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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253065, 2024. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350311

ABSTRACT

Abstract Routine blood culture is used for the detection of bloodstream infections by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and by common pathogenic yeasts. A retrospective study was conducted in a public hospital in Maceió-AL, by collecting data of all medical records with positive blood cultures. Out of the 2,107 blood cultures performed, 17% were positive with Staphylococcus coagulase negative (51.14%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (11.21%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.32%). Gram-positive bacteria predominated among positive blood cultures, highlighting the group of Staphylococcus coagulase-negative. While Gram-negative bacteria had a higher number of species among positive blood cultures.


Resumo A cultura sanguínea de rotina é usada para a detecção de infecções na corrente sanguínea por bactérias aeróbias e anaeróbias e por leveduras patogênicas comuns. Estudo retrospectivo realizado em hospital público de Maceió-AL, por meio da coleta de dados de todos os prontuários com culturas sanguíneas positivas. Das 2.107 culturas sanguíneas realizadas, 17% foram positivas com Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (51,14%), seguido por Staphylococcus aureus (11,21%) e Klebsiella pneumoniae (6,32%). As bactérias Gram-positiva predominaram entre as culturas de sangue positivas, destacando-se o grupo das Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo. Enquanto as bactérias Gram-negativas apresentaram um número maior de espécies entre as culturas de sangue positivas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sepsis , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals
2.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(2): 237-246, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130071

ABSTRACT

Examining how spatial access to health care varies across geography is key to documenting structural inequalities in the United States. In this article and the accompanying StoryMap, our team identified ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) with the largest share of minoritized racial and ethnic populations and measured distances to the nearest hospital offering emergency services, trauma care, obstetrics, outpatient surgery, intensive care, and cardiac care. In rural areas, ZCTAs with high Black or American Indian/Alaska Native representation were significantly farther from services than ZCTAs with high White representation. The opposite was true for urban ZCTAs, with high White ZCTAs being farther from most services. These patterns likely result from a combination of housing policies that restrict housing opportunities and federal health policies that are based on service provision rather than community need. The findings also illustrate the difficulty of using a single metric-distance-to investigate access to care on a national scale.


Subject(s)
Health Services Accessibility , Female , Geography , Hospitals , Humans , Pregnancy , United States
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 840: 156569, 2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690196

ABSTRACT

In many developing countries, untreated hospital effluents are discharged and treated simultaneously with municipal wastewater. However, if the hospital effluents are not treated separately, they pose concerning health risks due to the possible transport of the antimicrobial genes and microbes in the environment. Such effluent is considered as a point source for a number of potentially infectious microorganisms, waste antimicrobial compounds and other contaminants that could promote antimicrobial resistance development. The removal of these contaminants prior to discharge reduces the exposure of antimicrobials to the environment and this should lower the risk of superbug development. At an effluent discharge site, suitable pre-treatment of wastewater containing antimicrobials could maximise the ecological impact with potentially reduced risk to human health. In addressing these points, this paper reviews the applications of decentralized treatment systems toward reducing the concentration of antimicrobials in wastewater. The most commonly used techniques in decentralized wastewater treatment systems for onsite removal of antimicrobials were discussed and evidence suggests that hybrid techniques should be more useful for the efficient removal of antimicrobials. It is concluded that alongside the cooperation of administration departments, health industries, water treatment authorities and general public, decentralized treatment technology can efficiently enhance the removal of antimicrobial compounds, thereby decreasing the concentration of contaminants released to the environment that could pose risks to human and ecological health due to development of antimicrobial resistance in microbes.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Water Purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Hospitals , Humans , Waste Water
6.
Sante Publique ; 33(5): 763-778, 2022.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724110

