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2.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 42: e2023116, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836806

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the vaccination coverage and abandonment rates among children under two years old in Brazil, from 2015 to 2021. METHODS: A time-series ecological study. The dependent variables of the research were "vaccination coverage" and "abandonment rate", both assessed by Brazilian region. The data were extracted in July 2022 from the Information System of the National Immunization Program. The Prais-Winsten technique was used for the trend analysis, with the aid of the STATA 16.0 software. RESULTS: The mean vaccination coverage in Brazil was 76.96%, with a decreasing trend during the period (Annual Percent Change=-5.12; confidence interval - CI95% -7.81; -2.34); in 2015, the rate was 88.85% and it dropped to 62.35% in 2021. In turn, the overall abandonment rate was 24.00% in 2015 and 9.01% in 2021, with a mean of 10.48% and a stationary trend (Annual Percentage Change=-9.54; CI95% -22.92; 6.12). In 2021, all the vaccines presented coverage values below 74.00% in the country. CONCLUSIONS: The vaccination coverage rate trend among children under two years old was stationary or decreasing for all the immunobiologicals in all Brazilian regions, with the exception of yellow fever in the South and Southeast regions. There was an increase in the abandonment rate trend for the Meningococcal C vaccine in the country and, specifically in relation to the regions, for BCG in the North, Northeast, and Midwest and for Meningococcal C in the North and Northeast.


Subject(s)
Vaccination Coverage , Humans , Brazil , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Infant , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors
3.
Glob Health Action ; 17(1): 2348788, 2024 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826143

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Six million children were under-vaccinated in 2022. Our study aimed to 1) quantify the magnitude of under-vaccination variation between health facilities, 2) assess to which extent individual and health center level factors contributed to the variation, 3) identify individual and health facility factors associated with under-vaccination, and 4), explore rural vs. urban health facility variations. METHODS: We used data from 61,839 children from The Gambia national routine vaccination register. We cross tabulated under-vaccination status across study variables and fitted two-level random intercept multilevel logistic regression models to measure variance, contribution to the variance, and factors associated with the variance and under-vaccination. RESULTS: We found that 7% of the prevalence of under-vaccination was due to variation between health facilities. Thirty-seven percent of the variation was explained by individual and health center variables. The variables explained 36% of the variance in urban and 19% in rural areas. Children who were not vaccinated at 4 months or with delayed history, due for vaccination in the rainy season, and health facilities with very small or large population to health worker ratios had higher under-vaccination odds. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that one of the pathways to improving vaccination coverage is addressing factors driving under-vaccination inequities between health facilities through urban-rural differentiated strategies.


Main findings: Variation in under-vaccination rates between health centers contributes to worsening performance overall and in urban and rural areas.Added knowledge: Our study indicates that one of the paths to improving under-vaccination and consequently total coverage is by addressing the factors driving under-vaccination and its inequity between health facilities.Global health impact for policy and action: Children with delayed or non-vaccination history at four months of age, those due for vaccination in the rainy season especially in urban areas, and health facilities with very small or big birth dose to health worker ratios are potential targets for improving under-vaccination.


Subject(s)
Rural Population , Humans , Gambia , Infant , Male , Female , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Child, Preschool , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Registries , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data
4.
BMC Res Notes ; 17(1): 152, 2024 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831445

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The immunisation programme in Zambia remains one of the most effective public health programmes. Its financial sustainability is, however, uncertain. Using administrative data on immunisation coverage rate, vaccine utilisation, the number of health facilities and human resources, expenditure on health promotion, and the provision of outreach services from 24 districts, we used Data Envelopment Analysis to determine the level of technical efficiency in the provision of immunisation services. Based on our calculated levels of technical efficiency, we determined the available fiscal space for immunisation. RESULTS: Out of the 24 districts in our sample, 9 (38%) were technically inefficient in the provision of immunisation services. The average efficiency score, however, was quite high, at 0.92 (CRS technology) and 0.95 (VRS technology). Based on the calculated level of technical efficiency, we estimated that an improvement in technical efficiency can save enough vaccine doses to supply between 5 and 14 additional districts. The challenge, however, lies in identifying and correcting for the sources of technical inefficiency.


