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1.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 78(7): 179-183, Ene-Jun, 2024. mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-232185

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las miopatías relacionadas con el receptor de rianodina de tipo 1 (RYR1-RM) constituyen la categoría más frecuente de miopatías congénitas. La introducción de técnicas genéticas ha cambiado el paradigma diagnóstico y sugiere la prioridad de estudios moleculares sobre biopsias. Este estudio busca explorar las características clinicoepidemiológicas de pacientes con variantes del gen RYR1 en un hospital pediátrico de tercer nivel con el objetivo de ampliar la comprensión de la correlación genotipo-fenotipo en las RYR1-RM. Pacientes y métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal, de pacientes menores de 14 años con síntomas miopáticos y variantes potencialmente patógenas del gen RYR1 entre enero de 2013 y diciembre de 2023, considerando variables como sexo, edad, desarrollo motor, variantes genéticas, patrón de herencia y otras manifestaciones. Todas las variables fueron tabuladas frente a la variante genética. Resultados: De los nueve pacientes incluidos, la incidencia estimada fue de aproximadamente 1/10.000 nacidos vivos. La mediana en el momento del diagnóstico fue de 6 años, con una variabilidad fenotípica significativa. Se observaron síntomas comunes, como debilidad y retraso del desarrollo motor. Las variantes genéticas afectaron al gen RYR1 de manera diversa, y hubo cinco variantes previamente no descritas. La biopsia muscular se realizó en cinco pacientes, en dos de ellos de tipo miopatía central core; en uno, multiminicore; en uno, desproporción congénita de fibras; y en otro, de patrón inespecífico. Conclusiones: Las RYR1-MR de nuestra serie ofrecieron variabilidad fenotípica y de afectación, con una incidencia en nuestra área de en torno a 1/10.000 recién nacidos. La mayoría de los casos fueron varones, de variantes missense dominantes. Aportamos cinco variantes genéticas no descritas con anterioridad.(AU)


Introduction: Ryanodine receptor type 1-related myopathies (RYR1-RM) represent the most prevalent category of congenital myopathies. The introduction of genetic techniques has shifted the diagnostic paradigm, suggesting the prioritization of molecular studies over biopsies. This study aims to explore the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with RYR1 gene variants in a tertiary pediatric hospital, intending to enhance the understanding of the genotype-phenotype correlation in RYR1-RM. Patients and methods: An observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study was conducted on patients under 14 years old with myopathic symptoms and potentially pathogenic RYR1 gene variants from January 2013 to December 2023. Variables such as gender, age, motor development, genetic variants, inheritance pattern, and other manifestations were considered. All variables were tabulated against the genetic variant. Results: Of the nine included patients, the estimated incidence was approximately 1 in 10,000 live births. The median age at diagnosis was six years, with significant phenotypic variability. Common symptoms such as weakness and delayed motor development were observed. Genetic variants affected the RYR1 gene diversely, including five previously undescribed variants. Muscle biopsy was performed in five patients, revealing central core myopathy in two, multiminicore in one, congenital fiber-type disproportion in one, and a nonspecific pattern in another.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Muscular Diseases/classification , Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel , Incidence , Inheritance Patterns , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genetic Association Studies
2.
Ann Intern Med ; 177(4): 418-427, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elevated tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates have recently been reported for racial/ethnic minority populations in the United States. Tracking such disparities is important for assessing progress toward national health equity goals and implementing change. OBJECTIVE: To quantify trends in racial/ethnic disparities in TB incidence among U.S.-born persons. DESIGN: Time-series analysis of national TB registry data for 2011 to 2021. SETTING: United States. PARTICIPANTS: U.S.-born persons stratified by race/ethnicity. MEASUREMENTS: TB incidence rates, incidence rate differences, and incidence rate ratios compared with non-Hispanic White persons; excess TB cases (calculated from incidence rate differences); and the index of disparity. Analyses were stratified by sex and by attribution of TB disease to recent transmission and were adjusted for age, year, and state of residence. RESULTS: In analyses of TB incidence rates for each racial/ethnic population compared with non-Hispanic White persons, incidence rate ratios were as high as 14.2 (95% CI, 13.0 to 15.5) among American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) females. Relative disparities were greater for females, younger persons, and TB attributed to recent transmission. Absolute disparities were greater for males. Excess TB cases in 2011 to 2021 represented 69% (CI, 66% to 71%) and 62% (CI, 60% to 64%) of total cases for females and males, respectively. No evidence was found to indicate that incidence rate ratios decreased over time, and most relative disparity measures showed small, statistically nonsignificant increases. LIMITATION: Analyses assumed complete TB case diagnosis and self-report of race/ethnicity and were not adjusted for medical comorbidities or social determinants of health. CONCLUSION: There are persistent disparities in TB incidence by race/ethnicity. Relative disparities were greater for AI/AN persons, females, and younger persons, and absolute disparities were greater for males. Eliminating these disparities could reduce overall TB incidence by more than 60% among the U.S.-born population. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Subject(s)
Ethnicity , Tuberculosis , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Routinely Collected Health Data , Minority Groups , Population Surveillance , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
3.
Support Care Cancer ; 32(4): 260, 2024 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561474

