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1.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(20): 2657-2676, 2024 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38855159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cirrhotic patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in the intensive care unit (ICU) have a poor but variable prognoses. Accurate prognosis evaluation can guide the rational management of patients with ACLF. However, existing prognostic scores for ACLF in the ICU environment lack sufficient accuracy. AIM: To develop a new prognostic model for patients with ACLF in ICU. METHODS: Data from 938 ACLF patients in the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC) database were used to develop a new prognostic model (MIMIC ACLF) for ACLF. Discrimination, calibration and clinical utility of MIMIC ACLF were assessed by area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), calibration curve and decision curve analysis (DCA), respectively. MIMIC ACLF was then externally validated in a multiple-center cohort, the Electronic Intensive Care Collaborative Research Database and a single-center cohort from the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University in China. RESULTS: The MIMIC ACLF score was determined using nine variables: ln (age) × 2.2 + ln (white blood cell count) × 0.22 - ln (mean arterial pressure) × 2.7 + respiratory failure × 0.6 + renal failure × 0.51 + cerebral failure × 0.31 + ln (total bilirubin) × 0.44 + ln (internationalized normal ratio) × 0.59 + ln (serum potassium) × 0.59. In MIMIC cohort, the AUROC (0.81/0.79) for MIMIC ACLF for 28/90-day ACLF mortality were significantly greater than those of Chronic Liver Failure Consortium ACLF (0.76/0.74), Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD; 0.73/0.71) and MELD-Na (0.72/0.70) (all P < 0.001). The consistency between actual and predicted 28/90-day survival rates of patients according to MIMIC ACLF score was excellent and superior to that of existing scores. The net benefit of MIMIC ACLF was greater than that achieved using existing scores within the 50% threshold probability. The superior predictive accuracy and clinical utility of MIMIC ACLF were validated in the external cohorts. CONCLUSION: We developed and validated a new prognostic model with satisfactory accuracy for cirrhotic patients with ACLF hospitalized in the ICU. The model-based risk stratification and online calculator might facilitate the rational management of patients with ACLF.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure , Intensive Care Units , Humans , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/mortality , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/diagnosis , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/therapy , Middle Aged , Female , Male , Prognosis , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , China/epidemiology , Aged , ROC Curve , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/mortality , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Adult , Severity of Illness Index , Decision Support Techniques , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Databases, Factual/statistics & numerical data
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(6): e2413955, 2024 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837160

ABSTRACT

Importance: Pediatric consensus guidelines recommend antibiotic administration within 1 hour for septic shock and within 3 hours for sepsis without shock. Limited studies exist identifying a specific time past which delays in antibiotic administration are associated with worse outcomes. Objective: To determine a time point for antibiotic administration that is associated with increased risk of mortality among pediatric patients with sepsis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used data from 51 US children's hospitals in the Improving Pediatric Sepsis Outcomes collaborative. Participants included patients aged 29 days to less than 18 years with sepsis recognized within 1 hour of emergency department arrival, from January 1, 2017, through December 31, 2021. Piecewise regression was used to identify the inflection point for sepsis-attributable 3-day mortality, and logistic regression was used to evaluate odds of sepsis-attributable mortality after adjustment for potential confounders. Data analysis was performed from March 2022 to February 2024. Exposure: The number of minutes from emergency department arrival to antibiotic administration. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was sepsis-attributable 3-day mortality. Sepsis-attributable 30-day mortality was a secondary outcome. Results: A total of 19 515 cases (median [IQR] age, 6 [2-12] years) were included. The median (IQR) time to antibiotic administration was 69 (47-116) minutes. The estimated time to antibiotic administration at which 3-day sepsis-attributable mortality increased was 330 minutes. Patients who received an antibiotic in less than 330 minutes (19 164 patients) had sepsis-attributable 3-day mortality of 0.5% (93 patients) and 30-day mortality of 0.9% (163 patients). Patients who received antibiotics at 330 minutes or later (351 patients) had 3-day sepsis-attributable mortality of 1.2% (4 patients), 30-day mortality of 2.0% (7 patients), and increased adjusted odds of mortality at both 3 days (odds ratio, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.20-9.93; P = .02) and 30 days (odds ratio, 3.63; 95% CI, 1.59-8.30; P = .002) compared with those who received antibiotics within 330 minutes. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort of pediatric patients with sepsis, 3-day and 30-day sepsis-attributable mortality increased with delays in antibiotic administration 330 minutes or longer from emergency department arrival. These findings are consistent with the literature demonstrating increased pediatric sepsis mortality associated with antibiotic administration delay. To guide the balance of appropriate resource allocation with time for adequate diagnostic evaluation, further research is needed into whether there are subpopulations, such as those with shock or bacteremia, that may benefit from earlier antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Emergency Service, Hospital , Sepsis , Time-to-Treatment , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Sepsis/mortality , Sepsis/drug therapy , Female , Male , Retrospective Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Infant , Adolescent , Infant, Newborn , United States/epidemiology , Time Factors , Hospital Mortality
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13637, 2024 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38871785

