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1.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-3, 01/jan./2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358188

ABSTRACT

Na atualidade, fotografar ou gravar o instante da imunização contra a Covid-19 se tornou rotina compartilhada nas redes sociais. Essa exposição instigou a observação de uma questão relevante: a técnica de aplicação está correta? Com a veiculação de imagens, é possível visualizar as vacinas sendo administradas em diferentes áreas do músculo deltoide, o que pode acarretar efeitos adversos. A otimização da qualificação técnica e pedagógica dos profissionais que elaboram e ministram as capacitações, bem como o envolvimento efetivo dos vacinadores nos treinamentos para injeção intramuscular é uma necessidade constante para evitar mais danos à saúde da população


Currently, photographing or recording the instant of immunization against Covid-19 has become a shared routine on social networks. This exposition prompted the observation of a relevant question: is the application technique correct? With the transmission of images, it is possible to visualize the vaccines being administered in different areas of the deltoid muscle, which can cause adverse effects. The optimization of the technical and pedagogical qualification of the professionals who design and deliver the training, as well as the effective involvement of vaccinators in training for intramuscular injection, is a constant need to avoid further damage to the health of the population


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Immunization , Process Optimization , Deltoid Muscle , Injections
3.
Article in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-55969

ABSTRACT

[Introducción] “Andar la salud” es un boletín elaborado en la Oficina de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud/Organización Mundial de la Salud (OPS/OMS) en Cuba. Su propósito fundamental es compartir lo más relevante de la cooperación técnica de esta Representación con el Ministerio de Salud Pública (MINSAP) y otras instituciones y organismos en el país. Desde que comenzó la pandemia provocada por el SARS-CoV-2 en la isla, esta publicación se ha dedicado, fundamentalmente, a compilar y dar a conocer aspectos destacados de la respuesta en el territorio nacional. Sin embargo, en el presente número, la mayoría de los artículos recoge un balance de los resultados de la colaboración en las diferentes áreas técnicas entre 2020 y 2021. De tal forma, aunque se hace referencia a lo relacionado con el enfrentamiento a la COVID-19, también se reflejan esfuerzos encaminados a otros programas y prioridades dentro del sector sanitario. De igual forma, es posible leer una entrevista con la investigadora Marta Ayala Ávila, así como trabajo dedicados a la labor de médicos rurales cubanos y de la Unidad Nacional de Promoción de Salud y Prevención de Enfermedades (PROSALUD).


Subject(s)
Vaccination , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Epidemiology , Health Promotion , Communicable Diseases , Immunization , Mental Health , Technical Cooperation , Health Systems
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7425, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523938

ABSTRACT

The Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a highly infectious virus and is endemic in Uganda. It is one of the major etiological agents for liver diseases including liver cancer. In this work, we evaluated the prevalence of the HBV serological markers and the associated socio-demographic factors among hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seronegative persons screened during routine immunization against the virus in eastern Uganda. Data on the socio-demographic characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire, while that on the serological markers were obtained from serum samples and evaluated by using the 5-panel HBV One Step Hepatitis B Virus Combo Test Device (FastepR, HBV-P43M). The following markers were evaluated by the panel: HBsAg, HBsAb, HBcAb, and HBeAb. Data were analyzed using SPSS (version 26), and multinomial logistic regression was used to elicit the adjusted odds ratio. All the analysis were performed at a 95% confidence limit, and a P value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. The 424 participants included in this study were mainly female (62.3%), married (55.4%) and aged 30 years and above (54.2%). The seropositivity of the HBsAb, HBeAb, HBcAb marker prevalence rates was 48(11.3%), 73(17.2%) and 45(10.6%) respectively. The majority of the participants (327, 77.1%) did not present with any marker. Married paricipants were significantly associated with reduced HBsAb seropositvity rate, whereas young people aged 18-29 years were associated the with increased odds of HBsAb seropositivity (p < 0.05). Male participants were significantly associated with the HBeAb and HBcAb seropositivity (p < 0.05). Similarly, contact with an HBV infected person was significantly associated with HBeAb and HBcAb seropositivity (p < 0.05). Further still, blood transfusion was significantly associated with the increased risk of HBcAb seropositivity (P < 0.05). This study has revealed a prevalence of HBV serological markers among the HBsAg seronegative persons in this community and an increased risk of transmission of the virus in the community. Our findings have key consequences pertaining the interventions that are pertinent in the control and prevention of the spread of the virus among apparently health persons.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Adolescent , Biomarkers , Female , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hospitals , Humans , Immunization , Male
5.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(5): 1817-1818, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502082