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To explore the effects of compression therapy on chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders in breast cancer patients administered taxanes. METHODS: Eighty patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy at Tangshan People's Hospital between October 2022 and July 2023 were randomly divided into control (n = 40) and intervention (n = 40) groups. The control group received routine care, while intervention group received compression therapy in addition to routine care (30 min before the infusion of chemotherapy drugs, patients wore surgical gloves on their hands that were one size smaller than the appropriate size and elastic socks on their feet until 30 min after the infusion). The incidence of CIPN, anxiety, depression, and sleep scores, were compared between these groups before and after compression therapy during chemotherapy cycles 2, 4, and 6. RESULTS: The general characteristics did not differ significantly between the groups (P > 0.05). The CIPN incidence, anxiety and depression scores, and sleep scores also did not differ significantly between the two groups before and after the intervention period (P > 0.05). After the fourth and sixth cycles of intervention, the incidence of CIPN (≥ 1 and ≥ 2), anxiety and depression scores, and sleep scores were significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Compression therapy can effectively reduce the incidence of CIPN, as well as improve the level of anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders in chemotherapy patients. Therefore, medical personnel should closely observe the physical and psychological changes in patients undergoing chemotherapy and provide corresponding preventive measures. REGISTRATION NUMBER: RMYY-LLKS-2022-054. DATE OF REGISTRATION: September 25, 2022.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Breast Neoplasms , Bridged-Ring Compounds , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Incidence , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/chemically induced , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Taxoids , Anxiety/epidemiology , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects
4.
J Psychiatr Res ; 173: 340-346, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms are highly prevalent and increase risks of various morbidities. However, the extent to which depressive symptoms could account for incidence of these chronic conditions, in particular multimorbidity patterns, remains to be examined and quantified. METHODS: For this cohort analysis, we included 9024-14,093 participants aged 45 years and older from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the longitudinal associations between depressive symptoms and 13 common chronic diseases and 4 multimorbidity patterns. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) combining the information on both exposure prevalence and risk association were estimated to quantify the magnitude of the burden of these conditions attributable to depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms were associated with increased risks of liver disease, stroke, heart problem, asthma, diabetes, arthritis, kidney disease, chronic lung disease, digestive disease, dyslipidemia, and memory-related disease, and the adjusted HRs (95% CIs) and PAFs (95% CIs) ranged from 1.15 (1.05-1.26) to 1.64 (1.38-1.96) and 5% (0-10%) to 17% (6-28%), respectively. In addition, individuals with depressive symptoms had elevated risks of the cardiometabolic-cancer pattern, the cerebrovascular-memory pattern, the articular-visceral organ pattern, and the respiratory pattern, with respective HRs (95% CIs) of 1.26 (1.11-1.42), 1.34 (1.07-1.69), 1.45 (1.29-1.63), and 2.01 (1.36-2.96), and respective PAFs (95% CIs) of 5% (0-10%), 8% (-4-21%), 12% (7-17%), and 20% (5-35%). CONCLUSION: Depressive symptoms contribute substantially to the burden across a broad range of chronic diseases as well as different multimorbidity patterns in middle-aged and older Chinese.