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The study aims to assess the level of implementation of road safety interventions in Benin. METHOD: The research is based on an evaluative study of road safety aimed to analyze the implementation and logic of road safety interventions, conducted in Benin in 2019. It combined a review of the gray literature and a qualitative component. The data were collected through documents and interviews in structures involved in road safety management. RESULTS: Road safety was a national priority with one lead institution and several structures involved. There was a lack of consensus among stakeholders, insufficient framework documents, resources, legislative texts, and study data. Few roads were in good condition and very few allowed the separation of two-wheeled vehicles. The vehicle fleet was outdated. Various activities were carried out to raise awareness, to educate the population and to enforce the texts but they were insufficient and poorly coordinated. Reference hospitals had the minimum service to deal with trauma cases. The interventions had not yet resulted in a reduction in the number of injuries and fatalities by accidents, which was increasing. CONCLUSION: Benin has made great efforts in the area of road safety. However, there are still some shortcomings to take into account.


Subject(s)
Wounds and Injuries , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Benin/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Safety , Safety Management
7.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1662022 05 18.
Article in Dutch | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35736362

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To gain insight in medical specialists' and nurse practitioners' opinions on multimorbidity and coordination and tailoring of hospital care. DESIGN: Exploratory mixed-method design. METHOD: From August 2018 until January 2019, 35 Dutch medical associations were asked to forward a digital survey with open- and close-ended questions to their members. We used qualitative and quantitative methods to analyze the data. The main themes were identified with inductive, thematic analysis. RESULTS: There were 554 respondents from 22 associations, 43% of the medical specialist respondents were internist (n=221). The qualitative analysis of the answers regarding what is required in hospital care for patients with multimorbidity resulted in eight themes at the patient's, professional's and hospital organization's level. To the open question about who should take the lead, respondents most often answered the geriatrician or internist, followed by the general practitioner, 'the care professional who is treating the main problem', a nurse practitioner/physician assistant and the 'attending physician of the primary team'. All geriatricians and almost all internists felt they possessed the competencies to take the lead in hospital care for patients with multimorbidity. CONCLUSION: Medical specialists' and nurse practitioners' diverse ideas about who should take the lead in hospital care for patients with multimorbidity were a noteworthy finding. It is important to start local conversations about how to divide roles and responsibilities regarding the coordination and tailoring of hospital care for patients with multimorbidity.


Subject(s)
General Practitioners , Nurse Practitioners , Physician Assistants , Hospitals , Humans , Multimorbidity
8.
BMJ ; 377: e063064, 2022 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738660

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evidence upon which standards for hospital accreditation by The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (the Joint Commission) are based. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: United States. PARTICIPANTS: Four Joint Commission R3 (requirement, rationale, and reference) reports released by July 2018 and intended to become effective between 1 July 2018 and 1 July 2019. INTERVENTIONS: From each R3 report the associated standard and its specific elements of performance (or actionable standards) were extracted. If an actionable standard enumerated multiple requirements, these were separated into distinct components. Two investigators reviewed full text references, and each actionable standard was classified as either completely supported, partly supported, or not supported; Oxford evidence quality ratings were assigned; and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to assess the strength of recommendations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Strengths of recommendation for actionable standards. RESULTS: 20 actionable standards with 76 distinct components were accompanied by 48 references. Of the 20 actionable standards, six (30%) were completely supported by cited references, six were partly supported (30%), and eight (40%) were not supported. Of the six directly supported actionable standards, one (17%) cited at least one reference of level 1 or 2 evidence, none cited at least one reference of level 3 evidence, and five (83%) cited references of level 4 or 5 evidence. Of the completely supported actionable standards, strength of recommendation in five was deemed GRADE D and in one was GRADE B. CONCLUSIONS: In general, recent actionable standards issued by The Joint Commission are seldom supported by high quality data referenced within the issuing documents. The Joint Commission might consider being more transparent about the quality of evidence and underlying rationale supporting each of its recommendations, including clarifying when and why in certain instances it determines that lower level evidence is sufficient.