ABSTRACT

There are numerous prognostic predictive models for evaluating mortality risk, but current scoring models might not fully cater to sepsis patients' needs. This study developed and validated a new model for sepsis patients that is suitable for any care setting and accurately forecasts 28-day mortality. The derivation dataset, gathered from 20 hospitals between September 2019 and December 2021, contrasted with the validation dataset, collected from 15 hospitals from January 2022 to December 2022. In this study, 7436 patients were classified as members of the derivation dataset, and 2284 patients were classified as members of the validation dataset. The point system model emerged as the optimal model among the tested predictive models for foreseeing sepsis mortality. For community-acquired sepsis, the model's performance was satisfactory (derivation dataset AUC: 0.779, 95% CI 0.765-0.792; validation dataset AUC: 0.787, 95% CI 0.765-0.810). Similarly, for hospital-acquired sepsis, it performed well (derivation dataset AUC: 0.768, 95% CI 0.748-0.788; validation dataset AUC: 0.729, 95% CI 0.687-0.770). The calculator, accessible at https://avonlea76.shinyapps.io/shiny_app_up/ , is user-friendly and compatible. The new predictive model of sepsis mortality is user-friendly and satisfactorily forecasts 28-day mortality. Its versatility lies in its applicability to all patients, encompassing both community-acquired and hospital-acquired sepsis.


Subject(s)
Sepsis , Humans , Sepsis/mortality , Sepsis/diagnosis , Male , Female , Aged , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Hospital Mortality , Aged, 80 and over , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , ROC Curve , Risk Assessment/methods , Area Under Curve
4.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 104(21): 1972-1978, 2024 Jun 04.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825940

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the relationship between the onset time of sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (SA-AKI) and adverse clinical outcomes. Methods: Data were derived from Beijing Acute Kidney Injure Trial (BAKIT) which investigated the epidemiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients at 30 intensive care units (ICU) of 28 tertiary hospitals in Beijing from 1 March to 31 August 2012. Patients who were older than 18 years and diagnosed with sepsis and AKI, and expected to stay in ICU for at least 24 h were included in this study. A total of 653 patients were included in this study, 414 males and 239 females with a mean age of (68.2±17.0) years. According to the onset time of SA-AKI, patients were grouped into early AKI (E-AKI) (AKI occurred within 48 hours after ICU admission) and late AKI (L-AKI) (AKI occurred after 48 hours of ICU admission) group. The primary outcome was major adverse kidney events (MAKE), consisted of all-cause mortality, renal replacement therapy-dependence, and an inability to recover to 1.5 times of the baseline creatinine value up to 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association between the onset time of SA-AKI and clinical outcomes. Results: A total of 653 patients with SA-AKI were included, 423 (64.8%) patients developed E-AKI, 230 (35.2%) cases developed L-AKI, MAKE occurred in 405 (62.0%) cases, and 301 (46.1%) patients died in hospital. Compared with E-AKI group, L-AKI patients showed higher AKI 3 level rate [55.7%(128/230) vs 40.2%(170/423), P<0.001], incidence of MAKE [72.6%(167/230) vs 56.3%(238/423,P<0.001)] and hospital mortality [55.2%(127/230) vs 44.1%(174/423), P=0.001]. The risk of MAKE and in-hospital mortality in L-AKI group increased for 2.55-fold times (OR=3.55, 95%CI: 1.94-6.04) and 1.84-fold times (OR=2.84, 95%CI: 1.44-5.60) when compared with those in E-AKI, respectively (both P<0.05). Conclusion: Late timing onset of SA-AKI is associated with poor clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Intensive Care Units , Sepsis , Humans , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Sepsis/complications , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Hospital Mortality , Critical Illness , Time Factors , Renal Replacement Therapy , Logistic Models
5.
Med Care ; 62(7): 434-440, 2024 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848137

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospitals are resurrecting the outdated "team nursing" model of staffing that substitutes lower-wage staff for registered nurses (RNs). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether reducing the proportion of RNs to total nursing staff in hospitals is in the best interest of patients, hospitals, and payers. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional, retrospective. SUBJECTS: In all, 6,559,704 Medicare patients in 2676 general acute-care US hospitals in 2019. MEASURES: Patient outcomes: in-hospital and 30-day mortality, 30-day readmission, length of stay, and patient satisfaction. Avoidable Medicare costs associated with readmissions and cost savings to hospitals associated with shorter stays are projected. RESULTS: A 10 percentage-point reduction in RNs was associated with 7% higher odds of in-hospital death, 1% higher odds of readmission, 2% increase in expected days, and lower patient satisfaction. We estimate a 10 percentage-point reduction in RNs would result in 10,947 avoidable deaths annually and 5207 avoidable readmissions, which translates into roughly $68.5 million in additional Medicare costs. Hospitals would forgo nearly $3 billion in cost savings annually because of patients requiring longer stays. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing the proportion of RNs in hospitals, even when total nursing personnel hours are kept the same, is likely to result in significant avoidable patient deaths, readmissions, longer lengths of stay, and decreased patient satisfaction, in addition to excess Medicare costs and forgone cost savings to hospitals. Estimates represent only a 10 percentage-point dilution in skill mix; however, the team nursing model includes much larger reductions of 40-50 percentage-points-the human and economic consequences of which could be substantial.