Subject(s)
Depression , Multimorbidity , Aged , Adult , Middle Aged , Humans , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/complications , Longitudinal Studies , Incidence , Chronic Disease , China/epidemiology
5.
Ann Med ; 56(1): 2337724, 2024 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614120

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this network meta-analysis were: (a) to estimate and compare the pooled effects of some injury prevention programs (IPPs) whose exercise-based components were categorized using a movement pattern-specific taxonomy on reducing overall and some specific body regions (lower extremity, thigh, knee, and ankle) injury incidences in youth team sport athletes and (b) to explore the individual effects of these components on the injury incidence rates (IIRs) previously mentioned. Searches were performed in PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Library. Eligible criteria were: exercise-based interventions comprised of exercises involving athletic motor skill competencies and evaluated against a control group, overall IIRs were reported, and youth (≤19 years old) team sport players. For the current analysis, a taxonomy based on movement patterns was employed for exercise component identification (upper body pushing and pulling; lower body concentric and eccentric; core; mechanics; acceleration; and lower body stability). Pooled effects were calculated by frequentist random effects pairwise and network meta-analyses. Nineteen studies were included. Most of the IPPs exhibit risk reduction when compared to their control groups on overall, lower extremity, and ankle injuries. Interventions comprised of lower body concentric and eccentric, core, mechanics, and lower body stability exercises were the most effective measures for reducing these injuries. None of the IPPs demonstrated to be effective for reducing thigh injuries, and contradictory results were found for knee injuries. Individual analysis at component level revealed that the lower body (bilateral and unilateral, concentric, and eccentric) component was the only one associated with a significant reduction on overall injuries. Indirect evidence suggests that interventions incorporating lower body concentric and eccentric, core, mechanics, and lower body stability exercises might be the most effective for reducing overall, lower extremity, and ankle injuries in youth team sports.


The categorization of exercise components based on the movement patterns might, a priori, be considered a criterion more closely associated with the injury phenomenon.Lower body concentric and eccentric, core, mechanics, and lower body stability exercises should be incorporated to any training program aimed at minimizing the risk of injury in youth.The ineffectiveness of interventions on the reduction of thigh injuries reveals the need for reconsideration of injury prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
Ankle Injuries , Team Sports , Adolescent , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Network Meta-Analysis , Incidence , Lower Extremity
7.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 24(1): 46, 2024 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622562

ABSTRACT

AIM/INTRODUCTION: This study was designed as the second phase of a prospective cohort study to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in a university hospital in Iran. Each participant was checked and followed up for two years in terms of developing newfound DFU as ultimate outcome. We investigated the variables using univariate analysis and then by backward elimination multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: We followed up 901 eligible patients with diabetes for two years. The mean age of the participants was 53.24 ± 11.46 years, and 58.53% of them were female. The two-year cumulative incidence of diabetic foot ulcer was 8% (95% CI 0.071, 0.089) [Incidence rate: 49.9 /1000 person-years]. However, the second-year incidence which was coincident with the COVID-19 pandemic was higher than the first-year incidence (4.18% and 1.8%, respectively). Based on our analysis, the following variables were the main risk factors for DFU incidence: former history of DFU or amputation [OR = 76.5, 95% CI(33.45,174.97), P value < 0.001], ill-fitting foot-wear [OR = 10.38, 95% CI(4.47,24.12), P value < 0.001], smoking [OR = 3.87,95%CI(1.28, 11.71),P value = 0.016], lack of preventive foot care [OR = 2.91%CI(1.02,8.29),P value = 0.045], and insufficient physical activity[OR = 2.25,95% CI(0.95,5.35),P value = 0.066]. CONCLUSION: Overall, the two-year cumulative incidence of diabetic foot ulcer was 8% [Incidence rate: 49.9 /1000 person-years]; however, the second-year incidence was higher than the first-year incidence which was coincident with the COVID-19 pandemic (4.18% and 1.8%, respectively). Independent risk factors of DFU occurrence were prior history of DFU or amputation, ill-fitting footwear, smoking, lack of preventive foot care, and insufficient physical activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Foot , Foot Ulcer , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Male , Diabetic Foot/etiology , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Foot Ulcer/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology
8.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 467, 2024 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622568