Subject(s)
Accreditation , Quality Assurance, Health Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations , United States
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 436: 129152, 2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739698

ABSTRACT

Although airborne transmission has been considered as a possible route for the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the role that aerosols play in SARS-CoV-2 transmission is still controversial. This study evaluated the airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 isolation wards at Prince of Wales Hospital in Hong Kong by both on-site sampling and numerical analysis. A total of 838 air samples and 1176 surface samples were collected, and SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected using the RT-PCR method. Testing revealed that 2.3% of the air samples and 9.3% of the surface samples were positive, indicating that the isolation wards were contaminated with the virus. The dispersion and deposition of exhaled particles in the wards were calculated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The calculated accumulated number of particles collected at the air sampling points was closely correlated with the SARS-CoV-2 positive rates from the field sampling, which confirmed the possibility of airborne transmission. Furthermore, three potential intervention strategies, i.e., the use of curtains, ceiling-mounted air cleaners, and periodic ventilation, were numerically investigated to explore effective control measures in isolation wards. According to the results, the use of ceiling-mounted air cleaners is effective in reducing the airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in such wards.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerosols , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , RNA, Viral
10.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(Suppl 3)2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750344

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, hospitals in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) have faced significant challenges in providing essential services, while simultaneously combatting this pandemic and responding to new and ongoing shocks and emergencies. Despite these challenges, policy-makers and hospital managers adapted their hospital responses to maintain operations and continue providing essential health services in resource-restraint and fragile and conflict affected, offering valuable insights to others in similar contexts. The aim of this paper is to share the lessons learnt from hospital responses to COVID-19 from the EMR. To do this, we triangulated findings from literature review, open-ended online surveys and 46 in-depth key informant interviews from 18 EMR countries. Qualitative findings from semistructured key informant interviews along with the open-ended survey responses resulted in nine major themes for lessons learnt in the EMR. These themes include Preparedness, Leadership and Coordination, Communication, Human Resources, Supplies and Logistics, Surge Capacity and Essential Services, Clinical Management (including Rapid Identification, Diagnosis and Isolation), Infection Prevention and Control, and Information and Research. Each of the nine themes (domains) included 4-6 major subthemes offering key insights into the regional hospital response to health emergencies. Resilient hospitals are those that can provide holistic, adaptable, primary-care-based health systems to deliver high-quality, effective and people-centred health services and respond to future outbreaks. Both bottom-up and top-down approaches are needed to strengthen collaboration between policy-makers, hospitals, front-line workers and communities to mitigate the continued spread of SARS CoV2, build resilient hospital systems and improve public health preparedness and emergency response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergencies , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health
11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(Suppl 3)2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750345

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to evaluate Iraq's health facility preparedness for the surge of hospitalised cases associated with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In this article, we review pandemic preparedness at both general and tertiary hospitals throughout all districts of Iraq. COVID-19 pandemic preparedness, for the purpose of this review, is defined as: (1) staff to patient ratio, (2) personal protective equipment (PPE) to staff ratio, (3) infection control measures training and compliance and (4) laboratory and surveillance capacity. Despite the designation of facilities as COVID-19 referral hospitals, we did not find any increased preparedness with regard to staffing and PPE allocation. COVID-19 designated hospital reported an increased mean number of respiratory therapists as well as sufficient intensive care unit staff, but this did not reach significant levels. Non-COVID-19 facilities tended to have higher mean numbers of registered nurses, cleaning staff and laboratory staff, whereas the COVID-19 facilities were allocated additional N-95 masks (554.54 vs 147.76), gowns (226.72 vs 104.14) and boot coverings (170.48 vs 86.8) per 10 staff, but none of these differences were statistically significant. Though COVID-19 facilities were able to make increased requisitions for PPE supplies, all facility types reported unfulfilled requisitions, which is more likely a reflection of global storage rather than Iraq's preparedness for the pandemic. Incorporating future pandemic preparedness into health system strengthening efforts across facilities, including supplies, staffing and training acquisition, retention and training, are critical to Iraq's future success in mitigating the ongoing impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Delivery of Health Care , Hospitals , Humans , Iraq
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e055055, 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether young adults (<50 years) with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) are more likely to receive intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) and have shorter time to treatment than older patients with stroke. METHODS: We analysed data from the Chinese Stroke Center Alliance registry for patients with AIS hospitalised between August 2015 and July 2019. Patients were classified into two groups according to age: young adults (<50 years of age) and older adults (≥50 years of age). RESULTS: Of 793 175 patients with AIS admitted to 1471 hospitals, 9.1% (71 860) were young adults. Compared with older adults, a higher proportion of young adults received IV tPA among patients without contraindicaitons (7.2% vs 6.1%, adjusted OR (aOR) 1.13, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.17) and among patients without contraindications and with onset-to-door time ≤3.5 hours (23.6% vs 19.3%, aOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.24). We did not observe differences in onset-to-needle time (median hours 2.7 hours) or door-to-needle time (DNT) (median minutes 60 min) between young and older adults. The proportion of DNT ≤30 min, DNT ≤45 min and DNT ≤60 min in young and older IV tPA-treated patients were 16.9% vs 18.8%, 30.2% vs 32.8% and 50.2% vs 54.2%, respectively. Compared with older adults, young adults treated with IV tPA had lower odds of in-hospital mortality (0.5% vs 1.3%, aOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.82) and higher odds of independent ambulation at discharge (61.0% vs 53.6%, aOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.22), and the associations may be partly explained by stroke severity measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score. CONCLUSION: Young adults with AIS were more likely to receive IV tPA than older adults, although there was no difference between the two groups in time to treatment. Compared with older adults, young adults may had better in-hospital outcomes.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Aged , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Hospitals , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
13.
Air Med J ; 41(4): 391-395, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750447

