bias. The Delphi panel review yielded 8 evidence statements supported by evidence categorized as strong and proposed 3 top-ranked implications of this evidence for health outcomes: (1) incorporate patient-centered and evidence-based approaches regarding associations of spiritual community with improved patient and population health outcomes; (2) increase awareness among health professionals of evidence for protective health associations of spiritual community; and (3) recognize spirituality as a social factor associated with health in research, community assessments, and program implementation. Conclusions and Relevance: This systematic review, analysis, and process, based on highest-quality evidence available and expert consensus, provided suggested implications for addressing spirituality in serious illness and health outcomes as part of person-centered, value-sensitive care.


Subject(s)
Disease , Health , Spiritual Therapies , Spirituality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Prospective Studies
6.
Nature ; 607(7918): 249-255, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831602

ABSTRACT

Our body has a remarkable ability to remember its past encounters with allergens, pathogens, wounds and irritants, and to react more quickly to the next experience. This accentuated sensitivity also helps us to cope with new threats. Despite maintaining a state of readiness and broadened resistance to subsequent pathogens, memories can also be maladaptive, leading to chronic inflammatory disorders and cancers. With the ever-increasing emergence of new pathogens, allergens and pollutants in our world, the urgency to unravel the molecular underpinnings of these phenomena has risen to new heights. Here we reflect on how the field of inflammatory memory has evolved, since 2007, when researchers realized that non-specific memory is contained in the nucleus and propagated at the epigenetic level. We review the flurry of recent discoveries revealing that memory is not just a privilege of the immune system but also extends to epithelia of the skin, lung, intestine and pancreas, and to neurons. Although still unfolding, epigenetic memories of inflammation have now been linked to possible brain disorders such as Alzheimer disease, and to an elevated risk of cancer. In this Review, we consider the consequences-good and bad-of these epigenetic memories and their implications for human health and disease.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological , Epigenesis, Genetic , Health , Inflammation , Adaptation, Physiological/genetics , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Inflammation/genetics , Neoplasms/genetics
9.
RECIIS (Online) ; 16(2): 447-460, abr.-jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378869

ABSTRACT

Em entrevista à Reciis, João Figueira comenta sobre a sua atuação, por mais de 20 anos, como jornalista em alguns dos principais jornais portugueses e sobre a sua trajetória de pesquisa, considerando-a como um prolongamento e uma paixão pelo jornalismo. O pesquisador discorre sobre uma questão que, categoricamente, afirma não ser nova: a desinformação. No entanto, especifica-a, na contemporaneidade, considerando a maneira como a desinformação circula, dada a emergência e a afirmação das redes sociais on-line. Os conteúdos se disseminam mais velozes e fragmentários por uma economia das emoções. Valores e crenças se sobrepõem à evidência. João Figueira analisa que a prática jornalística tem seguido a mesma dinâmica das redes sociais on-line, perdendo a sua importância e fazendo-o questionar: "Por que as pessoas querem as notícias? Qual a importância das notícias nas vidas das pessoas?". O jornalismo, a saúde e a pesquisa científica estão fortemente atrelados a governos democráticos. Esse é o grande desafio que o mundo contemporâneo nos coloca: uma vida democrática. João Figueira é professor de Jornalismo na Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Coimbra.


In an interview to Reciis, João Figueira comments on his work, for more than 20 years, as a journalist in some of the main Portuguese newspapers and on his path as a researcher, considering it an extension and a passion for journalism. The researcher talks about an issue that he categorically says is not new: the misinformation. However, he specifies it on contemporaneity, considering the way misinformation circulates, given the emergence of online social networks. Contents spread in a faster and more fragmented way by an economy of emotions. Values and beliefs override evidences. João Figueira claims that journalistic practice has followed the same dynamics of online social networks, losing its importance and making him question: "Why do people want the news? How important are the news in people's lives?". Journalism, health and scientific research are strongly coupled up to democratic governments. The contemporary world poses us a great challenge: a democratic life. João Figueira is professor of Journalism at the Faculty of Arts of the University of Coimbra.


En entrevista con Reciis, João Figueira comenta su trabajo, durante más de 20 años, como periodista en algunos de los principales periódicos portugueses y su trayectoria de investigación, considerándola como una extensión y una pasión por el periodismo. El investigador habla de un tema que, categóricamente, afirma que no es nuevo: la desinformación. Sin embargo, la especifica en la contemporaneidad, considerando la forma en que circula la desinformación, ante el surgimiento y la afirmación de las redes sociales en línea. Los contenidos se difunden más rápido y más fragmentados por una economía de emociones. Los valores y las creencias anulan las evidencias. João Figueira afirma que la práctica periodística ha seguido la misma dinámica que las redes sociales en linea, perdiendo su importancia y haciéndolo cuestionar: "¿Por qué la gente quiere noticias? ¿Qué importancia tienen las noticias en la vida de las personas?". El periodismo, la salud y la investigación científica están fuertemente ligados a los gobiernos democráticos. Este es el gran desafío que nos plantea el mundo contemporáneo: una vida democrática. João Figueira es profesor de Periodismo en la Facultad de Letras de la Universidad de Coimbra.