Subject(s)
Length of Stay , Medicare , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Patient Readmission , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling , Humans , Nursing Staff, Hospital/economics , Nursing Staff, Hospital/supply & distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/statistics & numerical data , United States , Medicare/economics , Medicare/statistics & numerical data , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Female , Patient Satisfaction , Hospital Mortality , Aged
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 561, 2024 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Treatment of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) infections in low-resource settings is challenging particularly due to limited treatment options. Colistin is the mainstay drug for treatment; however, nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity make this drug less desirable. Thus, mortality may be higher among patients treated with alternative antimicrobials that are potentially less efficacious than colistin. We assessed mortality in patients with CRE bacteremia treated with colistin-based therapy compared to colistin-sparing therapy. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using secondary data from a South African national laboratory-based CRE bacteremia surveillance system from January 2015 to December 2020. Patients hospitalized at surveillance sentinel sites with CRE isolated from blood cultures were included. Multivariable logistic regression modeling, with multiple imputations to account for missing data, was conducted to determine the association between in-hospital mortality and colistin-based therapy versus colistin-sparing therapy. RESULTS: We included 1 607 case-patients with a median age of 29 years (interquartile range [IQR], 0-52 years) and 53% (857/1 607) male. Klebsiella pneumoniae caused most of the infections (82%, n=1 247), and the most common carbapenemase genes detected were blaOXA-48-like (61%, n=551), and blaNDM (37%, n=333). The overall in-hospital mortality was 31% (504/1 607). Patients treated with colistin-based combination therapy had a lower case fatality ratio (29% [152/521]) compared to those treated with colistin-sparing therapy 32% [352/1 086]) (p=0.18). In our imputed model, compared to colistin-sparing therapy, colistin-based therapy was associated with similar odds of mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-1.33, p=0.873). CONCLUSION: In our resource-limited setting, the mortality risk in patients treated with colistin-based therapy was comparable to that of patients treated with colistin-sparing therapy. Given the challenges with colistin treatment and the increasing resistance to alternative agents, further investigations into the benefit of newer antimicrobials for managing CRE infections are needed.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteremia , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Colistin , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Humans , Colistin/therapeutic use , Colistin/pharmacology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Male , South Africa/epidemiology , Female , Middle Aged , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/mortality , Bacteremia/microbiology , Young Adult , Adolescent , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/drug therapy , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/mortality , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Child, Preschool , Infant , Child , Infant, Newborn , Hospital Mortality , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Hospitals
7.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 25(7): 511-518, 2024 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829938

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The identification of patients at greater mortality risk of death at admission into an intensive cardiovascular care unit (ICCU) has relevant consequences for clinical decision-making. We described patient characteristics at admission into an ICCU by predicted mortality risk assessed with noncardiac intensive care unit (ICU) and evaluated their performance in predicting patient outcomes. METHODS: A total of 202 consecutive patients (130 men, 75 ±â€Š12 years) were admitted into our tertiary-care ICCU in a 20-week period. We evaluated, on the first 24 h data, in-hospital mortality risk according to Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 (SAPS 3); Sepsis related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score and the Mayo Cardiac intensive care unit Admission Risk Score (M-CARS) were also calculated. RESULTS: Predicted mortality was significantly lower than observed (5% during ICCU and 7% at discharge) for APACHE II and SAPS 3 (17% for both scores). Mortality risk was associated with older age, more frequent comorbidities, severe clinical presentation and complications. The APACHE II, SAPS 3, SOFA and M-CARS had good discriminative ability in distinguishing deaths and survivors with poor calibration of risk scores predicting mortality. CONCLUSION: In a recent contemporary cohort of patients admitted into the ICCU for a variety of acute and critical cardiovascular conditions, scoring systems used in general ICU had good discrimination for patients' clinical severity and mortality. Available scores preserve powerful discrimination but the overestimation of mortality suggests the importance of specific tailored scores to improve risk assessment of patients admitted into ICCUs.


Subject(s)
APACHE , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Aged , Female , Italy/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Simplified Acute Physiology Score , Severity of Illness Index , Prognosis , Coronary Care Units/statistics & numerical data
8.
Neurosurg Rev ; 47(1): 256, 2024 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834876

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: White blood cells (WBC) play an important role in the inflammatory response of the body. Elevated WBC counts on admission in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) correlate with a poor prognosis. However, the role of longitudinal WBC trajectories based on repeated WBC measurements during hospitalization remains unclear. We explored the association between different WBC trajectory patterns and in-hospital mortality. METHODS: We analyzed a cohort of consecutive patients with SAH between 2012 and 2020. Group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) was used to group the patients according to their white blood cell patterns over the first 4 days. Stabilized inverse probability treatment weighting (sIPTW) was used to balance baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. We analyzed the association between the WBC trajectory groups and in-hospital mortality using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: In total, 506 patients with SAH were included in this retrospective cohort. The final model identified two distinct longitudinal WBC trajectories. After adjusting for confounding factors, multivariate regression analysis suggested that an elevated longitudinal WBC trajectory increased the risk of in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.476; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.081-5.227; P = 0.024) before sIPTW, and (HR, 2.472; 95%CI 1.489-4.977; P = 0.018) after sIPTW. CONCLUSION: In patients with SAH, different clinically relevant groups could be identified using WBC trajectory analysis. The WBC count trajectory-initially elevated and then decreased- may lead to an increased risk of in-hospital mortality following SAH.