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of thyroid cancer as the most common type of endocrine gland malignancy has risen more significantly than any malignancies in recent years. Estimated new cases of thyroid cancer in the United States in 2024 were 12,500 and 31,520 for men and women, respectively, and estimated deaths were 1,180 for women and 990 for men. Indices of socio-economic have been commonly used to measure the development of countries. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the correlation between indices of socioeconomic status and epidemiological indices of thyroid cancer throughout the world. In addition, this study has compared two indices of human development and a socio-demographic index. METHOD: This worldwide ecological study used data on thyroid cancer incidence, mortality, human development index (HDI), and sociodemographic index (SDI) between 1990 and 2019 from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD). We evaluated the correlation between incidence and mortality rates with socioeconomic indices by using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Furthermore, for the first time, the generalized additive model (GAM) was employed for modeling. The statistical software R, version 4.2.2, was used to conduct all statistical analyses. RESULTS: The correlation between the incidence of thyroid cancer and the HDI was significant and positive (r = 0.47, p-value < 0.001). While the correlation between thyroid cancer mortality and HDI was not statistically significant (r = 0.01, p-value = 0.076). Besides, the incidence of thyroid cancer was significantly positively correlated with SDI (r = 0.48, p-value < 0.001). The multiple GAM showed that for one unit increase in HDI, the risk of thyroid cancer was increased by 2.1 times (RR = 2.1, 95%CI = 2.04 to 2.19), and for one unit increase in SDI, the risk of thyroid cancer was shown to increase by 2.2 times. (RR = 2.2, 95%CI = 2.19 to 2.35). CONCLUSION: It has been evident that countries with higher incidence of thyroid cancer display higher socioeconomic indices. While, countries with higher socioeconomic indices, report lower mortality rates. However, based on the modeling results, it can be concluded that the SDI is slightly more useful in this regard. Therefore, examining the epidemiological indices of thyroid cancer by socio-economic indices can be useful to reflect a clear image of the distribution of this cancer in each country, and can be used for planning cancer prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
Global Burden of Disease , Thyroid Neoplasms , Male , Humans , Female , Socioeconomic Factors , Thyroid Neoplasms/epidemiology , Social Class , Incidence , Global Health , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
10.
Cir Pediatr ; 37(2): 55-60, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623797

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The Nuss bar removal procedure may bring about different complications. Some are mild while others can be life-threatening. An adequate surgery setup and the fulfilment of some security steps may reduce their incidence. This study aims to analyze our experience with the complications that occurred during bar removal and our safety protocol for the prevention and management of these complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational cohort study from a retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent Nuss bar removal from November 2013 to March 2022 at a University hospital. Variables analyzed include patients' demographics; presence of comorbidities; time elapsed from bar placement to removal, and the occurrence of operative and postoperative complications. Study written under the 'PROCESS Guideline'. RESULTS: Fourty (40) patients were included in the study; 37 were male. One bar was removed in 17 patients and two in 22 patients. Median age at surgery: 17.5 years (Percentile 25-75%: 16.75-19.25). Time elapsed from placement to removal: 26 months (Percentile 25-75%: 23.75-30.25). Complications: 10 in 9 patients (22.5%); 6 Clavien-Dindo class I (67%); 2 class II (22%); 1 class IIIb, 1 class IV. The hemorrhagic complication motivated the development of a safety protocol to reduce incidence of complications. CONCLUSION: Nuss bar removal is a safe procedure with usually scant complications. Nonetheless, these may be serious sometimes. To prevent them, a protocol for a safe procedure is important.