ABSTRACT

A 28-year-old female who underwent an uneventful femtosecond laser enabled keratoplasty (FLEK) in her left eye presented with pain, redness, and blurring of vision in the operated eye two weeks after getting immunized with COVID-19 vector vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV19 Vaccine Recombinant COVISHIELD, AstraZeneca). Slit-lamp examination showed donor stromal edema with Descemet's membrane folds and Khodadoust line (KP's on endothelium) with anterior chamber cells and flare. The patient was diagnosed with acute corneal graft rejection and advised hourly topical steroids with cycloplegics and oral steroids. The patient responded to treatment and there was progressive reversal of graft rejection with the patient achieving best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) of 20/30 after five weeks of treatment. Our case highlights possible immune corneal graft rejection after COVID19 vaccination and the need to step up topical steroids before vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Corneal Diseases , Corneal Transplantation , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Corneal Diseases/surgery , Corneal Transplantation/adverse effects , Endothelium , Female , Graft Rejection/diagnosis , Humans , Immunization , Postoperative Complications , Steroids , Vaccination , Visual Acuity
6.
Vaccine ; 40(23): 3228-3235, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491342

ABSTRACT

We aimed to determine population immunity to measles in Canada, and to assess the risk of future outbreaks. We tested 11,176 sera from Cycles 2 (2009-2011) and 3 (2011-2013) cohorts from the biobank of Statistics Canada's Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) using the BioPlex 2220 MMRV IgG assay. We then tested all BioPlex negative and equivocal samples using a more sensitive Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT). We determined the weighted proportion of positive, equivocal, and negative samples by age, sex, region and whether individuals were born in Canada. We found that 90.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 88.2, 91.9) of samples were positive, 4.5% (95% CI: 3.4, 5.5) were equivocal and 5.5% (95% CI: 4.3, 6.7) were negative. Individuals in the 12-19 year age band had the lowest proportion positive at 78.7% (95% CI: 74.2, 83.2) and the highest proportion of positive samples was found in those 60-79 years (99.6%, 95% CI: 99.3, 99.9). Seropositivity was consistently <90% across a broad range of pediatric and adult age bands (6-39 years). We found that a slightly higher proportion of females were positive (91.9%, 95% CI: 90.1, 93.6) compared to males (88.3%, 95% CI: 85.8, 90.7). When taking into account interaction between age and born in Canada status, we found individuals born in Canada aged 19 and under were less susceptible (OR = 0.6 (95% CI: 0.4, 0.95)) compared to those born outside Canada whereas, those aged 20 and over were more susceptible (OR = 1.7 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.8)). Our findings indicate that measles immunity in Canada is below the 95% immunity threshold required to sustain measles elimination, underscoring the importance of maintaining high vaccine coverage to prevent future measles outbreaks and sustain Canada's elimination status.


Subject(s)
Measles , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Immunization , Male , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Measles Vaccine , Seroepidemiologic Studies
7.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(2): 2028517, 2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507828
8.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 87(4): 319-330, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35527370

