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1.
Ambix ; 69(3): 203-220, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35916028

ABSTRACT

This article introduces a collection of papers on women, gender, and chemistry in eighteenth- and twentieth-century Europe and the United States. After briefly surveying previous research on women and gender in science and outlining the long history of women in chemistry, we present this special issue's main findings concerning several key themes, including the identities and strategies of women engaged in chemical activities and the enabling circumstances and networks that helped these women gain entry into male-dominated institutions and fields of study. We suggest that these overarching themes are equally relevant to the Enlightenment era and the late nineteenth- and early to mid-twentieth-century age of professional science, thus illustrating the benefits of jointly treating cases that might otherwise seem to have little in common.


Subject(s)
Gender Identity , Physicians , Europe , Female , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Humans , Male , United States
2.
J Nucl Med ; 63(8): 12N, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914828
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(28): e2121798119, 2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35787033

ABSTRACT

Using word embeddings from 850 billion words in English-language Google Books, we provide an extensive analysis of historical change and stability in social group representations (stereotypes) across a long timeframe (from 1800 to 1999), for a large number of social group targets (Black, White, Asian, Irish, Hispanic, Native American, Man, Woman, Old, Young, Fat, Thin, Rich, Poor), and their emergent, bottom-up associations with 14,000 words and a subset of 600 traits. The results provide a nuanced picture of change and persistence in stereotypes across 200 y. Change was observed in the top-associated words and traits: Whether analyzing the top 10 or 50 associates, at least 50% of top associates changed across successive decades. Despite this changing content of top-associated words, the average valence (positivity/negativity) of these top stereotypes was generally persistent. Ultimately, through advances in the availability of historical word embeddings, this study offers a comprehensive characterization of both change and persistence in social group representations as revealed through books of the English-speaking world from 1800 to 1999.


Subject(s)
Books , Search Engine , Female , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Humans , Language , Male , Population Groups/history , Stereotyping
4.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 123(8): 594-596, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35852512

ABSTRACT

No abstract Keywords.


Subject(s)
Kidney Transplantation , Anniversaries and Special Events , History, 20th Century
5.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 18(2): 117-123, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35854683

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION  In his 2016 article published in this journal, Dr. William Winters described Selma and Lois DeBakey as "icons of medical communication" who believed that "nothing hinders communication as much as words, when they are used badly or incorrectly."1 This article bookends Winters' description by explaining how Selma and Lois DeBakey were also "icons of medical preservation" who asked, "Shall we nourish the biomedical archives as a viable and indispensable source of information, or shall we bury their ashes and lose a century or more of consequential scientific history?"2 In addressing this question posed by Selma and Lois DeBakey and spotlighting their answers in their own engaging words, we highlight the relevance of their advocacy for the medical humanities and its influence to inform humanistic approaches to science and medicine. More broadly, their advocacy inspires us to appreciate the historical record as we think critically about how we communicate the experience of medicine and science, learn from it today, and preserve it for tomorrow.


Subject(s)
Communication , History, 20th Century , Humans
6.
Int J Psychoanal ; 103(3): 480-494, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35856141

ABSTRACT

This paper discusses the correspondence between Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud, published in the Standard Edition of Freud's writings under the title of "Why War". Freud's answers to some of Einstein's questions are compared to Alfred Adler's ideas on the role of "striving for power" versus "community feeling" and the role of these two forces in the development of war. Adler had begun to develop an object relations line of thinking in his early papers on the aggressive drive and the need for affection (Adler 1908a and 1908b). It is suggested that if Freud and Adler had been able to continue working together, they might have been able to bring their differing perspectives on the issue of war together to address both the role of power and loss of power, as well as the role of narcissistic defences in the development of war. As it is, this was left to later psychoanalytic thinkers, in particular the Kleinian analysts, who underlined the role of reverting to paranoid-schizoid thinking in the face of humiliation, rather than facing depression and the work of mourning. The work of mourning is illustrated using excerpts from Benjamin Britten's "War Requiem".