Subject(s)
Hospital Mortality , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Humans , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/mortality , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/blood , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Leukocyte Count , Retrospective Studies , Inflammation , Adult , Prognosis , Cohort Studies
9.
World J Emerg Surg ; 19(1): 19, 2024 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has been used to control massive hemorrhages. Although there is no consensus on the efficacy of REBOA, it remains an option as a bridging therapy in non-trauma centers where trauma surgeons are not available. To better understand the current landscape of REBOA application, we examined changes in its usage, target population, and treatment outcomes in Japan, where immediate hemostasis procedures sometimes cannot be performed. METHODS: This retrospective observational study used the Japan Trauma Data Bank data. All cases in which REBOA was performed between January 2004 and December 2021 were included. The primary outcome was the in-hospital mortality rate. We analyzed mortality trends over time according to the number of cases, number of centers, severity of injury, and overall and subgroup mortality associated with REBOA usage. We performed a logistic analysis of mortality trends over time, adjusting for probability of survival based on the trauma and injury severity score. RESULTS: Overall, 2557 patients were treated with REBOA and were deemed eligible for inclusion. The median age of the participants was 55 years, and male patients constituted 65.3% of the study population. Blunt trauma accounted for approximately 93.0% of the cases. The number of cases and facilities that used REBOA increased until 2019. While the injury severity score and revised trauma score did not change throughout the observation period, the hospital mortality rate decreased from 91.3 to 50.9%. The REBOA group without severe head or spine injuries showed greater improvement in mortality than the all-patient group using REBOA and all-trauma patient group. The greatest improvement in mortality was observed in patients with systolic blood pressure ≥ 80 mmHg. The adjusted odds ratios for hospital mortality steadily declined, even after adjusting for the probability of survival. CONCLUSIONS: While there was no significant change in patient severity, mortality of patients treated with REBOA decreased over time. Further research is required to determine the reasons for these improvements in trauma care.


Subject(s)
Balloon Occlusion , Endovascular Procedures , Injury Severity Score , Resuscitation , Humans , Balloon Occlusion/methods , Japan , Male , Female , Retrospective Studies , Middle Aged , Resuscitation/methods , Adult , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Aged , Hospital Mortality , Aorta/surgery , Aorta/injuries , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Wounds and Injuries/mortality , Hemorrhage/therapy , Hemorrhage/mortality
10.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 166(1): 245, 2024 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829543

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones were reported to exert neuroprotective effects after ischemic stroke by reducing the burden of brain injury and promoting post-ischemic brain remodeling. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze the value of thyroid hormone replacement therapy (THRT) due to pre-existing hypothyroidism on the clinical course and outcome of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: SAH individuals treated between January 2003 and June 2016 were included. Data on baseline characteristics of patients and SAH, adverse events and functional outcome of SAH were recorded. Study endpoints were cerebral infarction, in-hospital mortality and unfavorable outcome at 6 months. Associations were adjusted for outcome-relevant confounders. RESULTS: 109 (11%) of 995 individuals had THRT before SAH. Risk of intracranial pressure- or vasospasm-related cerebrovascular events was inversely associated with presence of THRT (p = 0.047). In multivariate analysis, THRT was independently associated with lower risk of cerebral infarction (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.41-0.99, p = 0.045) and unfavorable outcome (aOR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.28-0.89, p = 0.018), but not with in-hospital mortality (aOR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.38-1.26, p = 0.227). CONCLUSION: SAH patients with THRT show lower burden of ischemia-relevant cerebrovascular events and more favorable outcome. Further experimental and clinical studies are required to confirm our results and elaborate the mechanistic background of the effect of THRT on course and outcome of SAH.