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Few studies have evaluated the effects of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) alone. This single-center study compared the changes in vital signs during ground emergency medical services (GEMS), HEMS, and hospital interventions to assess the impact of HEMS interventions. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included 168 trauma patients older than 18 years of age who received HEMS. Patients with cardiac arrest or those who received medical attention before HEMS were excluded. We assessed 3 intervention phases (GEMS, HEMS, and hospital). The changes in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, and shock index in response to interventions were calculated and divided by the intervention time, and the changes observed during the interventions were compared. RESULTS: No changes in vital signs were observed when receiving GEMS. Systolic blood pressure increased and shock index decreased after HEMS, whereas systolic blood pressure decreased and shock index increased during hospital interventions. Heart rate showed no significant change (P = .12), and respiratory rate showed very little change. Systolic blood pressure increased significantly during HEMS compared with the pre- and postintervention periods. CONCLUSION: Changes in vital signs differed according to the intervention. Systolic blood pressure increased during HEMS but not with GEMS or hospital interventions.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances , Emergency Medical Services , Aircraft , Heart Rate , Hospitals , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Retrospective Studies
14.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 365, 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Paediatric early warning systems (PEWS) alert health professionals to signs of a child's deterioration with the intention of triggering an urgent review and escalating care. They can reduce unplanned critical care transfer, cardiac arrest, and death. Electronic systems may be superior to paper-based systems. The objective of the study was to critically explore the initial experiences and perceptions of health professionals about the acceptability of DETECT e-PEWS, and what factors influence its acceptability. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study (part of The DETECT study) was undertaken February 2020-2021. Single, semi-structured telephone interviews were used. The setting was a tertiary children's hospital, UK. The participants were health professionals working in study setting and using DETECT e-PEWS. Sampling was undertaken using a mix of convenience and snowballing techniques. Participants represented two user-groups: 'documenting vital signs' (D-VS) and 'responding to vital signs' (R-VS). Perceptions of clinical utility and acceptability of DETECT e-PEWS were derived from thematic analysis of transcripts. RESULTS: Fourteen HPs (12 nurses, 2 doctors) participated; seven in D-VS and seven in the R-VS group. Three main themes were identified: complying with DETECT e-PEWS, circumventing DETECT e-PEWS, and disregarding DETECT e-PEWS. Overall clinical utility and acceptability were deemed good for HPs in the D-VS group but there was diversity in perception in the R-VS group (nurses found it more acceptable than doctors). Compliance was better in the D-VS group where use of DETECT e-PEWS was mandated and used more consistently. Some health professionals circumvented DETECT e-PEWS and fell back into old habits. Doctors (R-VS) did not consistently engage with DETECT e-PEWS, which reduced the acceptability of the system, even in those who thought the system brought benefits. CONCLUSIONS: Speed and accuracy of real-time data, automation of triggering alerts and improved situational awareness were key factors that contributed to the acceptability of DETECT e-PEWS. Mandating use of both recording and responding aspects of DETECT e-PEWS is needed to ensure full implementation.