Subject(s)
Psychoanalysis , Emotions , Freudian Theory , Grief , History, 20th Century , Humans , Narcissism , Psychoanalysis/history
7.
Rev Med Chil ; 150(1): 100-106, 2022 Jan.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35856971

ABSTRACT

Dr. Vicente Izquierdo San Fuentes was the first professor of Histology at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile. In that Chair, cell theory strongly radiated to new generations of health students. However, the conditions for the creation of the discipline of General or Cell Biology were not yet ripe. Almost three decades later, Dr. Juan Noé Crevani was hired in Italy to lead Medical Zoology in 1912. From the heterogeneous discipline of Medical Zoology, Dr. Noé managed to create in 1926 the new chairs of General Biology, Embryology-Comparative Anatomy and Parasitology. His vision of biology as an essentially dynamic and experimental science, contributed to modernize and encourage the development of different areas of biology in Chile. Retaining their full independence, these chairs met in 1931, in a new organization called the Juan Noé Institute of Biology, which lasted until the university reform of 1968. Afterwards, the departments of Biology and Genetics, Parasitology, Human Anatomy and Histology were created. In 1998, a new reorganization of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile began, creating the so-called Institute of Biomedical Sciences (ICBM) that houses several disciplinary programs that replaced the old departments.


Subject(s)
Faculty , Medicine , Academies and Institutes , Chile , History, 20th Century , Humans , Universities/history
8.
Technol Cult ; 63(3): 603-633, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35848233

ABSTRACT

This article explores a distinct Soviet policy of occupational care that emerged after World War II, when Soviet industry invented an array of respiratory protective equipment (RPE). The annual production of millions of devices highlighted the development of a complex Soviet transinstitutional system for insuring safe occupational breathing. Following key premises of respiratory safety policies in the activities of Soviet organizations, this article traces a biopolitical shift from mortality to vitality. By showing the curial role of RPE in the history of occupational rather than military safety in the twentieth century, the article fills a major research gap to feature Soviet modernity through the unique lens of industrial respiratory care in postwar Soviet Union between the late 1940s and the early 1990s.


Subject(s)
Military Personnel , Occupational Health , History, 20th Century , Humans , USSR , Ventilators, Mechanical , World War II
9.
Technol Cult ; 63(3): 808-829, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35848240

ABSTRACT

This article examines the over-attention historians pay to innovation and high technology compared to local production through a brief review of the historiography of technology in twentieth-century Latin America. Following Svante Lindqvist's approach to "technological landscapes," it argues that the current history of technology in the region favors change over continuity, thus perpetuating a modernist and industrial perspective of technological dynamics. Based on a case study of chuño (frozendehydrated potatoes) production and consumption on the Altiplano of Peru and Bolivia, this article shows how historians could incorporate local and long-standing knowledge and use into the history-of-technology canon.


Subject(s)
Historiography , Bolivia , History, 20th Century , Knowledge , Latin America , Technology
11.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(7): 11-12, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35833406
13.
Biol Aujourdhui ; 216(1-2): 1-6, 2022.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35876516

ABSTRACT

Discovery of insulin. If the symptoms of diabetes have been known since Antiquity, it is at the end of the 19th century that several investigators searched for the active substance of the pancreas and endeavoured to produce extracts that lowered blood and urine glucose and decreased polyuria in pancreatectomized dogs. The breakthrough came 100 years ago when the team of Frederick Banting, Charles Best and James Collip, working in the Department of Physiology, headed by John MacLeod at the University of Toronto, managed to obtain pancreatic extracts that could be used to treat patients and rescue them from the edge of death by starvation, the only treatment then available. This achievement was quickly recognized by the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Banting and MacLeod in 1923. The discovery has had important scientific, industrial and clinical developments still efficient nowadays.


Title: La découverte de l'insuline 1921­1922 : un saut dans la recherche biomédicale. Abstract: Si les symptômes du diabète ont été décrits depuis l'Antiquité et caractérisés par la présence de sucre dans les urines et une soif intense, ce n'est qu'à la fin du xixe siècle que les travaux de plusieurs équipes aboutissent à rechercher la substance active de la sécrétion interne du pancréas dans des extraits susceptibles de diminuer le glucose dans le sang et les urines chez le chien diabétique. C'est à l'Université de Toronto, au Canada, il y a 100 ans, entre 1921 et 1922, que Frederick Banting, Charles Best et James Collip, travaillant dans le département de physiologie dirigé par John MacLeod, obtiennent des extraits pancréatiques suffisamment purifiés qui permettent de traiter de jeunes patients diabétiques. Cette découverte de l'insuline est très vite reconnue et saluée par l'attribution du Prix Nobel de Physiologie ou Médecine en 1923 à Frederick Banting et John MacLeod. Cette découverte a eu d'importantes retombées scientifiques, industrielles et cliniques, toujours d'actualité.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , Diabetes Mellitus , Animals , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/history , Dogs , History, 20th Century , Insulin/history , Insulin/therapeutic use , Nobel Prize
14.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 117: e220066, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858002