Subject(s)
Immunization Programs , Zambia , Immunization Programs/economics , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Efficiency, Organizational , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines/economics , Vaccines/supply & distribution
5.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 121, 2024 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After the military coup in Myanmar in February 2021, the health system began to disintegrate when staff who called for the restoration of the democratic government resigned and fled to states controlled by ethnic minorities. The military retaliated by blocking the shipment of humanitarian aid, including vaccines, and attacked the ethnic states. After two years without vaccines for their children, parents urged a nurse-led civil society organization in an ethnic state to find a way to resume vaccination. The nurses developed a vaccination program, which we evaluated. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study and participatory evaluation were conducted. We interviewed the healthcare workers about vaccine acquisition, transportation, and administration and assessed compliance with WHO-recommended practices. We analyzed the participating children's characteristics. We calculated the proportion of children vaccinated before and after the program. We calculated the probability children would become up-to-date after the program using inverse survival. RESULTS: Since United Nations agencies could not assist, private donations were raised to purchase, smuggle into Myanmar, and administer five vaccines. Cold chain standards were maintained. Compliance with other WHO-recommended vaccination practices was 74%. Of the 184 participating children, 145 (79%, median age five months [IQR 6.5]) were previously unvaccinated, and 71 (41%) were internally displaced. During five monthly sessions, the probability that age-eligible zero-dose children would receive the recommended number of doses of MMR was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI] 83-100%), Penta 87% (95% CI 80%-94%); BCG 76% (95% CI 69%-83%); and OPV 68% (95% CI 59%-78%). Migration of internally displaced children and stockouts of vaccines were the primary factors responsible for decreased coverage. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to describe the situation, barriers, and outcomes of a childhood vaccination program in one of the many conflict-affected states since the coup in Myanmar. Even though the proportion of previously unvaccinated children was large, the program was successful. While the target population was necessarily small, the program's success led to a donor-funded expansion to 2,000 children. Without renewed efforts, the proportion of unvaccinated children in other parts of Myanmar will approach 100%.


Subject(s)
Immunization Programs , Humans , Myanmar , Retrospective Studies , Male , Pilot Projects , Female , Child, Preschool , Infant , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Child , Program Evaluation , Refugees/statistics & numerical data , Warfare
6.
Med Trop Sante Int ; 4(1)2024 03 31.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38846123

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccination is a protective measure against infectious diseases and remains one of the best investments in public health. Some African countries are still struggling to reach the required child immunization coverage. Several factors are responsible for limiting immunization coverage. Most of the factors considered to limit immunization coverage are related to the health system. In addition, inaccessibility to care, especially during the critical period of the Covid-19 pandemic, greatly reduced vaccination coverage rates. In Benin, several vaccines are included in the Expanded Programme on Immunization or are administered as part of routine immunization. However, cases of non-compliance with the vaccine and persistent flaccid paralysis are still recorded in the commune of Ouidah in southern Benin. The aim of this study was to investigate the coverage and factors associated with full immunization for age in children aged 0-5 years. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August to October 2021 in two villages (Adjara-Hounvè and Ahouicodji) in southern Benin. All the households were included. The survey regarded children under 5 for whom a vaccination record was presented. A couple child/mother was recruited after informed consent of the mother and her child. An univariate analysis followed by a multivariate analysis was performed by using a logistic regression model to identify the variables that influence vaccine completeness. Spatial description of vaccine completeness was performed using the kriging method using ArcGIS 10.8 mapping software. Results. Of the 414 mothers surveyed, 57.49% had an immunization card, from which information was collected. Of the 238 children recruited, 141 were in Adjara-Hounvè and 97 in Ahouicodji. Of the 238 children with an immunization card, 20.6% were fully immunized for their age. All children received Baccille Calmette Guérin vaccine at birth. Since poliomyelitis, pentavalent, pneumococcal conjugate, and rotavirus are three-dose vaccines, the percentage of children who received these vaccines decreased as the number of doses increased: 96.6%, 88.2%, 78.1% and 72.3% for the four doses of polio respectively. According to 53.4% of the respondents the reception at the vaccination site was poor, and according to 70.3% of them waiting time for vaccination sessions was long. Several reasons justified the absence of complete vaccination for the age of the children: vaccination site too far from the place of residence (59.54%), lack of financial means (29.78%) and the mother's ignorance (12.76%). Education level "primary" vs "none" (ORa = 3.32; CI95% 1.07-10.25), occupation "health staff" vs "housewife" (ORa = 21.18; CI95% 3.07-145.94), mothers' knowledge of Expanded Programme on Immunization diseases (ORa = 2, 20; CI95% 1.03-4.68) and children's age 0-2 months vs ≥ 16 months (ORa = 8.53; CI95% 2.52-28.85) and 9-15 months vs ≥ 16 months (ORa = 2.99; CI95% 1.24-7.23) increased complete immunization status for age. The homogeneity of behaviour related to age-complete immunization coverage in children under 5 years was evident at mapping. Conclusion: Age-complete immunization coverage in children under 5 years of age is very low, with a spatial homogeneity in community immunization uptake behaviour. Age-complete immunization coverage is an innovative indicator that can contribute to achieving age-specific immunization targets.


