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BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 645, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784897


BACKGROUND: Delirium is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among older people admitted to both acute and long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Multicomponent interventions have been shown to reduce delirium incidence in the acute care setting (30-73%) by acting on modifiable risk factors. Little work, however, has focused on using this approach to reduce delirium incidence in LTCFs. METHODS: The objective is to assess the effectiveness of the multicomponent PREPARED Trial intervention in reducing the following primary outcomes: incidence, severity, duration, and frequency of delirium episodes in cognitively impaired residents. This 4-year, parallel-design, cluster randomized study will involve nursing staff and residents in 45-50 LTCFs in Montreal, Canada. Participating public and private LTCFs (clusters) that provide 24-h nursing care will be assigned to either the PREPARED Trial intervention or the control (usual care) arm of the study using a covariate constrained randomization procedure. Approximately 400-600 LTC residents aged 65 and older with dementia and/or cognitive impairment will be enrolled in the study and followed for 18 weeks. Residents must be at risk of delirium, delirium-free at baseline and have resided at the facility for at least 2 weeks. Residents who are unable to communicate verbally, have a history of specific psychiatric conditions, or are receiving end-of-life care will be excluded. The PREPARED Trial intervention consists of four main components: a decision tree, an instruction manual, a training package, and a toolkit. Primary study outcomes will be assessed weekly. Functional autonomy and cognitive levels will be assessed at the beginning and end of follow-up, while information pertaining to modifiable delirium risk factors, medical consultations, and facility transfers will be collected retrospectively for the duration of the follow-up period. Primary outcomes will be reported at the level of intervention assignment. All researchers analyzing the data will be blinded to group allocation. DISCUSSION: This large-scale intervention study will contribute significantly to the development of evidence-based clinical guidelines for delirium prevention in this frail elderly population, as it will be the first to evaluate the efficacy of a multicomponent delirium prevention program translated into LTC clinical practice on a large scale. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03718156 , .

Alzheimer Disease , Delirium , Aged , Delirium/diagnosis , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/prevention & control , Frail Elderly , Homes for the Aged , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Retrospective Studies
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684566


The role of foodservices in aged care is difficult to understand, and strategies to improve the nutritional care of residents are often unsustainable. In particular, food-first strategies such as food fortification are poorly executed in everyday practice and its execution relies upon the foodservice system in aged care homes. The aim of this study was to explore the perspective of staff on the role of foodservices in aged care and gauge the level of skills, education, access, time, and ability to deliver food fortification. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with foodservice managers, foodservice workers, dietitians, carers, and other managers who work in aged care homes across Australia. Participants were recruited purposively through email and through snowballing. Interviews (n = 21) were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Three themes and six sub-themes were identified. The three themes include the role of foodservices being more than just serving food, teamwork between all staff to champion nutrition, and workplace culture that values continuous improvement. These themes identify how staff perceive the role of foodservices in aged care and provide an important perspective on the long-term sustainability of food fortification strategies and how to improve current practice.

Food Services , Homes for the Aged , Nutritional Support , Qualitative Research , Residential Facilities , Stakeholder Participation , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Leadership , Male , Middle Aged , Staff Development
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 24(281): 6309-6318, out.-2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF - Nursing | ID: biblio-1344321


Objetivo: analisar a prevalência bem como as associações entre as variáveis independentes relacionadas às quedas dos idosos. Método: estudo descritivo, quantitativo, realizado no ano de 2017 em uma Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos, após aprovação pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa sob parecer nº2.152.185. Utilizado questionário elaborado a partir das variáveis de risco para queda conforme o Protocolo de Quedas do Ministério da Saúde e Morse FallScale. Elaborado banco de dados em Excel e realizada análise descritiva e de associação dos dados cálculos das frequências absolutas e relativas, p-valor e teste qui-quadrado. Resultados: a prevalência geral de quedas foi de 48,5%. A polifarmácia foi o fator de risco associado que obteve maior significância. Conclusão: o número de quedas encontrado e fatores associados são preocupantes frente a população idosa estudada ao considerar as quedas como um indicador da qualidade da assistência.(AU)