Subject(s)
Hormone Replacement Therapy , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Thyroid Hormones , Humans , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Female , Male , Middle Aged , Hormone Replacement Therapy/methods , Aged , Thyroid Hormones/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Hospital Mortality , Adult , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Cerebral Infarction/prevention & control , Cerebral Infarction/etiology , Cerebral Infarction/drug therapy , Vasospasm, Intracranial/etiology , Vasospasm, Intracranial/prevention & control , Vasospasm, Intracranial/drug therapy
11.
Ann Med ; 56(1): 2361843, 2024 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830017

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Literature on the safety of remdesivir in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with severe renal impairment is limited. We aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of remdesivir in this population. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult hospitalized COVID-19 patients who received remdesivir between April 2022 and October 2022. Outcomes were compared between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m2 groups. The primary safety outcomes were acute kidney injury (AKI) and bradycardia, while the primary effectiveness outcomes included mortality in COVID-19-dedicated wards and hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included laboratory changes, disease progression, and recovery time. RESULTS: A total of 1,343 patients were recruited, with 307 (22.9%) in the eGFR <30 group and 1,036 (77.1%) in the eGFR ≥30 group. Patients with an eGFR <30 had higher risks of AKI (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.92, 95% CI 1.93-4.44) and hospital mortality (aHR 1.47, 95% CI 1.06-2.05) but had comparable risks of bradycardia (aHR 1.15, 95% CI 0.85-1.56) and mortality in dedicated wards (aHR 1.43, 95% CI 0.90-2.28) than patients with an eGFR ≥30. Risk of disease progression was higher in the eGFR <30 group (adjusted odds ratio 1.62, 95% CI 1.16-2.26). No difference between the two groups in laboratory changes and recovery time. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients receiving remdesivir with severe renal impairment had an increased risk of AKI, hospital mortality, and COVID-19 disease progression compared to patients without severe renal impairment.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Adenosine Monophosphate , Alanine , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Alanine/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Male , Female , Retrospective Studies , Middle Aged , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Treatment Outcome , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Bradycardia/chemically induced , Bradycardia/epidemiology , Adult
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12726, 2024 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830925

ABSTRACT

Improved phenotyping in pneumonia is necessary to strengthen risk assessment. Via a feasible and multidimensional approach with basic parameters, we aimed to evaluate the effect of host response at admission on severity stratification in COVID-19 and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Three COVID-19 and one CAP multicenter cohorts including hospitalized patients were recruited. Three easily available variables reflecting different pathophysiologic mechanisms-immune, inflammation, and respiratory-were selected (absolute lymphocyte count [ALC], C-reactive protein [CRP] and, SpO2/FiO2). In-hospital mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission were analyzed as outcomes. A multivariable, penalized maximum likelihood logistic regression was performed with ALC (< 724 lymphocytes/mm3), CRP (> 60 mg/L), and, SpO2/FiO2 (< 450). A total of 1452, 1222 and 462 patients were included in the three COVID-19 and 1292 in the CAP cohort for the analysis. Mortality ranged between 4 and 32% (0 to 3 abnormal biomarkers) and 0-9% in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and CAP, respectively. In the first COVID-19 cohort, adjusted for age and sex, we observed an increased odds ratio for in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 with elevated biomarkers altered (OR 1.8, 3, and 6.3 with 1, 2, and 3 abnormal biomarkers, respectively). The model had an AUROC of 0.83. Comparable findings were found for ICU admission, with an AUROC of 0.76. These results were confirmed in the other COVID-19 cohorts Similar OR trends were reported in the CAP cohort; however, results were not statistically significant. Assessing the host response via accessible biomarkers is a simple and rapidly applicable approach for pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Hospital Mortality , Humans , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Intensive Care Units , Biomarkers/blood , Risk Assessment/methods , Lymphocyte Count , Severity of Illness Index , Aged, 80 and over , Pneumonia/mortality , Pneumonia/virology
13.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0305100, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865423

ABSTRACT

Stroke patients rarely have satisfactory survival, which worsens further if comorbidities develop in such patients. Limited data availability from Southeast Asian countries, especially Indonesia, has impeded the disentanglement of post-stroke mortality determinants. This study aimed to investigate predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with ischemic stroke (IS). This retrospective observational study used IS medical records from the National Brain Centre Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. A theoretically driven Cox's regression and Fine-Gray models were established by controlling for age and sex to calculate the hazard ratio of each plausible risk factor for predicting in-hospital stroke mortality and addressing competing risks if they existed. This study finally included 3,278 patients with IS, 917 (28%) of whom had cardiovascular disease and 376 (11.5%) suffered renal disease. Bivariate exploratory analysis revealed lower blood levels of triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol associated with in-hospital-stroke mortality. The average age of patients with post-stroke mortality was 64.06 ± 11.32 years, with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 23.77 kg/m2 and a median Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 12 and an IQR of 5. Cardiovascular disease was significantly associated with IS mortality risk. NIHSS score at admission (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.07), male sex (HR = 1.51[1.01-2.26] and uric acid level (HR = 1.02 [1.00-1.03]) predicted survivability. Comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease (HR = 2.16 [1.37-3.40], pneumonia (HR = 2.43 [1.42-4.15] and sepsis (HR = 2.07 [1.09-3.94, had higher hazards for post-stroke mortality. Contrarily, the factors contributing to a lower hazard of mortality were BMI (HR = 0.94 [0.89-0.99]) and GCS (HReye = 0.66 [0.48-0.89]. In summary, our study reported that male sex, NIHSS, uric acid level, cardiovascular diseases, pneumonia, sepsis. BMI, and GCS on admission were strong determinants of in-hospital mortality in patients with IS.