Subject(s)
Vaccination Coverage , Vaccination , Humans , Benin , Infant , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Child, Preschool , Female , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Infant, Newborn , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Immunization Programs
7.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2357439, 2024 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857859

ABSTRACT

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children and associated with most bronchiolitis- and pneumonia-related hospitalizations. A new preventive monoclonal antibody (MAb), nirsevimab, has been launched in the United States, Luxembourg, and France, and was recently approved to be given in a population-based manner throughout Spain. This study aimed to have a first pre-immunization insight into the Spanish parental knowledge about bronchiolitis, RSV, and nirsevimab immunization. Parents in Murcia with children <2 years of age up to the date of September 1, 2023, were selected to complete a questionnaire. The primary endpoint was the parental knowledge about bronchiolitis, RSV, and nirsevimab. A total of 3,217 responses were analyzed. The majority (95.8%) were aware of bronchiolitis. Meanwhile, 46.6% of the respondents knew about RSV, most of them only after the first child's birth. Information about RSV or bronchiolitis was mainly obtained from family members, with only 4.8% reporting having been informed by Health care Professionals (HCPs). Only 11.2% of respondents were aware of nirsevimab. Nonetheless, these were not entirely satisfied with the information received (score of 3.3 out of 5) and shared that HCPs should be the primary source of information. The present survey then highlights the need for better and more efficient educational strategies directed to all parents/legal guardians. It also sheds some light on the different factors that should be considered to improve awareness of RSV immunization to decrease its burden in Spain and beyond.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Immunization Programs , Parents , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Humans , Spain , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Parents/psychology , Female , Male , Infant , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Bronchiolitis/prevention & control , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Infant, Newborn
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 73(19): 441-446, 2024 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753550

ABSTRACT

In 1988, poliomyelitis (polio) was targeted for eradication. Global efforts have led to the eradication of two of the three wild poliovirus (WPV) serotypes (types 2 and 3), with only WPV type 1 (WPV1) remaining endemic, and only in Afghanistan and Pakistan. This report describes global polio immunization, surveillance activities, and poliovirus epidemiology during January 2022-December 2023, using data current as of April 10, 2024. In 2023, Afghanistan and Pakistan identified 12 total WPV1 polio cases, compared with 22 in 2022. WPV1 transmission was detected through systematic testing for poliovirus in sewage samples (environmental surveillance) in 13 provinces in Afghanistan and Pakistan, compared with seven provinces in 2022. The number of polio cases caused by circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs; circulating vaccine virus strains that have reverted to neurovirulence) decreased from 881 in 2022 to 524 in 2023; cVDPV outbreaks (defined as either a cVDPV case with evidence of circulation or at least two positive environmental surveillance isolates) occurred in 32 countries in 2023, including eight that did not experience a cVDPV outbreak in 2022. Despite reductions in paralytic polio cases from 2022, cVDPV cases and WPV1 cases (in countries with endemic transmission) were more geographically widespread in 2023. Renewed efforts to vaccinate persistently missed children in countries and territories where WPV1 transmission is endemic, strengthen routine immunization programs in countries at high risk for poliovirus transmission, and provide more effective cVDPV outbreak responses are necessary to further progress toward global polio eradication.