Objective: to analyze the prevalence as well as the associations between the independent variables related to falls among the elderly. Method: descriptive, quantitative study, carried out in 2017 in a Long Stay Institution for the Elderly, after approval by the Research Ethics Committee under opinion nº 2.152.185. A questionnaire was used based on the risk variables for falls according to the Falls Protocol of the Ministry of Health and Morse FallScale. Prepared an Excel database and performed descriptive analysis and data association, calculations of absolute and relative frequencies, p-value and chi-square test. Results: the overall prevalence of falls was 48.5%. Polypharmacy was the associated risk factor that had the greatest significance. Conclusion: the number of falls found and associated factors are of concern to the elderly population studied when considering falls as an indicator of quality of care.(AU)

Objetivo: analizar la prevalencia y las asociaciones entre las variables independientes relacionadas con las caídas en los ancianos. Método: estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, realizado en 2017 en una Institución de Larga Estancia de Mayores, previa aprobación del Comité de Ética en Investigación bajo dictamen nº 2.152.185. Se utilizó un cuestionario basado en las variables de riesgo de caídas según el Protocolo de Caídas del Ministerio de Salud y Morse FallScale. Se preparó una base de datos en Excel y se realizó análisis descriptivo y asociación de datos, cálculos de frecuencias absolutas y relativas, valor p y prueba de chi-cuadrado. Resultados: la prevalencia global de caídas fue del 48,5%. La polifarmacia fue el factor de riesgo asociado de mayor significación. Conclusión: el número de caídas encontradas y los factores asociados preocupan a la población anciana estudiada al considerar las caídas como un indicador de la calidad de la atención.(AU)

Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Accidental Falls , Health of Institutionalized Elderly , Homes for the Aged , Risk Factors , Health Services for the Aged
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27364, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622836


ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effects of self-acceptance on loneliness and subjective well-being (SWB) among elderly subjects living in Chinese nursing homes.This cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2019 and March 2020. A total of 415 elderly participants aged 60 to 97 years (mean 81.12 ±â€Š8.90 years) from 3 medical and nursing homes in Fuyang city, Anhui province, were selected using a convenience sampling method. Data were collected using a general information questionnaire, the Memorial University of Newfoundland Scale of Happiness, the self-acceptance scale, and the UCLA Loneliness scale. Correlations, regressions, and structural equation models were used for the analyses. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to confirm the factors influencing the SWB. Bootstrapping was performed to confirm the mediation effect.The loneliness of elderly subjects in nursing homes was significantly correlated with self-acceptance and SWB (r = -0.338, P < .01; r = -0.383, P < .01), and self-acceptance was significantly correlated with SWB (r = 0.401, P < .01). Multiple linear regression revealed that the relationship with children, loneliness, residence time in nursing homes, income, marital status, self-acceptance, original residence, and frequency of children's visits were the main factors affecting SWB. Bootstrapping showed that the mediating role of self-acceptance was statistically significant.The SWB of elderly individuals living in Chinese nursing homes was moderate. Low-income people, subjects from rural areas, and those newly admitted to nursing homes should be emphasized in interventions, and appropriate measures should be taken to harmonize the relationships between elderly residents and their children. Self-acceptance partially mediated the relationship between loneliness and SWB. Consequently, self-acceptance should be the focus of improving the SWB of elderly nursing home residents.

Loneliness/psychology , Personal Satisfaction , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Homes for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires
BMJ ; 375: n2364, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670754


OBJECTIVE: To assess the antifracture efficacy and safety of a nutritional intervention in institutionalised older adults replete in vitamin D but with mean intakes of 600 mg/day calcium and <1 g/kg body weight protein/day. DESIGN: Two year cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 60 accredited residential aged care facilities in Australia housing predominantly ambulant residents. PARTICIPANTS: 7195 permanent residents (4920 (68%) female; mean age 86.0 (SD 8.2) years). INTERVENTION: Facilities were stratified by location and organisation, with 30 facilities randomised to provide residents with additional milk, yoghurt, and cheese that contained 562 (166) mg/day calcium and 12 (6) g/day protein achieving a total intake of 1142 (353) mg calcium/day and 69 (15) g/day protein (1.1 g/kg body weight). The 30 control facilities maintained their usual menus, with residents consuming 700 (247) mg/day calcium and 58 (14) g/day protein (0.9 g/kg body weight). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Group differences in incidence of fractures, falls, and all cause mortality. RESULTS: Data from 27 intervention facilities and 29 control facilities were analysed. A total of 324 fractures (135 hip fractures), 4302 falls, and 1974 deaths were observed. The intervention was associated with risk reductions of 33% for all fractures (121 v 203; hazard ratio 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.93; P=0.02), 46% for hip fractures (42 v 93; 0.54, 0.35 to 0.83; P=0.005), and 11% for falls (1879 v 2423; 0.89, 0.78 to 0.98; P=0.04). The risk reduction for hip fractures and falls achieved significance at five months (P=0.02) and three months (P=0.004), respectively. Mortality was unchanged (900 v 1074; hazard ratio 1.01, 0.43 to 3.08). CONCLUSIONS: Improving calcium and protein intakes by using dairy foods is a readily accessible intervention that reduces the risk of falls and fractures commonly occurring in aged care residents. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000228785.

Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Calcium, Dietary/therapeutic use , Dietary Proteins/therapeutic use , Hip Fractures/prevention & control , Osteoporosis/diet therapy , Osteoporotic Fractures/prevention & control , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Australia/epidemiology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hip Fractures/epidemiology , Hip Fractures/etiology , Homes for the Aged , Humans , Incidence , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Osteoporosis/complications , Osteoporotic Fractures/epidemiology , Osteoporotic Fractures/etiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Risk Reduction Behavior , Treatment Outcome
Article in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54915


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Analizar las pautas de convivencia de la población de 60 años o más que reside en hogares priva-dos en 23 países de América Latina y el Caribe. Métodos. Estudio transversal realizado con base en los microdatos censales más recientes disponibles en Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS)-International, la mayoría de ellos correspondientes a la ronda censal de 2010. Se calcularon y se compararon, para cada país y por sexo, el número medio de convivientes, su distribución por edad y las relaciones de parentesco que se establecen entre ellos. Se compararon, por país y por sexo, el promedio de convivientes en función del nivel de escolaridad y del estado civil. Resultados. El promedio del número de personas con las que convive la gente mayor difiere entre países. Oscila entre dos personas en países como Argentina, Puerto Rico y Uruguay, y cuatro o más personas en países como Honduras y Nicaragua. Esta diferencia resulta de la mayor o menor presencia de personas jóvenes, hijos y otros familiares en el hogar. El número de convivientes disminuye con el mayor nivel de escolaridad, salvo en Cuba y en Puerto Rico, donde no se observan diferencias. En general, las mujeres mayores viven en hogares con menos personas que los hombres, aunque no es el caso de las personas solteras o divorciadas. Conclusiones. La convivencia con hijos y otros familiares es habitual en la Región. Las diferencias entre países y por nivel educativo muestran que la familia juega un papel importante en la protección social de la vejez en los países menos desarrollados y en los grupos menos escolarizados.

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. Analyze cohabitation patterns in the population over 60 years of age living in private households in 23 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Methods. Cross-sectional study based on the most recently available census microdata from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS, International), corresponding mainly to the 2010 census. Average number of household members, age distribution, and family relationships were calculated and compared for each country and by sex. The average number of household members was compared, by country and by sex, in relation to level of schooling and marital status. Results. The average number of people that older people live with differs between countries, ranging from two or less in countries such as Argentina, Puerto Rico, and Uruguay, to four or more in countries such as Honduras and Nicaragua. This difference depends on a greater or lesser presence of young adults, children, and other family members in the household. The number of household members declines with a higher level of schooling, except in Cuba and Puerto Rico, where no differences are observed. In general, older women live in households with fewer people than men, although this is not the case for unmarried or divorced people. Conclusions. In the Region, it is common for older persons to live with children and other family members. The differences between countries and by educational level show that the family plays an important role in social protection of the elderly in less developed countries and in the least educated groups.

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Analisar os padrões de convivência da população de 60 anos ou mais que reside em moradias particulares em 23 países da América Latina e do Caribe. Métodos. Estudo transversal realizado com base nos microdados censitários mais recentes disponíveis no Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS)-International, na maior parte correspondente à etapa cen-sitária de 2010. O número médio de coabitantes, sua distribuição por idade e as relações de parentesco estabelecidas entre eles foram calculados e comparados para cada país e por sexo. A média de coabitantes em função do nível de escolaridade e do estado civil foi comparada por país e por sexo. Resultados. A média do número de pessoas com quem os idosos convivem difere entre países. Oscila entre 2 pessoas em países como Argentina, Porto Rico e Uruguai e 4 ou mais pessoas em países como Honduras e Nicarágua. Essa diferença resulta da maior ou menor presença de jovens, filhos e outros familiares em casa. Quanto maior o nível de escolaridade, menor o número de coabitantes, exceto em Cuba e em Porto Rico, onde não são observadas diferenças. Em geral, as mulheres idosas vivem em moradias com menos pessoas que os homens, embora não seja o caso das pessoas solteiras ou divorciadas. Conclusões. A convivência com filhos e outros familiares é habitual na Região. As diferenças entre países e por nível educacional mostram que a família desempenha um papel importante na proteção social da velhice nos países menos desenvolvidos e nos grupos menos escolarizados.