ABSTRACT

Based on the previously developed approach, hybrid recombinant proteins containing short conformational epitopes (a.a. 144-153, 337-346, 414-425, 496-507) of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein (S protein) were synthesized in Escherichia coli cells as potential components of epitope vaccines. Selected epitopes are involved in protein-protein interactions in the S protein complexes with neutralizing antibodies and ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2). The recombinant proteins were used for immunization of mice (three doses with 2-week intervals), and the immunogenicity of protein antigens and ability of the resulting sera to interact with inactivated SARS-CoV-2 and RBD produced in eukaryotic cells were examined. All recombinant proteins showed high immunogenicity; the highest titer in the RBD binding assay was demonstrated by the serum obtained after immunization with the protein containing epitope 414-425. At the same time, the titers of sera obtained against other proteins in the RBD and inactivated virus binding assays were significantly lower than the titers of sera obtained with the previously produced four proteins containing the loop-like epitopes 452-494 and 470-491, the conformation of which was fixed with a disulfide bond. We also studied activation of cell-mediated immunity by the recombinant proteins that was monitored as changes in the levels of cytokines in the splenocytes of immunized mice. The most pronounced increase in the cytokine synthesis was observed in response to the proteins containing epitopes with disulfide bonds (452-494, 470-491), as well as epitopes 414-425 and 496-507. For some recombinant proteins with short conformational epitopes, adjuvant optimization allowed to obtained mouse sera displaying virus-neutralizing activity in the microneutralization assay with live SARS-CoV-2 (hCoV-19/Russia/StPetersburg-3524/2020 EPI_ISL_415710 GISAID). The results obtained can be used to develop epitope vaccines for prevention of COVID-19 and other viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disulfides , Epitopes , Humans , Immunization , Mice , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 421, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunization plays a vital role in child health and survival. Zero-dose children are coming increasingly into focus as part of the global Immunization Agenda 2030. Although the percentage of zero-dose children has decreased in Turkey over time, regional/socioeconomic inequalities persist. This study aims to analyze the trend in zero-dose children and the factors associated with this problem in Turkey in light of regional inequalities. METHODS: Six data sets (1993, 1998, 2003, 2008, 2013, and 2018) were pooled from the last six Turkey Demographic and Health Surveys (TDHSs). The vaccination module for children aged 12-35 months and variables related to household characteristics, socio-economic, cultural characteristics of parents, bio-demographic/health-related factors were taken from the DHS data. Binary logistic regression analyses were carried out by taking into account the complex sample design of surveys for Turkey in general, the East region, and other regions. RESULTS: Significant progress has been made in reducing the number of zero-dose children in Turkey over the last three decades, as it has dropped from 3.2 to 0.9%. The results of multivariate analyses revealed that survey year, household wealth, the mother's level of education, payment of bride price, mother's native language, place of delivery, and the number of antenatal care visits are associated with zero-dose children. Factors associated with zero-dose children also differ between the East region, and other regions. CONCLUSION: Public health programs targeting uneducated parents, poor households, lack of social security, Kurdish-speaking mothers, older mothers and those without antenatal care should be implemented to promote childhood immunization.


Subject(s)
Immunization , Mothers , Child , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Socioeconomic Factors , Turkey/epidemiology
10.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e058203, 2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534060

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To gain in-depth understanding of the caregiver experience when navigating urban immunisation services for their children. DESIGN: An exploratory qualitative assessment comprising 16 in-depth interviews using an interpretative phenomenology approach. SETTING: Caregivers were purposively recruited from slums (n=8) and other urban communities (n=8) in the capital city of Sierra Leone. PARTICIPANTS: Caregivers of children ages 6-36 months old who were fully vaccinated (n=8) or undervaccinated (n=8). RESULTS: Emotional enablers of vaccination were evident in caregivers' sense of parental obligation to their children while also anticipating reciprocal benefits in children's ability to take care of their parents later in life. Practical enablers were found in the diversity of immunisation reminders, information access, information trust, getting fathers more involved, positive experiences with health workers and postvaccination information sharing in the community. Underlying barriers to childhood vaccination were due to practical constraints such as overcrowding and long waiting times at the clinic, feeling disrespected by health workers, expecting to give money to health workers for free services and fear of serious vaccine side effects. To improve vaccination outcomes, caregivers desired more convenient and positive clinic experiences and deeper community engagement. CONCLUSIONS: Health system interventions, community engagement and vaccination outreach need to be tailored for urban settings. Vaccine communication efforts may resonate more strongly with caregivers when vaccination is framed both around parental responsibilities to do the right thing for the child and the future benefits to the parent.


Subject(s)
Caregivers , Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Immunization , Infant , Qualitative Research , Sierra Leone , Vaccination
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(18): 619-627, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511716