Subject(s)
Disease Eradication , Global Health , Immunization Programs , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Population Surveillance , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Humans , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Poliovirus/isolation & purification , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Poliovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child, Preschool , Infant , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral/administration & dosage
13.
J Glob Health ; 14: 05018, 2024 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38779876

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has challenged public health and behaviour change programmes, and has led to the development of innovative interventions and research. In low -and middle-income countries (LMICs) such as Nigeria, new strategies to promote vaccination, increase pro-vaccination social norms, and reduce vaccine hesitancy have been deployed through social media campaigns and evaluated using digital media platforms. Methods: We conducted two randomised experimental evaluations of social media content designed to promote COVID-19 vaccination and to complement research on a nationwide vaccination promotion campaign in Nigeria run in 2022. We conducted two studies in March and August 2022 among Nigerians drawn from 31 states that had not been targeted in the aforementioned nationwide campaign. We randomised the participants to either receive the pro-vaccination social media campaign or not and collected data at pre- and post-test time points to evaluate psychosocial predictors of vaccination and vaccination outcomes following the Theory of Change based on Diffusion of Innovations; the Social Norms Theory, and the Motivation, Opportunity, Ability (MOA) framework. Data were collected through a novel intervention delivery and data collection platform through social media. Results: We found that pro-vaccination social norms and vaccination rates increased, while vaccine hesitancy decreased among participants randomised to the social media intervention study arm. Conclusions: Social media campaigns are a promising approach to increasing vaccination at scale in LMICs, while social norms are an important factor in promoting vaccination, which is consistent with the Social Norms Theory. This study demonstrates the capability and potential of new social media-based data collection techniques. We describe implications for future vaccination campaigns and identify future research priorities in this area. Registration: Pan African Clinical Trial Registry: PACTR202310811597445.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Health Promotion , Social Media , Humans , Nigeria , Male , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Promotion/methods , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Vaccination Hesitancy/psychology , Vaccination Hesitancy/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Immunization Programs
14.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1371258, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38784590

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Routine immunization programs have focused on increasing vaccination coverage, which is equally important for decreasing vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), particularly in low- and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs). We estimated the trends and projections of age-appropriate vaccination coverage at the regional and national levels, as well as place of residence and wealth index in LMICs. Methods: In total, 174 nationally representative household surveys from 2000 to 2020 from 41 LMICs were included in this study. Bayesian hierarchical regression models were used to estimate trends and projections of age-appropriate vaccination. Results: The trend in coverage of age-appropriate Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP3), third dose of polio (polio3), and measles-containing vaccine (MCV) increased rapidly from 2000 to 2020 in LMICs. Findings indicate substantial increases at the regional and national levels, and by area of residence and socioeconomic status between 2000 and 2030. The largest rise was observed in East Africa, followed by South and Southeast Asia. However, out of the 41 countries, only 10 countries are estimated to achieve 90% coverage of the BCG vaccine by 2030, five of DTP3, three of polio3, and none of MCV. Additionally, by 2030, wider pro-urban and -rich inequalities are expected in several African countries. Conclusion: Significant progress in age-appropriate vaccination coverage has been made in LMICs from 2000 to 2020. Despite this, projections show many countries will not meet the 2030 coverage goals, with persistent urban-rural and socioeconomic disparities. Therefore, LMICs must prioritize underperforming areas and reduce inequalities through stronger health systems and increased community engagement to ensure high coverage and equitable vaccine access.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Immunization Programs , Vaccination Coverage , Humans , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage/trends , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Asia , Africa South of the Sahara , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Immunization Programs/trends , Infant , Child, Preschool , Bayes Theorem , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/trends
15.
J Spec Pediatr Nurs ; 29(3): e12427, 2024 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38779985

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Childhood immunizations have proven to be one of the most beneficial interventions to promote public health and prevent childhood deaths due to disease. However, global coverage of childhood immunization has decreased throughout the world due to guardians' growing hesitancy towards immunizations. This study aims to describe how specialist nurses promote legal guardians to adhere to national childhood immunization programmes. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study had a qualitative design. Semistructured interviews with 11 specialist nurses, who were paediatric primary care nurses or nurse practitioners, were conducted. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The findings, with four main categories including four subcategories, showed nurses using both local guidelines and national guidelines to promote guardians to adhere to the childhood immunization programme. The main intervention the nurses did to promote childhood immunization coverage was giving legal guardians general information about the programme. With hesitant guardians, adopting a person-centred approach towards the legal guardian improved adherence. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Further research should focus on how specialist nurses can respond to guardians who decline immunization for their children, as this study identified difficulties in this area. Furthermore, research on guardians' perspectives towards childhood immunization may also help generate further effective guidance on how to promote immunization coverage among children.