Subject(s)
Humans , Communication , Democracy , Social Networking , Online Social Networking , Disinformation , Portugal , Health , Journalism
10.
Gac Sanit ; 36 Suppl 1: S93-S96, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35781156

ABSTRACT

Behavioural economics (a combination of economics and psychology) provides keys to understand decisions made by politicians and citizens along the COVID-19 pandemic through the so-called cognitive biases. These biases can be offset by implementing behavioural interventions named "nudges" in order to promote responsible behaviours in the "new normality". This paper analyses, from a behavioural economics perspective, past, present and future of behavioural aspects surrounding the pandemic. Besides, this paper proposes different ways to formalize nudges according to law, which needs the fulfilment of three minimum requirements, namely: transparency, non-arbitrariness and efficiency. Furthermore, it is also suggested that protocols and contingency plans are set up to face future pandemics, in which both soft (nudge-type) interventions and hard legal regulations play different roles but complementary ones. Nudges can be implemented in a fast and less coercive way, so they are particularly suitable for changing mild misbehaviour, reserving legal sanctions for the more serious ones.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Economics, Behavioral , Health , Humans
12.
Lima; Ministerio de Salud; Jun. 2022. 79 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1372233

ABSTRACT

El documento técnico contiene las acciones que van a permitir contribuir a proteger la vida y la salud de las personas ubicadas en las zonas con mayor nivel de riesgo o afectadas por la temporadas de bajas temperaturas.


Subject(s)
Health , Risk , Cold Temperature , Life
13.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(289): 7894-7903, jun.2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF - Nursing | ID: biblio-1379575

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Relatar a assistência de enfermagem no centro cirúrgico na perspectiva do cuidado humanizado. Método: É um estudo de revisão sistemática da literatura, onde foram utilizados elementos da estratégia PICO, mediante perguntas norteadoras. Foram selecionados artigos nos bancos de dados online LILACS, MEDLINE e SciELO, realizada no mês de março de 2022 e destes, 10 artigos foram escolhidos para nossa pesquisa. Resultados: A literatura aponta a importância do acolhimento no centro cirúrgico de maneira humanizada, como modo de acolher os usuários de forma holística, proporcionando assim, uma relação de confiança. Observou-se também algumas ações que tornam a prática de humanização falha pelos profissionais: a sobrecarga de trabalho, exigências burocráticas, alta rotatividade dos usuários. Conclusão: Conclui-se que a prática da humanização no centro cirúrgico ofertada pela equipe multidisciplinar oferece ao paciente mais segurança, acolhimento e um olhar holístico, favorecendo a confiança e a proximidade com esses profissionais.(AU)


Objective: To report the nursing care in the surgical center from the perspective of humanized care. Method: This is a systematic literature review study, where elements of the PICO strategy were used, through guiding questions. Articles were selected in the online databases LILACS, MEDLINE and SciELO, held in March 2022 and of these, 10 articles were chosen for our research. Results: The literature points to the importance of welcoming in the surgical center in a humanized way, as a way of welcoming users in a holistic way, thus providing a relationship of trust. It was also observed some actions that make the practice of humanization fail by professionals: work overload, bureaucratic requirements, high user turnover. Conclusion: It is concluded that the practice of humanization in the surgical center offered by the multidisciplinary team offers the patient more security, reception and a holistic view, favoring trust and proximity to these professionals.(AU)


Objetivo: Relatar el cuidado de enfermería en el centro quirúrgico bajo la perspectiva del cuidado humanizado. Método: Se trata de un estudio de revisión sistemática de la literatura, donde se utilizaron elementos de la estrategia PICO, a través de preguntas orientadoras. Se seleccionaron artículos en las bases de datos en línea LILACS, MEDLINE y SciELO, realizadas en marzo de 2022 y de estos, 10 artículos fueron elegidos para nuestra investigación. Resultados: La literatura señala la importancia de la acogida en el centro quirúrgico de forma humanizada, como forma de acoger a los usuarios de forma holística, propiciando así una relación de confianza. También se observaron algunas acciones que hacen fracasar la práctica de la humanización por parte de los profesionales: sobrecarga de trabajo, requisitos burocráticos, alta rotación de usuarios. Conclusión: Se concluye que la práctica de humanización en el centro quirúrgico ofrecida por el equipo multidisciplinario ofrece al paciente más seguridad, acogida y una visión holística, favoreciendo la confianza y cercanía con estos profesionales.(AU)


Subject(s)
General Surgery , Health , Nursing , Humanization of Assistance
15.
J Med Philos ; 47(3): 482-493, 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532319

ABSTRACT

The paper engages Christopher Boorse's Bio-Statistical Theory (BST). In its current form, BST runs into a significant challenge. For BST to account for its central tenet-that lower-level part-dysfunction is sufficient for higher-level pathology-it must provide criteria for how to decide which lower-level parts are the ones to be analyzed for health or pathology. As BST is a naturalistic theory, such choices must be based solely on naturalistic considerations. An argument is provided to show that, if BST is to be preserved, such parthood choices are based on non-naturalistic considerations. We demonstrate that even when parthood choices are based on the best way to preserve BST, there are counterintuitive results which bring the central tenet of BST into question.