Subject(s)
Critical Care , Vital Signs , Child , Electronics , Hospitals , Humans , Qualitative Research
15.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 168, 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies of the respiratory tract microbiome primarily focus on airway and lung microbial diversity, but it is still unclear how these microbial communities may be affected by intubation and long periods in intensive care units (ICU), an aspect that today could aid in the understanding of COVID19 progression and disease severity. This study aimed to explore and characterize the endotracheal tube (ETT) microbiome by analyzing ETT-associated microbial communities. METHODS: This descriptive study was carried out on adult patients subjected to invasive mechanical ventilation from 2 to 21 days. ETT samples were obtained from 115 patients from ICU units in two hospitals. Bacteria isolated from endotracheal tubes belonging to the ESKAPE group were analyzed for biofilm formation using crystal violet quantification. Microbial profiles were obtained using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. RESULTS: The ETT microbiome was mainly composed by the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Microbiome composition correlated with the ICU in which patients were hospitalized, while intubation time and diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) did not show any significant association. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the ICU environment, or medical practices, could be a key to microbial colonization and have a direct influence on the ETT microbiomes of patients that require mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Adult , Biofilms , Hospitals , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects
16.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 252, 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diagnosed with breast malignancy can be stressful, affecting several domains of life, affecting physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being that can lead to stress. To adapt to stress, the patient can use different coping methods. Therefore the objective of this research was to assess coping strategies for stress and its associated factors among breast cancer patients in Tikur Anbesa specialized hospital, Ethiopia. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The institution-based cross-sectional study was carried out among 272 study participants attending Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital from February to April 2020. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using Stata 4.2. Descriptive statistics was employed for data analysis and tables and figures were used to present the results. Binary logistic regression was used to identify variables that affected the outcome variables. RESULT: Majority (45.8%) of the study participants were in the age range 40-54 years. About 51.1% [95% CI (45.1-57.2)] of breast cancer patients have positive coping strategies to stress in the current study. About 64% solve stress through the Confrontive strategy and more than 73% of participants solve their problems by distancing. In self-controlling coping mechanisms, most participants do positive coping strategies. Having social support and taking only chemotherapy increased positive coping strategy but being single and time since diagnosis (1-3 years) increased negative coping. CONCLUSIONS: About 51% of breast cancer patients have a positive coping strategy. Since the majority of breast cancer patients in the current study experienced negative coping strategies, it is better to expand health education regarding stress coping strategies. In addition, it is better to link patients to clinical psychologists and organizations that aimed to social support to cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Breast Neoplasms/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Middle Aged
17.
J Trop Pediatr ; 68(4)2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751686

