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2.
J Exp Med ; 221(8)2024 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842526

ABSTRACT

The first descriptions of "non-specific" killing of tumor cells by lymphocytes were reported in 1973, and subsequently, the mediators of the activity were named "natural killer" (NK) cells by Rolf Kiessling and colleagues at the Karolinska Institute in 1975. The activity was detected in mice, rats, and humans that had no prior exposure to the tumors, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen matching of the effectors and tumor cells was not required, and the cells responsible were distinct from MHC-restricted, antigen-specific T cells. In the ensuing five decades, research by many labs has extended knowledge of NK cells beyond an in vitro curiosity to demonstrate their in vivo relevance in host defense against tumors and microbial pathogens and their role in regulation of the immune system. This brief Perspective highlights a timeline of a few selected advancements in NK cell biology from a personal perspective of being involved in this quest.


Subject(s)
Killer Cells, Natural , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Animals , Humans , History, 20th Century , Mice , History, 21st Century , Neoplasms/immunology , Rats
6.
J Long Term Eff Med Implants ; 34(4): 71-81, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842235

ABSTRACT

A thorough literature search was done in PubMed and Google Scholar as well as in physical books in libraries to summarize the literature on the history and evolution of medicine and orthopedics. The philosophical ideas that emerged in ancient Greece served as a foundation for the development of medicine. In the 5th century BC, the schools of Knidos and Kos emerged as influential centers for the development of medical thinking. The field of orthopedics can be traced back to early human civilizations. Ancient Egyptians perpetuated the tradition of employing splinting techniques. Hippocrates provided insights for the diagnosis, correction and treatment of many musculoskeletal entities. The field of medicine experienced a period of limited advancement during the Middle Ages. The Renaissance provided for the foundation of modern orthopedics and important contributions to the understanding and implementation of antisepsis. The discovery of x-ray and advancements in infection control and anesthesia have shown substantial progress in the domain of orthopedics and have contributed to the development of orthopedic subspecialization. Orthopedic surgery holds a historical lineage deeply entrenched in ancient practices and early human civilizations. Physicians specializing in orthopedics should be aware of the historical origins of their discipline and continue to evolve through further subspecialization and enhanced research.


Subject(s)
Orthopedics , History, Ancient , Humans , History, 16th Century , History, Medieval , Orthopedics/history , History, 17th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 15th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 21st Century
8.
Cir Cir ; 92(3): 408-414, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862119

ABSTRACT

In the 1980s in Mexico, that of the «moral renewal¼, there was the opening to the market and the manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS. In this writing, the historical and therapeutic conditions are related to alleviate the syndrome until the arrival of the first antiretroviral. It is a reconstruction of the events, of which the medical-social, main clinical manifestations and of course the pharmacological therapy, until de the development zidovudina or azidotimidina of AZT, the first antiretroviral to be approved. Nevertheless, in the Mexican context, this event wasn't decisive to significantly change the morbility and the mortality.


En el México de la década de 1980, el de la «renovación moral¼, se vivió la apertura al mercado y la manifestación del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y el sida. En este escrito se relatan las condiciones históricas y terapéuticas del síndrome en los pacientes mexicanos, hasta la llegada del primer antirretroviral. Se trata de una reconstrucción de los hechos, de los cuales se ha profundizado en aspectos médico-sociales, principales manifestaciones clínicas y terapéutica farmacológica, hasta que interviene en la patogenia del VIH/sida el desarrollo de la zidovudina o azidotimidina (AZT), primer antirretroviral en ser aprobado. No obstante, en el contexto mexicano este suceso no fue determinante para cambiar de manera significativa la morbimortalidad de los infectados.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , HIV Infections , Zidovudine , Mexico , Humans , Zidovudine/history , Zidovudine/therapeutic use , History, 20th Century , HIV Infections/history , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/history , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/history , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy
9.
Learn Mem ; 31(5)2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862163

ABSTRACT

In his treatise on arthropod brains, Hans von Alten (1910) focuses on a specific functional group of insects-the flying Hymenoptera-which exhibit a spectrum of lifestyles ranging from solitary to social. His work presents a distinctive comparative neuro-anatomical approach rooted in an eco-evolutionary and eco-behavioral background. We regard his publication as an exceptionally valuable source of information and seek to inspire the research community dedicated to the study of the insect brain to explore its insights further, even after more than 110 years. We have translated and annotated his work, expecting it to engage researchers not just with its remarkable drawings but also with its substantive content and exemplary research strategy. The present text is designed to complement von Alten's publication, situating it within the temporal context of nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century studies, and to draw connections to contemporary perspectives, especially concerning a central brain structure: the mushroom body.


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , Brain , Cognition , Hymenoptera , Animals , Brain/physiology , Brain/anatomy & histology , Cognition/physiology , History, 20th Century , Hymenoptera/physiology , Hymenoptera/anatomy & histology , History, 19th Century , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Mushroom Bodies/physiology , Mushroom Bodies/anatomy & histology
10.
Learn Mem ; 31(5)2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862175

ABSTRACT

In 1998, a special edition of Learning & Memory was published with a discrete focus of synthesizing the state of the field to provide an overview of the function of the insect mushroom body. While molecular neuroscience and optical imaging of larger brain areas were advancing, understanding the basic functioning of neuronal circuits, particularly in the context of the mushroom body, was rudimentary. In the past 25 years, technological innovations have allowed researchers to map and understand the in vivo function of the neuronal circuits of the mushroom body system, making it an ideal model for investigating the circuit basis of sensory encoding, memory formation, and behavioral decisions. Collaborative efforts within the community have played a crucial role, leading to an interactive connectome of the mushroom body and accessible genetic tools for studying mushroom body circuit function. Looking ahead, continued technological innovation and collaborative efforts are likely to further advance our understanding of the mushroom body and its role in behavior and cognition, providing insights that generalize to other brain structures and species.