Subject(s)
Health Promotion , Immunization Programs , Qualitative Research , Humans , Health Promotion/methods , Female , Male , Child , Adult , Nurse's Role , Child, Preschool , Infant , Pediatric Nursing/standards , Middle Aged , Attitude of Health Personnel
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11929, 2024 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38789451

ABSTRACT

Italy implemented two-dose universal varicella vaccination (UVV) regionally from 2003 to 2013 and nationally from 2017 onwards. Our objective was to analyze regional disparities in varicella outcomes resulting from disparities in vaccine coverage rates (VCRs) projected over a 50-year time-horizon (2020-2070). A previously published dynamic transmission model was updated to quantify the potential public health impact of the UVV program in Italy at the national and regional levels. Four 2-dose vaccine strategies utilizing monovalent (V) and quadrivalent (MMRV) vaccines were evaluated for each region: (A) MMRV-MSD/MMRV-MSD, (B) MMRV-GSK/MMRV-GSK, (C) V-MSD/MMRV-MSD, and (D) V-GSK/MMRV-GSK. Costs were reported in 2022 Euros. Costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were discounted 3% annually. Under strategy A, the three regions with the lowest first-dose VCR reported increased varicella cases (+ 34.3%), hospitalizations (+ 20.0%), QALYs lost (+ 5.9%), payer costs (+ 22.2%), and societal costs (+ 14.6%) over the 50-year time-horizon compared to the three regions with highest first-dose VCR. Regions with low first-dose VCR were more sensitive to changes in VCR than high first-dose VCR regions. Results with respect to second-dose VCR were qualitatively similar, although smaller in magnitude. Results were similar across all vaccine strategies.


Subject(s)
Chickenpox Vaccine , Chickenpox , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Chickenpox Vaccine/economics , Chickenpox/epidemiology , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Chickenpox/economics , Vaccination Coverage/economics , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Child , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Child, Preschool , Vaccination/economics , Male , Adolescent , Infant , Female , Hospitalization/economics , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Health Care Costs , Immunization Programs/economics
17.
West J Emerg Med ; 25(3): 374-381, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38801044

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) inequitably impacted minority populations and regions with limited access to healthcare resources. The Barnes-Jewish Emergency Department in St. Louis, MO, serves such a population. The COVID-19 vaccine is an available defense to help achieve community immunity. The emergency department (ED) is a potential societal resource to provide access to a vaccination intervention. Our objective in this study was to describe and evaluate a novel ED COVID-19 vaccine program, including its impact on the local surrounding underserved community. Methods: This was a retrospective, post-protocol implementation review of an ED COVID-19 vaccination program. Over the initial six-month period, we compiled data on all vaccinated patients out of the ED to evaluate demographic data and the impact on underserved regional areas. Results: We report a successful ED-based COVID-19 vaccine program (with over 1,000 vaccines administered). This program helped raise regional and state vaccination rates. Over 50% of the population that received the COVID-19 vaccine from the ED were from defined socially vulnerable patient populations. No adverse effects were documented. Conclusion: Operation CoVER (COVID-19 Vaccine in the Emergency Room) Saint Louis was able to successfully vaccinate a socially vulnerable patient population. This free, COVID-19 ED-based vaccine program with dedicated pharmacy support, was novel in emergency medicine practice. Similar ED-based vaccine programs could help with future vaccine distribution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Immunization Programs , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Missouri , COVID-19/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Adult
18.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2345493, 2024 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38780074

ABSTRACT

The surge in recommended vaccinations for child's has spurred the development of combination vaccines, notably hexavalent vaccines, which provide multiple immunizations in a single dose. These vaccines offer various advantages, such as streamlining vaccination schedules, minimizing injection-related pain and exposure to preservatives, expanding vaccine coverage, and reducing administration costs. However, the intricate and expensive development of these vaccines presents substantial challenges, requiring increased investment and healthcare provider education to optimize their utilization and sustain high vaccination rates. Turkey, known for its robust vaccine coverage, strategic geographic location, and the influx of refugees, is at a critical juncture for integrating hexavalent vaccines into national programs. This transition is especially relevant given the rising vaccine hesitancy and the potential resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases. This review assesses the deployment of hexavalent vaccines, examining their benefits and challenges through clinical trials and global experiences, with a specific emphasis on Turkiye's public health context.