Homes for the Aged , Aged , Housing , Aging , Healthy Aging , Health of the Elderly , Latin America , Caribbean Region , Housing , Housing for the Elderly , Aged , Health of the Elderly , Health Services for the Aged , Homes for the Aged , Healthy Aging , Aging , Latin America , Caribbean Region , Aged , Health Services for the Aged , Housing , Housing for the Elderly , Health of the Elderly , Aging , Healthy Aging
BMJ ; 374: n2198, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548288


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether C reactive protein point-of-care testing (CRP POCT) safely reduces antibiotic prescribing for lower respiratory tract infections in nursing home residents. DESIGN: Pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING: The UPCARE study included 11 nursing home organisations in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 84 physicians from 11 nursing home organisations included 241 participants with suspected lower respiratory tract infections from September 2018 to the end of March 2020. INTERVENTIONS: Nursing homes allocated to the intervention group had access to CRP POCT. The control group provided usual care without CRP POCT for patients with suspected lower respiratory tract infections. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was antibiotic prescribing at initial consultation. Secondary outcome measures were full recovery at three weeks, changes in antibiotic management and additional diagnostics during follow-up at one week and three weeks, and hospital admission and all cause mortality at any point (initial consultation, one week, or three weeks). RESULTS: Antibiotics were prescribed at initial consultation for 84 (53.5%) patients in the intervention group and 65 (82.3%) in the control group. Patients in the intervention group had 4.93 higher odds (95% confidence interval 1.91 to 12.73) of not being prescribed antibiotics at initial consultation compared with the control group, irrespective of treating physician and baseline characteristics. The between group difference in antibiotic prescribing at any point from initial consultation to follow-up was 23.6%. Differences in secondary outcomes between the intervention and control groups were 4.4% in full recovery rates at three weeks (86.4% v 90.8%), 2.2% in all cause mortality rates (3.5% v 1.3%), and 0.7% in hospital admission rates (7.2% v 6.5%). The odds of full recovery at three weeks, and the odds of mortality and hospital admission at any point did not significantly differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: CRP POCT for suspected lower respiratory tract infection safely reduced antibiotic prescribing compared with usual care in nursing home residents. The findings suggest that implementing CRP POCT in nursing homes might contribute to reduced antibiotic use in this setting and help to combat antibiotic resistance. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register NL5054.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Point-of-Care Testing , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Aged, 80 and over , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Cluster Analysis , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Female , Homes for the Aged , Humans , Male , Netherlands , Nursing Homes
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(10): 2766-2777, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549415


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has taken a disproportionate toll on long-term care facility residents and staff. Our objective was to review the empirical evidence on facility characteristics associated with COVID-19 cases and deaths. DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING: Long-term care facilities (nursing homes and assisted living communities). PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-six empirical studies of factors associated with COVID-19 cases and deaths in long-term care facilities published between January 1, 2020 and June 15, 2021. MEASUREMENTS: Outcomes included the probability of at least one case or death (or other defined threshold); numbers of cases and deaths, measured variably. RESULTS: Larger, more rigorous studies were fairly consistent in their assessment of risk factors for COVID-19 outcomes in long-term care facilities. Larger bed size and location in an area with high COVID-19 prevalence were the strongest and most consistent predictors of facilities having more COVID-19 cases and deaths. Outcomes varied by facility racial composition, differences that were partially explained by facility size and community COVID-19 prevalence. More staff members were associated with a higher probability of any outbreak; however, in facilities with known cases, higher staffing was associated with fewer deaths. Other characteristics, such as Nursing Home Compare 5-star ratings, ownership, and prior infection control citations, did not have consistent associations with COVID-19 outcomes. CONCLUSION: Given the importance of community COVID-19 prevalence and facility size, studies that failed to control for these factors were likely confounded. Better control of community COVID-19 spread would have been critical for mitigating much of the morbidity and mortality long-term care residents and staff experienced during the pandemic. Traditional quality measures such as Nursing Home Compare 5-Star ratings and past deficiencies were not consistent indicators of pandemic preparedness, likely because COVID-19 presented a novel problem requiring extensive adaptation by both long-term care providers and policymakers.