Subject(s)
Disease , Philosophy, Medical , Dissent and Disputes , Health , Humans
16.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; May. 2022. 159 p. ilus, tab.
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1369417

ABSTRACT

El documento contiene la estandarización del proceso de conformación de Redes Integradas de Salud en el ámbito de la circunscripción territorial de los Gobiernos Regionales y Lima Metropolitana


Subject(s)
Reference Standards , Health , Community Networks
17.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; May. 2022. 39 p. ilus, graf.
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1369415

ABSTRACT

La norma contiene los procesos, procedimientos y condiciones especificas para la atención prehospitalaria y el transporte asistido de pacientes con diagnóstico o sospecha de COVID-19


Subject(s)
Health , Diagnosis , Prehospital Care , COVID-19 , Methods
18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(7): 1763-1775, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561968

ABSTRACT

Interactions of killer cell immunoglobin-like receptors (KIR) with human leukocyte antigens (HLA) class I regulate effector functions of key cytotoxic cells of innate and adaptive immunity. The extreme diversity of this interaction is genetically determined, having evolved in the ever-changing environment of pathogen exposure. Diversity of KIR and HLA genes is further facilitated by their independent segregation on separate chromosomes. That fetal implantation relies on many of the same types of immune cells as infection control places certain constraints on the evolution of KIR interactions with HLA. Consequently, specific inherited combinations of receptors and ligands may predispose to specific immune-mediated diseases, including autoimmunity. Combinatorial diversity of KIR and HLA class I can also differentiate success rates of immunotherapy directed to these diseases. Progress toward both etiopathology and predicting response to therapy is being achieved through detailed characterization of the extent and consequences of the combinatorial diversity of KIR and HLA. Achieving these goals is more tractable with the development of integrated analyses of molecular evolution, function, and pathology that will establish guidelines for understanding and managing risks. Here, we present what is known about the coevolution of KIR with HLA class I and the impact of their complexity on immune function and homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , Genes, MHC Class I , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I , Immunogenetic Phenomena , Killer Cells, Natural , Receptors, KIR , Genes, MHC Class I/genetics , Genes, MHC Class I/immunology , HLA Antigens/genetics , HLA Antigens/immunology , Health , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans , Immunogenetic Phenomena/genetics , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Receptors, KIR/genetics , Receptors, KIR/immunology
19.
San Salvador; MINSAL; may. 11, 2022. 47 p. tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1372447

ABSTRACT

El presente Plan nacional contra la resistencia a los antimicrobianos, tiene como objetivo prevenir las enfermedades infecciosas, asegurando el uso adecuado de los tratamientos con medicamentos eficaces, seguros y de calidad garantizada, que se usen de modo responsable, tanto para el tratamiento de enfermedades infecciosas en humanos y animales, así como para garantizar la producción de alimentos. Este Plan se construye bajo la visión de «Una Salud¼ en el plano internacional, la OMS colabora estrechamente con la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura (FAO) y la Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal (OIE) para proponer soluciones viables a los peligros y riesgos generados por el uso inadecuado de antibióticos en la producción de alimentos de origen animal. En este plan nacional se contempla la participación de diversas instituciones relacionadas con la prestación de servicios de salud, producción de alimentos e instituciones formadoras de recursos humanos en salud, coordinadas todas por la Comisión Nacional contra la Resistencia a Antimicrobianos


This National Plan against antimicrobial resistance aims to prevent infectious diseases, ensuring the proper use of treatments with effective, safe and quality-guaranteed medicines, which are used responsibly, both for the treatment of infectious diseases in humans and animals, as well as to guarantee food production. This Plan is built under the vision of "One Health" at the international level, the WHO collaborates closely with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) to propose solutions viable to the dangers and risks generated by the inappropriate use of antibiotics in the production of food of animal origin. This national plan contemplates the participation of various institutions related to the provision of health services, food production and training institutions for human resources in health, all coordinated by the National Commission against Antimicrobial Resistance


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations , Health Services Programming , Anti-Infective Agents , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Solutions , Therapeutics , Health , El Salvador , Food
20.
Science ; 376(6596): 934-936, 2022 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617380

ABSTRACT

Oral microbiota form complex biofilms that can affect local and systemic health.


Subject(s)
Biofilms , Disease , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Mouth , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Health , Humans , Mouth/microbiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...