Subject(s)
Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Vaccines, Combined , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunization Schedule , Turkey , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage , Vaccination Hesitancy/statistics & numerical data , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control , Vaccines, Combined/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Combined/immunology
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 544, 2024 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38816715

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic is still a public health concern in South Sudan having caused suffering since the first case of COVID-19 was introduced on 28th February 2020. COVAX vaccines have since been introduced using a number of strategies including fixed site, temporary mobile, hit and run in flooded and conflict affected areas. We aim to describe the 2 ICVOPT campaigns that were conducted to improve the uptake and document lessons learnt during the initial rollout of the COVID-19 vaccination programin South Sudan between February 2022 and June 2022 each lasting for 7-days. METHODOLOGY: We conducted an operational cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological study of a series of the intensified COVID-19 vaccination Optimization (ICVOPT) campaigns from February 2022 to June 2022. Before the campaign, a bottom up micro-planning was conducted, validated by the County Health Departments (CHDs) and national MOH team. Each of the 2 campaigns lasted for 7 days targeting 30% of the eligible unvaccinated target population who were18 years and above. Each team consisted of 2 vaccinators, 2 recorders and 1 mobilizer. The teams employed both fixed site, temporary mobile, hit and run in flooded and conflict affected areas. The number of teams were calculated based on the daily workload per day (80 persons per team/day) for the duration of the campaigns. RESULTS: A total of 444,030 individuals were vaccinated with primary series COVID-19 vaccine (J&J) out of the targeted 635,030 persons. This represented 69.9% of target population in the selected 28 counties and 10 states of South Sudan in 7 days' ICVOPT campaigns. More eligible persons were reached in 7 days campaigns than the 9 months of rollout of the COVID-19 vaccine prior to ICVOPT campaigns using the fixed site strategy at the health facility posts. CONCLUSION: Intensified COVID-19 vaccination Optimization (ICVOPT) campaigns were vital and fast in scaling up vaccination coverages as compared to the fixed site vaccination strategies (2022 progress report on the Global Action Plan for Healthy Lives and Well-being for All Stronger collaboration for an equitable and resilient recovery towards the health-related Sustainable Development Goals, incentivizing collaboration, 2022) in complex humanitarian emergency settings and hard-to-reach areas of South Sudan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization Programs , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , South Sudan , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Male , Adult , Female , Adolescent , Vaccination
20.
Lancet ; 403(10441): 2307-2316, 2024 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: WHO, as requested by its member states, launched the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1974 to make life-saving vaccines available to all globally. To mark the 50-year anniversary of EPI, we sought to quantify the public health impact of vaccination globally since the programme's inception. METHODS: In this modelling study, we used a suite of mathematical and statistical models to estimate the global and regional public health impact of 50 years of vaccination against 14 pathogens in EPI. For the modelled pathogens, we considered coverage of all routine and supplementary vaccines delivered since 1974 and estimated the mortality and morbidity averted for each age cohort relative to a hypothetical scenario of no historical vaccination. We then used these modelled outcomes to estimate the contribution of vaccination to globally declining infant and child mortality rates over this period. FINDINGS: Since 1974, vaccination has averted 154 million deaths, including 146 million among children younger than 5 years of whom 101 million were infants younger than 1 year. For every death averted, 66 years of full health were gained on average, translating to 10·2 billion years of full health gained. We estimate that vaccination has accounted for 40% of the observed decline in global infant mortality, 52% in the African region. In 2024, a child younger than 10 years is 40% more likely to survive to their next birthday relative to a hypothetical scenario of no historical vaccination. Increased survival probability is observed even well into late adulthood. INTERPRETATION: Since 1974 substantial gains in childhood survival have occurred in every global region. We estimate that EPI has provided the single greatest contribution to improved infant survival over the past 50 years. In the context of strengthening primary health care, our results show that equitable universal access to immunisation remains crucial to sustain health gains and continue to save future lives from preventable infectious mortality. FUNDING: WHO.


Subject(s)
Child Mortality , Immunization Programs , Vaccination , Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Child Mortality/trends , Infant Mortality/trends , Child , Global Health , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Adolescent , History, 20th Century , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Public Health , Young Adult
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