COVID-19 , Homes for the Aged/organization & administration , Long-Term Care , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , Risk Adjustment , Skilled Nursing Facilities/organization & administration , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Civil Defense/organization & administration , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Long-Term Care/methods , Long-Term Care/trends , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 219, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526034


BACKGROUND: No specific scale to measure Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease in Nursing Homes (QoL-AD NH) exists in French. We aimed to translate and culturally adapt the QoL-AD NH participant scale into a French version and evaluate its psychometric properties with residents in French nursing homes (EHPAD). METHODS: First, the QoL-AD NH was cross-culturally adapted into French according to guidelines. Secondly, a convenience group of residents with mild to moderate dementia answered the Folstein's test and the QoL-AD NH. They also answered the Dementia Quality of Life and the Geriatric Depression Scale to test convergent and divergent validity. Known-group validity was tested with a comparison group of residents without dementia. Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM) was used after Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) to identify factors and measure invariance across age and mental state groups. Reliability (internal consistency, McDonald's omega and test-retest) were also measured. RESULTS: Following successful adaptation of the QoL-AD NH, 174 residents (mean age 86.6) from 7 nursing homes with mild to moderate dementia participated in the validation study. We retained a 3-factor model of the scale after ESEM identifying: "Intra & interpersonal environment-related QoL", "Self-functioning-related QoL" and "Perceived current health-related QoL" that were invariant across age and mental state groups. The QoL-AD NH had acceptable convergent (ρ range 0.24-0.53) and divergent validity (ρ range - 0.43 to - 0.57) and good known-group validity with 33 residents without dementia (t(205) = 2.70, p = .007). For reliability, the results revealed very good and adequate internal consistency (α = 0.86 for total scale and ≥ 0.71 for subscales). All total omega values exceeded the threshold 0.70. The hierarchical omega was 0.50, supporting the multidimensionality of the scale. Hierarchical omega subscale values exceeded the minimal level 0.50 except for the third factor, although reliable, would deserve more items. Test-retest was good with ICC (3,1) = 0.76. CONCLUSIONS: The QoL-AD NH French participant version has globally good reliability and validity for evaluating residents' quality of life. However, further studies must rework and confirm the factor structure, test sensitivity to change and responsiveness.

Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Nursing Homes , Psychometrics/instrumentation , Quality of Life/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Cultural Characteristics , Female , France , Homes for the Aged , Humans , Male , Reproducibility of Results , Translating
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 24(280): 6179-6190, set.-2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF - Nursing | ID: biblio-1343825


Objetivo: rastrear indícios de depressão em idosos residentes em instituições de longa permanência (ILPI's). Método: estudo quantitativo, exploratório e descritivo, realizado em duas ILPI's, situadas no estado de São Paulo, no ano de 2017. Para a coleta de dados, empregou dois instrumentos, sendo: um para traçar o perfil dos idosos e o outro, a Escala de Depressão Geriátrica (EDG-15) pelas propriedades psicométricas e facilidade de aplicação. O tratamento e análise dos dados foram realizados pela estatística descritiva. Aprovado pelo CEP sob CAAE 65985917.2.0000.5431. Resultados: participaram 31 idosos, detectou-se que: 16 (94%) residentes na ILPI A e seis (43%) da ILPI B apresentaram escore igual ou superior a seis pontos, caracterizando-se assim, indícios para depressão, e tendo como maior predisposição, os idosos do sexo masculino (68%) e os divorciados (36%). Conclusão: torna-se necessário o desenvolvimento de estratégias no enfrentamento dos indícios de depressão e melhoria da qualidade de vida nas ILPI's. (AU)

Objective: to track depression in institutionalized older adults. Method: quantitative, exploratory and descriptive study, carried out in two nursing home, located in the state of São Paulo, in the year 2017. For data collection, two instruments were used: one to trace the profile of the elderly and the other, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), for its psychometric properties and ease of application. Data treatment and analysis were performed using descriptive statistics. Approved by CEP under CAAE 65985917.2.0000.5431. Results: 31 elderly people participated, it was found that: 16 (94%) residents in nursing home A and six (43%) of B had a score equal to or greater than six points, thus characterizing signs of depression, and having male (68%) and divorced (36%) older adults were more likely to be predisposed. Conclusion: it is necessary to develop strategies to deal with signs of depression and improve the quality of life in nursing homes.(AU)