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The influenza virus is an infectious disease with acute respiratory tract infections, caused secondary bacterial infections and death. In this study, we aimed to determine which predictors were associated with the need for high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) and transition to intensive care for influenza virus and also to compare single viral pathogens with multiple ones. METHODS: Inpatients under the age of 5 with influenza virus-related respiratory tract infections between November 2015 and March 2019 were included in the study. Demographic features, comorbidities, symptoms, secondary bacterial infection, need for HFNC and pediatric intensive care unit and respiratory support system, length of hospital stay, polymerase chain reaction tests were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 93 patients were included in the study. It was determined that 53.8% of the cases were male and 84.9% were under the age of 2. Comorbidities were present in 50.5% of the cases. Secondary bacterial pneumonia developed in 56.9% of the cases. Patients with secondary bacterial pneumonia had higher PICU need, HFNC need and hospital stay (p = 0.014, p ≤ 0.001 and p ≤ 0.001, respectively). Patients with comorbidity had longer hospital stays and a higher need for HFNC (p ≤ 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, it was determined that especially comorbidity and secondary bacterial infection aggravated the clinical treatment of hospitalized patients. Therefore, it was concluded that patients with comorbidity should be followed closely and secondary bacterial pneumonia should be recognized and treated early.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Coinfection , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Cannula , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/therapy , Male , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Retrospective Studies
18.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 248, 2022 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic respiratory failure (CRF) can be treated at home with non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and/or long-term oxygen (LTOT). The prevalence of these treatments is largely unknown. We aimed to clarify the prevalence and indications of the treatments, and the three-year mortality of the treated patients in the Helsinki University Hospital (HUH) area in Finland. METHODS: In this retrospective study we analyzed the prevalence of adult CRF patients treated with NIV and/or LTOT on 1.1.2018 and followed these patients until 1.1.2021. Data collected included the underlying diagnosis, patient characteristics, information on treatment initiation and from the last follow-up visit, and mortality during the three-year follow-up. Patients with home invasive mechanical ventilation or sleep apnea were excluded. RESULTS: On 1.1.2018, we had a total of 815 patients treated with NIV and/or LTOT in the Helsinki University Hospital (HUH) area, with a population of 1.4 million. The prevalence of NIV was 35.4 per 100,000, of LTOT 24.6 per 100,000 and of the treatments combined 60.0 per 100,000. Almost half, 44.5%, were treated with NIV, 41.0% with LTOT, and 14.4% underwent both. The most common diagnostic groups were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (33.3%) and obesity-hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) (26.6%). The three-year mortality in all patients was 45.2%. In the COPD and OHS groups the mortality was 61.3% and 21.2%. In NIV treated patients, the treatment durations varied from COPD patients 5.3 years to restrictive chest wall disease patients 11.4 years. The age-adjusted Charlson co-morbidity index (ACCI) median for all patients was 3.0. CONCLUSIONS: NIV and LTOT are common treatments in CRF. The prevalence in HUH area was comparable to other western countries. As the ACCI index shows, the treated patients were fragile, with multiple co-morbidities, and their mortality was high. Treatment duration and survival vary greatly depending on the underlying diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Acidosis, Respiratory , Noninvasive Ventilation , Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Finland/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome/therapy , Oxygen , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies
19.
Nursing ; 52(7): 52-56, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752912
20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 886935, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35755847

ABSTRACT

Background: Machine learning (ML) algorithms are widely applied in building models of medicine due to their powerful studying and generalizing ability. This study aims to explore different ML models for early identification of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) among patients hospitalized for acute pancreatitis. Methods: This retrospective study enrolled patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) from multiple centers. Data from the First Affiliated Hospital and Changshu No. 1 Hospital of Soochow University were adopted for training and internal validation, and data from the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University were adopted for external validation from January 2017 to December 2021. The diagnosis of AP and SAP was based on the 2012 revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis. Models were built using traditional logistic regression (LR) and automated machine learning (AutoML) analysis with five types of algorithms. The performance of models was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the calibration curve, and the decision curve analysis (DCA) based on LR and feature importance, SHapley Additive exPlanation (SHAP) Plot, and Local Interpretable Model Agnostic Explanation (LIME) based on AutoML. Results: A total of 1,012 patients were included in this study to develop the AutoML models in the training/validation dataset. An independent dataset of 212 patients was used to test the models. The model developed by the gradient boost machine (GBM) outperformed other models with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.937 in the validation set and an AUC of 0.945 in the test set. Furthermore, the GBM model achieved the highest sensitivity value of 0.583 among these AutoML models. The model developed by eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) achieved the highest specificity value of 0.980 and the highest accuracy of 0.958 in the test set. Conclusions: The AutoML model based on the GBM algorithm for early prediction of SAP showed evident clinical practicability.


Subject(s)
Pancreatitis , Acute Disease , Hospitals , Humans , Machine Learning , Pancreatitis/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
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