OBJETIVO: La retirada de la barra de Nuss puede provocar diversas complicaciones, algunas leves y otras potencialmente mortales. Su incidencia puede verse reducida con una preparación quirúrgica adecuada y siguiendo ciertos pasos de seguridad. El presente estudio tiene por objeto analizar nuestra experiencia con las complicaciones acontecidas durante la retirada de la barra, así como nuestro protocolo de seguridad para la prevención y el manejo de dichas complicaciones. MATERIAL Y METODOS: Estudio de cohortes observacional llevado a cabo a partir del análisis retrospectivo de todos los pacientes sometidos a cirugía de retirada de barra de Nuss entre noviembre de 2013 y marzo de 2022 en un hospital universitario. Se analizaron las siguientes variables: demografía de los pacientes, presencia de comorbilidades, tiempo desde la colocación de la barra hasta su retirada, y complicaciones operatorias y postoperatorias. El estudio se realizó conforme a las directrices de la PROCESS Guideline. RESULTADOS: Se incluyó a 40 pacientes, 37 de ellos varones. En 17 pacientes se retiró una barra, y en 22, dos. La edad media en el momento de la cirugía fue de 17,5 años (percentil 25-75%: 16,75 - 19,25). El tiempo transcurrido desde la colocación hasta la retirada fue de 26 meses (percentil 25-75%: 23,75 - 30,25). Se registraron 10 complicaciones en 9 pacientes (22,5%), 6 de clase I según la clasificación de Clavien-Dindo (67%), 2 de clase II (22%), 1 de clase IIIb y 1 de clase IV. La complicación hemorrágica motivó la creación de un protocolo de seguridad para disminuir la incidencia de las complicaciones. CONCLUSION: La retirada de la barra de Nuss es un procedimiento seguro, habitualmente con escasas complicaciones, aunque en ocasiones pueden ser graves. Para evitarlas, es importante contar con un protocolo que garantice la seguridad.


Subject(s)
Funnel Chest , Humans , Male , Adolescent , Female , Funnel Chest/surgery , Funnel Chest/complications , Retrospective Studies , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods , Incidence , Treatment Outcome , Observational Studies as Topic
11.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 125(5): 337-341, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38624060

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate the secondary attack rate in unvaccinated members of households of two regions in the Slovak Republic for the period November 2020 ‒ April 2021. INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 infection poses a high risk of transmission in close-contact indoor settings, such as households. The household transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 varies widely across countries. METHODS: We included 278 households for SARS-CoV-2 transmission analysis. We calculated the secondary attack rate (SAR). We assessed sex, level of disease severity and means of isolation during infection of index cases as determinants of disease transmissibilityRESULTS: The secondary attack rate in 278 households was estimated at 63.7% (95%CI: 58.2‒66.7%). The SARs were different by sex (60.2% in females, 67.5% in males). The highest SAR was observed in the households of asymptomatic cases (77.8%), followed by moderate severity (66.5%), hospital admissions (63.2%) and mild disease (58.2%). CONCLUSION: We found a high household secondary attack rate in two regions of Slovakia in the period when Alpha variant (B.1.1.7) of SARS-CoV-2 was dominant in the country. The results highlight the importance of monitoring transmission dynamics (Tab. 1, Fig. 1, Ref. 12). Text in PDF www.elis.sk Keywords: COVID-19, secondary attack rate, Slovak Republic, households.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Male , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Slovakia/epidemiology , Incidence
12.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e080612, 2024 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589255