Objetivo: detectar indicativos de depresión en ancianos institucionalizados. Método: estudio cuantitativo, exploratorio y descriptivo, realizado en dos asilos de ancianos, ubicados en el estado de São Paulo, en el año 2017. Para la recolección de datos se utilizaron dos instrumentos: uno para trazar el perfil del anciano y otro, la Escala de Depresión Geriátrica (GDS-15), por sus propiedades psicométricas y facilidad de aplicación. El tratamiento y análisis de los datos se realizó mediante estadística descriptiva. Aprobado por CEP bajo CAAE 65985917.2.0000.5431. Resultados: participaron 31 ancianos, se encontró que: 16 (94%) residentes del asilo A y seis (43%) del B tenían una puntuación igual o superior a seis puntos, caracterizando así signos de depresión, y tener (68%) y los adultos mayores divorciados (36%) tenían más probabilidades de estar predispuestos. Conclusión: es necesario desarrollar estrategias para enfrentar los signos de depresión y mejorar la calidad de vida en los hogares de ancianos.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mass Screening , Depression/diagnosis , Homes for the Aged , Psychometrics , Quality of Life/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Data Collection , Health of Institutionalized Elderly
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(3): 381-386, Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339797


ABSTRACT Empathy is an important factor to guarantee the quality of care provided in the long-term care institutions (LTCIs) for older adults, and depression is a factor that affects the health of the professional and, consequently, the care. Thus, it is important that studies are conducted on the relationship of these variables in this context. Objective: The aim of this study is to verify the relationship between empathy and depressive symptoms among health professionals working in the LTCIs. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at LTCIs in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The final sample was constituted by 101 health professionals (i.e., caregivers and nursing technicians) with direct participation in the care of institutionalized older adults. The instruments were used as follows: the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) to assess empathy and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for the diagnosis of depression. For the analyses, the patients were divided into groups with and without depression, according to the score of the PHQ-9. Results: The prevalence of depression among health professionals was 19.8%. Significant statistical differences were found between the groups for the total score of the IRI (p=0.029), for the emotional domain (p=0.023), and for the personal distress (p=0.009). Conclusions: The findings indicate that the presence of depression among health professionals at LTCIs is related to the higher levels of empathy, especially in the emotional domain. Thus, future studies that contribute to understanding how care must be provided with empathy, but without harming the health of the professional, should be carried out.

RESUMO A empatia é um importante fator na garantia da qualidade do cuidado prestado em Instituições de Longa Permanência para Idosos (ILPIs), e a depressão é um fator que prejudica a saúde do profissional e, consequentemente, esse cuidado. Dessa forma, é importante que se realizem estudos sobre a relação dessas variáveis nesse contexto. Objetivo: Verificar a relação entre empatia e sintomas depressivos em profissionais de saúde de ILPIs. Métodos: Estudo transversal, realizado em ILPIs no estado de São Paulo. A amostra final foi composta por 101 profissionais da saúde (cuidadores e técnicos de enfermagem), que participavam diretamente do cuidado de idosos institucionalizados. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: a Escala Multidimensional de Reatividade Interpessoal (EMRI) para avaliar empatia e o Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) para o diagnóstico de depressão. Para as análises, os participantes foram divididos em grupos com e sem depressão, de acordo com a pontuação do PHQ-9. Resultados: A prevalência de depressão entre os profissionais de saúde foi de 19,8%. Foram encontradas diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os grupos para a pontuação total do EMRI (p=0,029), para o domínio emocional (p=0,023) e angústia pessoal (p=0,009). Conclusões: Nossos achados apontam que a presença de depressão entre os profissionais de saúde de ILPIs está relacionada a maiores os níveis de empatia, principalmente no domínio emocional. Assim, pesquisas futuras que contribuam para entender como deve se dar o cuidado prestado com empatia, porém sem prejudicar a saúde do profissional, devem ser realizadas.