Subject(s)
Electronic Health Records , Hospital Mortality , Ischemic Stroke , Humans , Male , Indonesia/epidemiology , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Proportional Hazards Models
14.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 24(1): 208, 2024 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877408

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with sepsis with low albumin levels and high red blood cell distribution width levels have poor prognoses. Red blood cell distribution width to albumin ratio (RAR) has recently attracted attention as an innovative inflammation biomarker. We aimed to explore the association between RAR and the prognosis of patients with sepsis. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included 402 patients meeting the sepsis-3 standards admitted to Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital's intensive care units (ICUs) between January 2020 and December 2022. The relationship between RAR and mortality in patients with sepsis was examined using regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier analyses, and a receiver operating characteristic curve. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the results' robustness. RESULTS: RAR, when considered as a continuous variable, was a significant independent in-hospital mortality risk factor (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.383; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.164-1.645; P < 0.001). When considering RAR as a categorical variable, the ORs (95% CIs) of hospital mortality for quartile 2 (Q2), Q3, and Q4 compared with Q1 were 1.027 (0.413-2.551), 3.632 (1.579-8.354), and 4.175 (1.625-10.729), respectively, P < 0.001. Similar outcomes were observed for 28- and 90-day mortalities. CONCLUSIONS: RAR may indicate clinical prognosis for patients with sepsis in the ICU, potentially providing a low-cost, easily repeatable, and accessible biomarker for risk categorization for these patients.


Subject(s)
Erythrocyte Indices , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units , Sepsis , Humans , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/mortality , Male , Female , Retrospective Studies , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Aged , Serum Albumin/analysis , Serum Albumin/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Adult
15.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 19(1): 331, 2024 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877532

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Women undergoing cardiac surgery have been historically recognized to carry higher periprocedural mortality risk. We aimed to investigate the influence of sex on clinical presentation, perioperative, and long-term outcomes in patients who undergo surgery for ascending aortic aneurysm. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 1148 consecutive patients (380 [33.1%] female) who underwent thoracic aortic surgery under moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest for ascending aortic aneurysms between 2001 and 2021. Baseline and operative characteristics, in-hospital mortality, and survival were compared between male and female patients before and after propensity-score-matched (PSM) analysis. RESULTS: Women were significantly older (median age: 69 [IQR: 63-75] vs. 67 [IQR: 58-73]; P < 0.001), while men had a higher prevalence of aortic valve stenosis, bicuspid valve and coronary artery disease at the time of surgery (P < 0.05). After PSM, EuroSCORE II (4.36 [2.68; 6.87] vs. 3.22 [1.85; 5.31]; p < 0.001), and indexed aortic diameter were significantly higher in female patients (2.94 [2.68; 3.30] vs. 2.58 [2.38; 2.81] cm/m2, p < 0.001). In the matched cohort, men were more likely to experience postoperative delirium (18.1% vs. 11.5%; P = 0.002), and postoperative neurological deficits (6.7% vs. 3.0%, P = 0.044),. Female patients were more likely to receive postoperative packed red blood cells (p = 0.036) and fresh frozen plasma (p = 0.049). In-hospital and 30-day mortality was similar between both groups. Long-term survival was comparable between both groups with 88% vs. 88% at 5 years, 76% vs. 71% at 10 years, and 59% vs. 47% at 15 years. CONCLUSION: Female patients required more transfusions, while males had a higher incidence of postoperative delirium and neurological deficits. Differences in preoperative age and timing of surgery between the sexes could be attributed to variations in comorbidity profiles and the greater prevalence of concomitant surgery indications in males.


Subject(s)
Propensity Score , Humans , Female , Male , Retrospective Studies , Aged , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Hospital Mortality , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/surgery , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/mortality , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Risk Factors , Aneurysm, Ascending Aorta
16.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 517, 2024 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872086

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the hospital setting, frailty is a significant risk factor, but difficult to measure in clinical practice. We propose a reweighting of an existing diagnoses-based frailty score using routine data from a tertiary care teaching hospital in southern Germany. METHODS: The dataset includes patient characteristics such as sex, age, primary and secondary diagnoses and in-hospital mortality. Based on this information, we recalculate the existing Hospital Frailty Risk Score. The cohort includes patients aged ≥ 75 and was divided into a development cohort (admission year 2011 to 2013, N = 30,525) and a validation cohort (2014, N = 11,202). A limited external validation is also conducted in a second validation cohort containing inpatient cases aged ≥ 75 in 2022 throughout Germany (N = 491,251). In the development cohort, LASSO regression analysis was used to select the most relevant variables and to generate a reweighted Frailty Score for the German setting. Discrimination is assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Visualization of calibration curves and decision curve analysis were carried out. Applicability of the reweighted Frailty Score in a non-elderly population was assessed using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Reweighting of the Frailty Score included only 53 out of the 109 frailty-related diagnoses and resulted in substantially better discrimination than the initial weighting of the score (AUC = 0.89 vs. AUC = 0.80, p < 0.001 in the validation cohort). Calibration curves show a good agreement between score-based predictions and actual observed mortality. Additional external validation using inpatient cases aged ≥ 75 in 2022 throughout Germany (N = 491,251) confirms the results regarding discrimination and calibration and underlines the geographic and temporal validity of the reweighted Frailty Score. Decision curve analysis indicates that the clinical usefulness of the reweighted score as a general decision support tool is superior to the initial version of the score. Assessment of the applicability of the reweighted Frailty Score in a non-elderly population (N = 198,819) shows that discrimination is superior to the initial version of the score (AUC = 0.92 vs. AUC = 0.87, p < 0.001). In addition, we observe a fairly age-stable influence of the reweighted Frailty Score on in-hospital mortality, which does not differ substantially for women and men. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that the reweighted Frailty Score is superior to the original Frailty Score for identification of older, frail patients at risk for in-hospital mortality. Hence, we recommend using the reweighted Frailty Score in the German in-hospital setting.