ABSTRACT

Human rabies is an acute, progressive encephalomyelitis that is nearly always fatal once symptoms begin. Several measures have been implemented to prevent human rabies in the United States, including vaccination of targeted domesticated and wild animals, avoidance of behaviors that might precipitate an exposure (e.g., provoking high-risk animals), awareness of the types of animal contact that require postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), and use of proper personal protective equipment when handling animals or laboratory specimens. PEP is widely available in the United States and highly effective if administered after an exposure occurs. A small subset of persons has a higher level of risk for being exposed to rabies virus than does the general U.S. population; these persons are recommended to receive preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a series of human rabies vaccine doses administered before an exposure occurs, in addition to PEP after an exposure. PrEP does not eliminate the need for PEP; however, it does simplify the rabies PEP schedule (i.e., eliminates the need for rabies immunoglobulin and decreases the number of vaccine doses required for PEP). As rabies epidemiology has evolved and vaccine safety and efficacy have improved, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendations to prevent human rabies have changed. During September 2019-November 2021, the ACIP Rabies Work Group considered updates to the 2008 ACIP recommendations by evaluating newly published data, reviewing frequently asked questions, and identifying barriers to adherence to previous ACIP rabies vaccination recommendations. Topics were presented and discussed during six ACIP meetings. The following modifications to PrEP are summarized in this report: 1) redefined risk categories; 2) fewer vaccine doses in the primary vaccination schedule; 3) flexible options for ensuring long-term protection, or immunogenicity; 4) less frequent or no antibody titer checks for some risk groups; 5) a new minimum rabies antibody titer (0.5 international units [IUs]) per mL); and 6) clinical guidance, including for ensuring effective vaccination of certain special populations.


Subject(s)
Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Rabies Vaccines , Rabies , Advisory Committees , Animals , Humans , Immunization , Immunization Schedule , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
12.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-04. (PAHO/FPL/IM/21-0043).
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55954

ABSTRACT

This factsheet provides important information related to frequently asked questions on the following rotavirus vaccines: RotaSIIL (Serum Institute of India) and RotaVac (Bharat Biotech).


Subject(s)
Immunization , Rotavirus , Vaccines
13.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-02. (PAHO/FPL/IM/COVID-19/22-0008).
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55948

ABSTRACT

Vaccination Week in the Americas (VWA) is a regional initiative that aims to promote equity and access to vaccination in all countries in the Region of the Americas. The VWA platform can be adapted to national, regional, and global contexts to select activities that best meet local public health priorities. At the heart of this initiative are countries' relentless efforts to reach vulnerable population groups with little or no access to regular health services, such as those living in urban peripheries, rural or border areas, and indigenous communities, with vaccination. Faced with this global situation, several countries in the Region decided to again postpone VWA activities in 2020 order to allocate all their resources to the COVID-19 response. In 2021 as well, most countries in the Americas region did not participate in VWA activities for the second year in a year for these same reasons, and only 12 countries sent in cumulative reports detailing their scaled-back activities. As a part of the global pandemic response, PAHO has been a key factor in helping provide organizational support and health care resource delivery for countries in the Americas. As a collaborator with COVAX, PAHO has helped to procure personal protective equipment such as masks, gowns, and gloves; more than 20 million vaccine doses; and more than 25 million COVID-19 tests including both PCR and rapid antigen tests. Additionally, PAHO has also provided technical training exercises to help support testing, epidemiological tracing, and clinical care for health care systems in the Region.


Subject(s)
Vaccination , Immunization , Vaccination Coverage , COVID-19 , Americas
14.
Article in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr--55931