Humans , Homes for the Aged , Aged , Depression , Empathy
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 500, 2021 09 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536989


BACKGROUND: Greenland is facing an ageing population, and little is known about the characteristics of the elderly population in Greenland. This study offers both a comparison and a description of the demographics, causes of admission, comorbidities and medication of the residents in care homes in the capital, major and minor towns in four of the five administrative regions of Greenland. METHODS: The study was conducted from 2010 to 2016 as a descriptive questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. Data from eligible residents from eight care homes were collected from the regular care staff. Data were categorised into three groups based on town size for analysis. RESULTS: 244 (100 %) of eligible residents participated in the study. Nearly 100 % were of Greenlandic ethnicity based on parents' place of birth, and 62 % were women. The median age at admission/study was 69/71 years for men and 77/79 years for women (both p = 0.001). The median Body Mass Index was 25.6 kg/m2, more than half of the population were previous- or never-smokers and less than ten per cent consumed more than ten drinks of alcohol per week. The most common causes of admission were dementia (25.4 %), stroke (19.3 %) and social causes (11.1 %), while stroke (30.7 %), dementia (29.5 %) and musculoskeletal diseases (25.8 %) were the most common diagnoses at the time of the study. The Barthel Index was used to estimate the residents' level of independence, and residents in smaller towns were found to have a higher level of independence than residents in the capital. The median number of prescribed medications was five, and more residents in the capital were prescribed more than ten medications than elsewhere in Greenland. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to describe care home residents in Greenland. We found a population younger than residents in comparable Danish care homes and that women were older than men at admission. In addition, care home residents in the capital had a lower level of independence and a higher number of prescribed medications, which could relate to differences in morbidity, access to health care services and differences in social circumstances influencing the threshold for care home admission.

Homes for the Aged , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Greenland/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Morbidity , Surveys and Questionnaires
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-08-23. (PAHO/FPL/HL/COVID-19/21-0029).
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54702


Most COVID-19 related deaths in the Region of the Americas have occurred in people aged 70 years and over. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has further revealed the fragility of older adults, as well as of the health systems and communities that support them. However, age-friendly environments and related initiatives have played a key role in the timely adaptation to and mitigation of the effects of COVID-19. Various age-friendly cities and communities in Latin America participated in a survey aiming to understand the role of such initiatives in the Region, the impact of being part of the global network, and to present best practices adopted during the COVID-19 pandemic. This publication aims to show that being part of the “age-friendly global network” is beneficial not only to older persons but for all, and it can be especially beneficial in emergency situations. Its intended impact is to increase the quality of planning and concrete actions of age-friendly environments within the Region of the Americas. The primary target audiences of this publication are Member States of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and stakeholders that are involved and have prior knowledge of the practice of age-friendly environments. It also intends to reach age-friendly cities and communities in the Region of the Americas to share good practices that can be reproduced, as well as encourage such initiatives on behalf of older individuals. Its key messages highlight the importance of access to technology for older people and how being an age-friendly city plays an important role in reaching vulnerable populations. It also shows how a multisectoral approach and the involvement of different actors have made a huge impact in the development of activities toward an age-friendly environment and in favor of the protection of older adults.

COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Aged , Pandemics , Health Services for the Aged , Health Systems , Homes for the Aged
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-08-13. (OPS/FPL/HL/COVID-19/21-0029).
in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54661


La mayoría de las muertes relacionadas con la COVID-19 en la Región de las Américas afectan a personas de 70 años o más. El impacto de la pandemia de COVID-19 ha revelado aún más la fragilidad de las personas mayores, así como de los sistemas de salud y las comunidades que les prestan apoyo. Con todo, los entornos amigables con las personas mayores y las iniciativas conexas han desempeñado un papel clave en la adaptación oportuna y la mitigación de los efectos de la COVID-19. Varias ciudades y comunidades amigables con los mayores de América Latina participaron en una encuesta con el objetivo de comprender el papel de tales iniciativas en la Región y la repercusión de integrarse en la red mundial, así como de presentar las mejores prácticas adoptadas durante la pandemia. Esta publicación tiene como objetivo mostrar que formar parte de la “red mundial de ciudades amigables con los mayores” es beneficioso no solo para ellos, sino para todas las personas, y puede ser especialmente beneficioso en situaciones de emergencia. Su propósito es aumentar la calidad de la planificación y las acciones concretas de entornos amigables en la Región. Los principales destinatarios de esta publicación son los Estados Miembros de la OPS y las partes interesadas que participan y tienen conocimiento previo de la práctica de entornos amigables. Asimismo, se dirige a las ciudades y comunidades amigables con los mayores de la Región, a fin de compartir buenas prácticas que puedan reproducirse y alentar iniciativas de este tipo en nombre de las personas mayores. Sus mensajes clave destacan la importancia del acceso a la tecnología para las personas mayores y cómo ser una ciudad amigable es fundamental para llegar a las poblaciones en situación de vulnerabilidad. También muestra cómo un enfoque multisectorial y la participación de diferentes actores repercuten en gran medida en el desarrollo de actividades en favor de un entorno amigable con los mayores que favorezca su protección.

COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Death , Mortality , Aged , Health Systems , Homes for the Aged , Americas
BMJ ; 374: n1868, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407952


OBJECTIVE: To determine associations of BNT162b2 vaccination with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospital admission and death with covid-19 among nursing home residents, nursing home staff, and healthcare workers. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Nursing homes and linked electronic medical record, test, and mortality data in Catalonia on 27 December 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 28 456 nursing home residents, 26 170 nursing home staff, and 61 791 healthcare workers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants were followed until the earliest outcome (confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospital admission or death with covid-19) or 26 May 2021. Vaccination status was introduced as a time varying exposure, with a 14 day run-in after the first dose. Mixed effects Cox models were fitted to estimate hazard ratios with index month as a fixed effect and adjusted for confounders including sociodemographics, comorbidity, and previous medicine use. RESULTS: Among the nursing home residents, SARS-CoV-2 infection was found in 2482, 411 were admitted to hospital with covid-19, and 450 died with covid-19 during the study period. In parallel, 1828 nursing home staff and 2968 healthcare workers were found to have SARS-CoV-2 infection, but fewer than five were admitted or died with covid-19. The adjusted hazard ratio for SARS-CoV-2 infection after two doses of vaccine was 0.09 (95% confidence interval 0.08 to 0.11) for nursing home residents, 0.20 (0.17 to 0.24) for nursing home staff, and 0.13 (0.11 to 0.16) for healthcare workers. Adjusted hazard ratios for hospital admission and mortality after two doses of vaccine were 0.05 (0.04 to 0.07) and 0.03 (0.02 to 0.04), respectively, for nursing home residents. Nursing home staff and healthcare workers recorded insufficient events for mortality analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination was associated with 80-91% reduction in SARS-CoV-2 infection in all three cohorts and greater reductions in hospital admissions and mortality among nursing home residents for up to five months. More data are needed on longer term effects of covid-19 vaccines.

COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Homes for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2118441, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338794


Importance: COVID-19 has had devastating effects on the health and well-being of older adult residents and health care professionals in nursing homes. Uncertainty about the associated consequences of these adverse effects on the use of medications common to this care setting remains. Objective: To examine the association between the COVID-19 pandemic and prescription medication changes among nursing home residents. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study with an interrupted time-series analysis used linked health administrative data bases for residents of all nursing homes (N = 630) in Ontario, Canada. During the observation period, residents were divided into consecutive weekly cohorts. The first observation week was March 5 to 11, 2017; the last observation week was September 20 to 26, 2020. Exposures: Onset of the COVID-19 pandemic on March 1, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Weekly proportion of residents dispensed antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, opioids, antibiotics, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Autoregressive integrated moving average models with step and ramp intervention functions tested for level and slope changes in weekly medication use after the onset of the pandemic and were fit on prepandemic data for projected trends. Results: Across study years, the annual cohort size ranged from 75 850 to 76 549 residents (mean [SD] age, 83.4 [10.8] years; mean proportion of women, 68.9%). A significant increased slope change in the weekly proportion of residents who were dispensed antipsychotics (parameter estimate [ß] = 0.051; standard error [SE] = 0.010; P < .001), benzodiazepines (ß = 0.026; SE = 0.003; P < .001), antidepressants (ß = 0.046; SE = 0.013; P < .001), trazodone hydrochloride (ß = 0.033; SE = 0.010; P < .001), anticonvulsants (ß = 0.014; SE = 0.006; P = .03), and opioids (ß = 0.038; SE = 0.007; P < .001) was observed. The absolute difference in observed vs estimated use in the last week of the pandemic period ranged from 0.48% (for anticonvulsants) to 1.52% (for antipsychotics). No significant level or slope changes were found for antibiotics, ARBs, or ACE inhibitors. Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study, statistically significant increases in the use of antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and opioids followed the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, although absolute differences were small. There were no significant changes for antibiotics, ARBs, or ACE inhibitors. Studies are needed to monitor whether changes in pharmacotherapy persist, regress, or accelerate during the course of the pandemic and how these changes affect resident-level outcomes.

COVID-19 , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Homes for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Male , Ontario , SARS-CoV-2