Subject(s)
Electronic Health Records , Frail Elderly , Frailty , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Aged , Germany/epidemiology , Female , Male , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Frailty/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Aged, 80 and over , Risk Assessment/methods , Hospital Mortality/trends , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , Hospitalization
17.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0303586, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38875301

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Literature regarding the impact of esophagectomy approach on hospitalizations costs and short-term outcomes is limited. Moreover, few have examined how institutional MIS experience affects costs. We thus examined utilization trends, costs, and short-term outcomes of open and minimally invasive (MIS) esophagectomy as well as assessing the relationship between institutional MIS volume and hospitalization costs. METHODS: All adults undergoing elective esophagectomy were identified from the 2016-2020 Nationwide Readmissions Database. Multiple regression models were used to assess approach with costs, in-hospital mortality, and major complications. Additionally, annual hospital MIS esophagectomy volume was modeled as a restricted cubic spline against costs. Institutions performing > 16 cases/year corresponding with the inflection point were categorized as high-volume hospitals (HVH). We subsequently examined the association of HVH status with costs, in-hospital mortality, and major complications in patients undergoing minimally invasive esophagectomy. RESULTS: Of an estimated 29,116 patients meeting inclusion, 10,876 (37.4%) underwent MIS esophagectomy. MIS approaches were associated with $10,600 in increased incremental costs (95% CI 8,800-12,500), but lower odds of in-hospital mortality (AOR 0.76; 95% CI 0.61-0.96) or major complications (AOR 0.68; 95% CI 0.60, 0.77). Moreover, HVH status was associated with decreased adjusted costs, as well as lower odds of postoperative complications for patients undergoing MIS operations. CONCLUSION: In this nationwide study, MIS esophagectomy was associated with increased hospitalization costs, but improved short-term outcomes. In MIS operations, cost differences were mitigated by volume, as HVH status was linked with decreased costs in the setting of decreased odds of complications. Centralization of care to HVH centers should be considered as MIS approaches are increasingly utilized.


Subject(s)
Elective Surgical Procedures , Esophagectomy , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, High-Volume , Esophagectomy/economics , Esophagectomy/mortality , Humans , United States , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Hospitals, High-Volume/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Elective Surgical Procedures/economics , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/economics , Hospital Costs , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/economics , Treatment Outcome , Hospitals, Low-Volume/economics
18.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 117(6-7): 392-401, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intensive cardiac care units (ICCUs) were created to manage ventricular arrhythmias after acute coronary syndromes, but have diversified to include a more heterogeneous population, the characteristics of which are not well depicted by conventional methods. AIMS: To identify ICCU patient subgroups by phenotypic unsupervised clustering integrating clinical, biological, and echocardiographic data to reveal pathophysiological differences. METHODS: During 7-22 April 2021, we recruited all consecutive patients admitted to ICCUs in 39 centers. The primary outcome was in-hospital major adverse events (MAEs; death, resuscitated cardiac arrest or cardiogenic shock). A cluster analysis was performed using a Kamila algorithm. RESULTS: Of 1499 patients admitted to the ICCU (69.6% male, mean age 63.3±14.9 years), 67 (4.5%) experienced MAEs. Four phenogroups were identified: PG1 (n=535), typically patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; PG2 (n=444), younger smokers with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; PG3 (n=273), elderly patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and conduction disturbances; PG4 (n=247), patients with acute heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Compared to PG1, multivariable analysis revealed a higher risk of MAEs in PG2 (odds ratio [OR] 3.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-10.0) and PG3 (OR 3.16, 95% CI 1.02-10.8), with the highest risk in PG4 (OR 20.5, 95% CI 8.7-60.8) (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Cluster analysis of clinical, biological, and echocardiographic variables identified four phenogroups of patients admitted to the ICCU that were associated with distinct prognostic profiles. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT05063097.