ABSTRACT

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Conocer la efectividad de la vacunación contra SARS-CoV-2 para prevenir el desarrollo de enfermedad y muerte por COVID-19 en Córdoba, Argentina, en el periodo enero-junio de 2021. Métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo en 1 139 458 residentes en la provincia de Córdoba. Se construyeron modelos de regresión logística múltiple que relacionaron la vacunación con la infección por SARS-CoV-2 o la muerte por COVID-19, considerando comorbilidades y factores de riesgo de enfermedades crónicas y ajustando por sexo y edad. Resultados. El haber recibido una o dos dosis de vacuna en la población general redujo el riesgo de enfermar un 98,8% y 99,3%, respectivamente; y de morir un 83% y 96,5%, respectivamente. En quienes contrajeron COVID-19, la probabilidad de morir se redujo en 57% y 80%, respectivamente. En cuanto a la probabilidad de muerte, el riesgo aumentó a medida que aumentaba la edad y con la pertenencia al sexo masculino o la presencia de obesidad, hipertensión arterial o diabetes mellitus. Conclusión. La vacunación es efectiva y protege contra la posibilidad de contraer COVID-19, desarrollar enfermedad grave o morir. Presentar obesidad, hipertensión arterial o diabetes mellitus, en orden decreciente, aumentan el riesgo de morir.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To determine the effectiveness of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in preventing illness and death from COVID-19 in Córdoba, Argentina, during the period from January through June 2021. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 1,139,458 residents of the province of Córdoba. Multiple logistic regression models were developed to describe the relationship between vaccination and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 or death from COVID-19, while taking account of comorbidities and chronic disease risk factors and adjusting for sex and age. Results. Among the general population, having received one or two doses of vaccine reduced the risk of illness by 98.8% and 99.3%, respectively, and the risk of dying by 83% and 96.5%, respectively. Among those who developed COVID-19, the probability of dying was reduced by 57% and 80%, respectively. Regarding probability of death, risk increased with age, with being male, and with obesity, arterial hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Conclusion. Vaccination is effective and protects against the risk of getting COVID-19, developing severe disease, or dying. Having obesity, arterial hypertension, or diabetes mellitus, in descending order, increases the risk of death.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Conhecer a eficácia da vacinação contra SARS-CoV-2 para prevenir o desenvolvimento de doença e morte por COVID-19 em Córdoba, Argentina, no período de janeiro a junho de 2021. Métodos. Foi realizado um estudo de coorte retrospectivo em 1.139.458 residentes da província de Córdoba. Foram construídos modelos de regressão logística múltipla que relacionaram a vacinação à presença de SARS-CoV-2 ou morte por COVID-19, considerando comorbidades e fatores de risco para doenças crônicas e ajustando por sexo e idade. Resultados. Ter recebido uma ou duas doses da vacina na população geral reduziu o risco de adoecimento em 98,8% e 99,3%, respectivamente; e de morrer, em 83% e 96,5%, respectivamente. Naqueles que contraíram COVID-19, a probabilidade de morrer foi reduzida em 57% e 80%, respectivamente. Em relação à probabilidade de morte, o risco aumentou com o aumento da idade e para o sexo masculino, ou com a presença de obesidade, hipertensão arterial ou diabetes mellitus. Conclusão. A vacinação é efetiva e protege contra a possibilidade de contrair COVID-19, desenvolver doença grave ou morrer. A presença de obesidade, hipertensão arterial ou diabetes mellitus, em ordem decrescente, aumenta o risco de morte.


Subject(s)
Immunization , Repeated Dose , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Effectiveness , Argentina , Immunization , Repeated Dose , COVID-19 Vaccines , Effectiveness , Immunization , Repeated Dose , COVID-19 Vaccines , Effectiveness
15.
J Adolesc Health ; 70(6): 1002-1005, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597558

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, a number of COVID-19 vaccines have been approved or granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) or Emergency Use Listing for adolescents and young adults (AYA), which has brought hope to many across the globe. Extension of the EUA for a COVID-19 vaccine to children and adolescents aged 5 through 15 years is exciting news for children, adolescents, parents, and providers of AYA. Many countries around the globe have extended immunization against COVID-19 to younger age groups. At the same time, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to a decrease globally in administration of other adolescent vaccines. This highlights that vaccine recommendations do not necessarily lead to successful and equitable vaccine distribution, and overcoming barriers to vaccination is critical. Certain subpopulations of AYA, particularly those who are marginalized/underrepresented, do not receive appropriate health care. AYA should be offered protection against all vaccine-preventable illnesses at every opportunity. Creating innovative strategies to improve vaccine uptake among AYA should be encouraged.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Immunization , Pandemics/prevention & control , Young Adult
16.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 889074, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35600593

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cases of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) have been reported after COVID-19 infection, with hypophysitis being the most likely cause. COVID-19 vaccines potential adverse effects may mimetize some of these complications. Case Report: Woman 37 years old, with rheumatoid arthritis under adalimumab (40 mg twice a month) since December 2018. She was in her usual state of health when she has received the second dose of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (June 2021). Seven days later, she started reporting intense thirst and polyuria and consulted her family physician. Blood Analysis: creatinine 0.7 mg/dL, glucose 95mg/dL, Na+ 141mEq/L, K+ 3.9 mEq/L, TSH 3.8 mcUI/L (0.38-5.33), FT4 0.9 ng/dL (0.6-1.1), cortisol 215.4 nmol/L (185-624), ACTH 21.9 pg/mL (6- 48), FSH 4.76 UI/L, LH5.62 UI/L, estradiol 323 pmol/L, IGF1 74.8 ng/mL (88-209), PRL 24.7mcg/L (3.3-26.7) osmolality 298.2 mOs/Kg (250- 325); Urine analysis: volume 10200 mL/24h, osmolality 75 mOs/Kg (300-900), density 1.002. On water restriction test: 0' - Serum osmolality 308.8mOsm/Kg vs. urine osmolality 61.0 mOsm/Kg; 60' - urine osmolality 102 mOsm/Kg; urine osmolality 1 h after desmopressine was 511mOsm/kg. MRI revealed no abnormal signs consistent with hypophysitis except for the loss of the posterior pituitary bright spot on T1 weighted imaging. Diagnosis of CDI was assumed, and started therapy with desmopressine. A report of potential adverse effect was addressed to national health authorities. Conclusion: In hypophysitis MRI often shows loss of posterior pituitary bright spot on T1 weighted imaging, pituitary enlargement or stalk thickening but those findings were not present in this patient. To the best of our knowledge, CDI has never been reported following administration of a COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypophysitis , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic/complications , Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic/etiology , Female , Humans , Hypophysitis/complications , Immunization/adverse effects , RNA, Messenger
17.
Sci Immunol ; 7(71): eabn5311, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522723