Subject(s)
Brain , Insecta , Mushroom Bodies , Mushroom Bodies/physiology , Animals , Insecta/physiology , Brain/physiology , History, 21st Century , History, 20th Century
11.
Theranostics ; 14(8): 3043-3079, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38855174

ABSTRACT

In 1853, the perception of prostate cancer (PCa) as a rare ailment prevailed, was described by the eminent Londoner surgeon John Adams. Rapidly forward to 2018, the landscape dramatically altered. Currently, men face a one-in-nine lifetime risk of PCa, accentuated by improved diagnostic methods and an ageing population. With more than three million men in the United States alone grappling with this disease, the overall risk of succumbing to stands at one in 39. The intricate clinical and biological diversity of PCa poses serious challenges in terms of imaging, ongoing monitoring, and disease management. In the field of theranostics, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that harmoniously merge targeted imaging with treatments are integrated. A pivotal player in this arena is radiotheranostics, employing radionuclides for both imaging and therapy, with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) at the forefront. Clinical milestones have been reached, including FDA- and/or EMA-approved PSMA-targeted radiodiagnostic agents, such as [18F]DCFPyL (PYLARIFY®, Lantheus Holdings), [18F]rhPSMA-7.3 (POSLUMA®, Blue Earth Diagnostics) and [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 (Locametz®, Novartis/ ILLUCCIX®, Telix Pharmaceuticals), as well as PSMA-targeted radiotherapeutic agents, such as [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 (Pluvicto®, Novartis). Concurrently, ligand-drug and immune therapies designed to target PSMA are being advanced through rigorous preclinical research and clinical trials. This review delves into the annals of PSMA-targeted radiotheranostics, exploring its historical evolution as a signature molecule in PCa management. We scrutinise its clinical ramifications, acknowledge its limitations, and peer into the avenues that need further exploration. In the crucible of scientific inquiry, we aim to illuminate the path toward a future where the enigma of PCa is deciphered and where its menace is met with precise and effective countermeasures. In the following sections, we discuss the intriguing terrain of PCa radiotheranostics through the lens of PSMA, with the fervent hope of advancing our understanding and enhancing clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Surface , Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II , Prostatic Neoplasms , Radiopharmaceuticals , Humans , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy , Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II/metabolism , Male , Antigens, Surface/metabolism , Radiopharmaceuticals/therapeutic use , Nuclear Medicine/methods , Nuclear Medicine/history , Theranostic Nanomedicine/methods , Radioisotopes/therapeutic use , History, 21st Century , History, 20th Century
14.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 638, 2024 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A challenge facing many Academic Health Centers (AHCs) attempting to revise health professions education to include the impact of racism as a social and structural determinant of health (SSDoH) is a lack of broad faculty expertise to reinforce and avoid undermining learning modules addressing this topic. To encourage an institutional culture that is in line with new anti-racism instruction, we developed a six-part educational series on the history of racism in America and its impact on contemporary health inequities for teaching structural competency to health professions academicians. METHODS: We developed a six-hour elective continuing education (CE) series for faculty and staff with the following objectives: (1) describe and discuss race as a social construct; (2) describe and discuss the decolonization of the health sciences and health care; (3) describe and discuss the history of systemic racism and structural violence from a socio-ecological perspective; and (4) describe and discuss reconciliation and repair in biomedicine. The series was spread over a six-month period and each monthly lecture was followed one week later by an open discussion debriefing session. Attendees were assessed on their understanding of each objective before and after each series segment. RESULTS: We found significant increases in knowledge and understanding of each objective as the series progressed. Attendees reported that the series helped them grapple with their discomfort in a constructive manner. Self-selected attendees were overwhelmingly women (81.8%), indicating a greater willingness to engage with this material than men. CONCLUSIONS: The series provides a model for AHCs looking to promote anti-racism and structural competency among their faculty and staff.


Subject(s)
Racism , Humans , Racism/history , United States , Faculty, Medical , Curriculum , Male , History, 20th Century , Education, Medical, Continuing/history , Female
17.
Lancet ; 403(10443): 2480, 2024 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38852593
18.
J Christ Nurs ; 41(3): 178-183, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38853318

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Sister Simone Roach, a noted philosopher of caring in nursing, left behind a significant body of theoretical and practical work highlighting the areas of nursing ethics, care/caring, and compassion. This article explores the integration of the moral foundation of agape love in Pauline theology and Roach's human caring in nursing (1992) as the action of agape love. A narrative literature review explores the relationship between the scriptural ethics of St. Paul (Pauline ethics) and Roach's caring in nursing.


Subject(s)
Christianity , Empathy , Humans , History, 20th Century , Philosophy, Nursing , Ethics, Nursing , Nursing Care/psychology , Nurse-Patient Relations
19.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1906): 20230218, 2024 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38853569

ABSTRACT

We introduce and summarize reviews and research papers by speakers at a discussion meeting on 'Long-term potentiation: 50 years on' held at the Royal Society, London, on 20-21 November 2023. The meeting followed earlier discussion meetings marking the 30th and 40th anniversaries of the discovery of long-term potentiation. These new contributions give an overview of current research and controversies in a vibrant branch of neuroscience with important implications for our understanding of the neurobiological basis of many forms of learning and memory and a wide spectrum of neurological and cognitive disorders.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Long-term potentiation: 50 years on'.


Subject(s)
Long-Term Potentiation , Long-Term Potentiation/physiology , Humans , Animals , History, 20th Century , Learning , Memory/physiology , History, 21st Century
20.
Recenti Prog Med ; 115(6): 302, 2024 Jun.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38853736
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