Subject(s)
Coronary Care Units , Phenotype , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Risk Factors , Cluster Analysis , Risk Assessment , Hospital Mortality , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Prognosis , Time Factors , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Shock, Cardiogenic/mortality , Shock, Cardiogenic/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Heart Arrest/therapy , Heart Arrest/physiopathology , Heart Arrest/diagnosis , Heart Arrest/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Aged, 80 and over , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/therapy , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/mortality
19.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 36(5): 478-484, 2024 May.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845493

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To construct and validate a nomogram model for predicting the risk of 28-day mortality in sepsis patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. 281 sepsis patients admitted to the department of intensive care unit (ICU) of the 940th Hospital of the Joint Logistics Support Force of PLA from January 2017 to December 2022 were selected as the research subjects. The patients were divided into a training set (197 cases) and a validation set (84 cases) according to a 7 : 3 ratio. The general information, clinical treatment measures and laboratory examination results within 24 hours after admission to ICU were collected. Patients were divided into survival group and death group based on 28-day outcomes. The differences in various data were compared between the two groups. The optimal predictive variables were selected using Lasso regression, and univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors influencing the mortality of sepsis patients and to establish a nomogram model. Receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC curve), calibration curve, decision curve analysis (DCA), and clinical impact curve (CIC) were used to evaluate the nomogram model. RESULTS: Out of 281 cases of sepsis, 82 cases died with a mortality of 29.18%. The number of patients who died in the training and validation sets was 54 and 28, with a mortality of 27.41% and 33.33% respectively. Lasso regression, univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis screened for 5 independent predictors associated with 28-day mortality. There were use of vasoactive drugs [odds ratio (OR) = 5.924, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 1.244-44.571, P = 0.043], acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II: OR = 1.051, 95%CI was 1.000-1.107, P = 0.050), combined with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS: OR = 17.298, 95%CI was 5.517-76.985, P < 0.001), neutrophil count (NEU: OR = 0.934, 95%CI was 0.879-0.988, P = 0.022) and oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2: OR = 0.994, 95%CI was 0.988-0.998, P = 0.017). A nomogram model was constructed using the independent predictive factors mentioned above, ROC curve analysis showed that the AUC of the nomogram model was 0.899 (95%CI was 0.856-0.943) and 0.909 (95%CI was 0.845-0.972) for the training and validation sets respectively. The C-index was 0.900 and 0.920 for the training and validation sets respectively, with good discrimination. The Hosmer-Lemeshoe tests both showed P > 0.05, indicating good calibration. Both DCA and CIC plots demonstrate the model's good clinical utility. CONCLUSIONS: The use of vasoactive, APACHE II score, comorbid MODS, NEU and PaO2/FiO2 are independent risk factors for 28-day mortality in patients with sepsis. The nomogram model based on these 5 indicators has a good predictive ability for the occurrence of mortality in sepsis patients.


Subject(s)
Intensive Care Units , Nomograms , Sepsis , Humans , Sepsis/mortality , Sepsis/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Prognosis , Female , Male , Logistic Models , Hospital Mortality , Middle Aged , Aged
20.
Clin Transplant ; 38(6): e15334, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864350

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The use of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) as a direct bridge to heart transplantation (BTT) is not common in adults worldwide. BTT with ECMO is associated with increased early/mid-term mortality compared with other interventions. In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), where no other type of short-term mechanical circulatory support is available, its use is widespread and increasingly used as rescue therapy in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) as a direct bridge to heart transplantation (HT). OBJECTIVE: To assess the outcomes of adult patients using VA-ECMO as a direct BTT in an LMIC and compare them with international registries. METHODS: We conducted a single-center study analyzing consecutive adult patients requiring VA-ECMO as BTT due to refractory CS or cardiac arrest (CA) in a cardiovascular center in Argentina between January 2014 and December 2022. Survival and adverse clinical events after VA-ECMO implantation were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 86 VA-ECMO, 22 (25.5%) were implanted as initial BTT strategy, and 52.1% of them underwent HT. Mean age was 46 years (SD 12); 59% were male. ECMO was indicated in 81% for CS, and the most common underlying condition was coronary artery disease (31.8%). Overall, in-hospital mortality for VA-ECMO as BTT was 50%. Survival to discharge was 83% in those who underwent HT and 10% in those who did not, p < .001. In those who did not undergo HT, the main cause of death was hemorrhagic complications (44%), followed by thrombotic complications (33%). The median duration of VA-ECMO was 6 days (IQR 3-16). There were no differences in the number of days on ECMO between those who received a transplant and those who did not. In the Spanish registry, in-hospital survival after HT was 66.7%; the United Network of Organ Sharing registry estimated post-transplant survival at 73.1% ± 4.4%, and in the French national registry 1-year posttransplant survival was 70% in the VA-ECMO group. CONCLUSIONS: In adult patients with cardiogenic shock, VA-ECMO as a direct BTT allowed successful HT in half of the patients. HT provided a survival benefit in listed patients on VA-ECMO. We present a single center experience with results comparable to those of international registries.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Heart Transplantation , Shock, Cardiogenic , Humans , Male , Female , Heart Transplantation/mortality , Middle Aged , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/mortality , Survival Rate , Follow-Up Studies , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Adult , Developing Countries , Heart-Assist Devices/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Mortality
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