ABSTRACT

Immunization or microbial infection can establish long-term B cell memory not only systemically but also locally. Evidence has suggested that local B cell memory contributes to early local plasmacytic responses after secondary challenge. However, it is unclear whether locality of immunization plays any role in memory B cell participation in recall germinal centers (GCs), which is essential for updating their B cell antigen receptors (BCRs). Using single B cell culture and fate mapping, we have characterized BCR repertoires in recall GCs after boost immunizations at sites local or distal to the priming. Local boosts with homologous antigen recruit the progeny of primary GC B cells to recall GCs more efficiently than do distal boosts. Recall GCs elicited by local boosts contain significantly more B cells with elevated levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) mutation and higher avidity BCRs. This local preference is unaffected by blocking CD40:CD154 interaction to terminate active, GC responses. Local boosts with heterologous antigens elicit secondary GCs with B cell populations enriched for cross-reactivity to the prime and boost antigens; in contrast, cross-reactive GC B cells are rare after distal boosts. Our results suggest that local B cell memory is retained in the form of memory B cells, GC B cells, and GC phenotype B cells that are independent of organized GC structures and that these persistent "primed B cells" contribute to recall GC responses at local sites. Our findings indicate the importance of locality in humoral immunity and inform serial vaccination strategies for evolving viruses.


Subject(s)
Germinal Center , Immunization , Antigens , B-Lymphocytes , Immunity, Humoral , Vaccination/methods
18.
San Salvador; MINSAL; abr. 04, 2022. 97 p. ilus, tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1368027

ABSTRACT

El presente documento esta elaborado con el fin de facilitar herramientas para el cumplimiento y estandarización de los lineamientos en relación a la vacunación segura en tres aspectos fundamentales: seguridad de la persona que recibe la vacuna, del personal de salud, comunidad y medio ambiente


This document is prepared in order to provide tools for the compliance and standardization of the guidelines in relation to safe vaccination in three fundamental aspects: safety of the person receiving the vaccine, of the health personnel, community and environment


Subject(s)
Immunization , Vaccination , Health Personnel , Safety , Vaccines
20.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(6): 167, 2022 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460453

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread all over the world and became a pandemic that named coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). At present, several intramuscular vaccines have been successfully developed and mass vaccination has progressed in many countries. The aim of the study is to develop and examine an oral vaccine against COVID-19 with recombinant Lactococcus lactis IL1403, a strain of lactic acid bacteria, expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) S1 subunit as an immunizing antigen. PBS or cell extracts from recombinant L. lactis were orally administered into mice (control VS treatment), and formation of antigen-specific antibodies and changes in the gut microbiome were analyzed. Intracellular antigen was detected, but its secretion was not successful. After immunization, antigen-specific serum IgG and fecal IgA levels were 1.5-fold (P = 0.002) and 1.4-fold (P = 0.016) higher in the immunized mice (treatment) than control, respectively. Gut microbiome profiles were clearly separated between the two groups when analyzed for beta diversity with overall similarity. At the genus level, while Coprococcus (P = 0.036) and unclassified genus of Ruminococcaceae (P = 0.037) in treatment were more abundant than control, rc4-4 (P = 0.013) and Stenotrophomonas (P = 0.021) were less abundant. Our results indicate that cell extract containing SARS-CoV-2 antigen can induce mice to produce antigen-specific antibodies without overall changes in the gut microbiome. This strategy may be useful for the development of other oral viral vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cell Extracts , Humans , Immunization , Lactococcus lactis/genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
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