ABSTRACT

It is well documented that Chagas disease (CD) can pose a public health problem to countries. As one of the World Health Organization Neglected Tropical Diseases undoubtedly calls for comprehensive healthcare, transcending a restricted biomedical approach. After more than a century since their discovery, in 1909, people affected by CD are still frequently marginalised and/or neglected. The aim of this article is to tell the story of their activism, highlighting key historical experiences and successful initiatives, from 1909 to 2019. The first association was created in 1987, in the city of Recife, Brazil. So far, thirty associations have been reported on five continents. They were created as independent non-profit civil society organisations and run democratically by affected people. Among the common associations' objectives, we notably find: increase the visibility of the affected; make their voice heard; build bridges between patients, health system professionals, public health officials, policy makers and the academic and scientific communities. The International Federation of Associations of People Affected by CD - FINDECHAGAS, created in 2010 with the input of the Americas, Europe and the Western Pacific, counts as one of the main responses to the globalisation of CD. Despite all the obstacles and difficulties encountered, the Federation has thrived, grown, and matured. As a result of this mobilisation along with the support of many national and international partners, in May 2019 the 72nd World Health Assembly decided to establish World Chagas Disease Day, on 14 April. The associative movement has increased the understanding of the challenges related to the disease and breaks the silence around Chagas disease, improving surveillance, and sustaining engagement towards the United Nations 2030 agenda.


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease , Global Health , Anniversaries and Special Events , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/history , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Global Health/history , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , World Health Organization
16.
Ambix ; 69(2): 201, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862643
17.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 39(2): 195-202, 2022 04.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35856993

ABSTRACT

In the second half of the 19th century, the beginning of the research on tropical medicine was favored with contributions from shipping companies, like Dutch East India Company, being perhaps the most important of these its collaboration in the creation of the China Imperial Maritime Customs Service (1854-1950), imposed by consuls from England, France and USA, on the weak Chinese government in order to establish regular taxes in all its ports, soon expanding its functions with reports on tides, typhoons and weather, ending up creating a medical service in 1863 to detect epidemics and establish quarantines. This medical service published a Journal, the Imperial Maritime Customs Medical Reports, where they wrote distinguished investigators, such as Patrick Manson, Father of Tropical Medicine. We comment in some reports of this journal, to get an idea about its real importance in the development of tropical medicine.


Subject(s)
Naval Medicine , Tropical Medicine , France , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Tropical Medicine/history
20.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270032, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793291

ABSTRACT

Studying collection specimens is often the only way to unravel information about recent extinctions. These can reveal knowledge on threats and life traits related to extinction, and contribute, by extrapolation, to the conservation of extant species. However, high-throughput sequencing methods have rarely been applied to extinct species to reveal information on their ecology. Insular species are especially prone to extinction. We studied the gut contents of three specimens of the extinct giant skink Chioninia coctei of the Cabo Verde Islands using microscopy and DNA-metabarcoding. The presence of Tachygonetria adult nematodes suggests plants as important diet items. Our metabarcoding approach also identified plants and, additionally, invertebrates, supporting the hypothesis of C. coctei's generalist diet. The absence of vertebrates in the digestive contents may reflect the decline of seabirds on the Desertas Islands that could have contributed to the debilitation of the giant skink, already depleted by persecution and severe droughts. Even with a small sample size, this study contributes to shedding light on the trophic roles of this enigmatic extinct species and emphasizes the need to develop holistic conservation plans for island threatened taxa. Additionally, it illustrates the potential of integrating up-to-date molecular methods with traditional approaches to studying collection specimens to help to solve ecological puzzles in other ecosystems.


Subject(s)
Diet , Extinction, Biological , Specimen Handling , Animals , Cabo Verde , Diet/history , Diet/veterinary , Ecosystem , History, 20th Century
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