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This modelling study aimed to estimate the burden for allergic diseases in children during a period of 30 years. DESIGN: Population-based observational study. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The data on the incidence, mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for childhood allergic diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (AD) and asthma, were retrieved from the Global Burden of Disease study 2019 online database. This data set spans various groups, including different regions, ages, genders and Socio-Demographic Indices (SDI), covering the period from 1990 to 2019. RESULTS: In 2019, there were approximately 81 million children with asthma and 5.6 million children with AD worldwide. The global incidence of asthma in children was 20 million. Age-standardised incidence rates showed a decrease of 4.17% for asthma, from 1075.14 (95% uncertainty intervals (UI), 724.63 to 1504.93) per 100 000 population in 1990 to 1030.33 (95% UI, 683.66 to 1449.53) in 2019. Similarly, the rates for AD decreased by 5.46%, from 594.05 (95% UI, 547.98 to 642.88) per 100 000 population in 1990 to 561.61 (95% UI, 519.03 to 608.29) in 2019. The incidence of both asthma and AD was highest in children under 5 years of age, gradually decreasing with age. Interestingly, an increase in SDI was associated with a rise in the incidence of both conditions. However, the mortality rate and DALYs for asthma showed a contrasting trend. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past three decades, there has been a worldwide increase in new asthma and AD cases, even though mortality rates have significantly declined. However, the prevalence of these allergic diseases among children varies considerably across regions, countries and age groups. This variation highlights the need for precise prevalence assessments. These assessments are vital in formulating effective strategies for prevention and treatment.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Dermatitis, Atopic , Child , Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Global Burden of Disease , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Prevalence , Incidence , Asthma/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Atopic/epidemiology , Global Health , Risk Factors
13.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e079497, 2024 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589266

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations between intravaginal practices (IVPs) and the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women using the dapivirine vaginal ring (DVR) or placebo vaginal ring in southwestern Uganda. METHODS: This was a retrospective secondary analysis of data collected from women at risk of HIV infection recruited into the Ring Study. The latter evaluated the safety and efficacy of the DVR between 2013 and 2016. At baseline, a behavioural questionnaire was administered to obtain information on sexual activity and IVP (exposure) defined as; insertion inside the vagina of any items aimed at cleaning the vagina for any reason before, during or after sex other than practices to manage menses. Each participant self-inserted the DVR/placebo and replaced it every 4 weeks for 2 years. Outcomes were diagnosis of STIs, that is, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), HIV and BV. The incidence rate of STI/BV was estimated, overall, by IVP and trial arm in single-event-per-participant and multiple-event-per-participant analyses. RESULTS: Of the 197 women enrolled, 66 (33.5%) were <25 years of age. Overall, 93 (47.2%) practised at least one form of IVP. During the follow-up, 172 (87.3%) women were diagnosed with an STI/BV at least once. The majority had TV (73.6%, n=145). Overall rate of STI/BV was 51.9/100 person-years, 95% CI 44.7 to 60.3 (IVP: yes, 51.0 (40.8-63.8) vs no, 52.6 (43.0-64.4)). IVPs were not statistically significantly associated with rate of individual STIs/BV. Similar results were observed when the analyses were conducted separately for each trial arm. CONCLUSIONS: IVP was not associated with risk of STIs/BV in the Ring Study. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01539226.


Subject(s)
Contraceptive Devices, Female , HIV Infections , Pyrimidines , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Trichomonas vaginalis , Vaginosis, Bacterial , Humans , Female , Male , Vaginosis, Bacterial/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/complications , Incidence , Uganda/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/complications
14.
RMD Open ; 10(2)2024 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599653

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess incidence, severity and predictors of COVID-19, including protective post-vaccination levels of antibodies to the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (anti-RBD), informing further vaccine strategies for patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) on immunosuppressive medication. METHODS: IMIDs on immunosuppressives and healthy controls (HC) receiving SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were included in this prospective observational study. COVID-19 and outcome were registered and anti-RBD antibodies measured 2-5 weeks post-immunisation. RESULTS: Between 15 February 2021 and 15 February 2023, 1729 IMIDs and 350 HC provided blood samples and self-reported COVID-19. The incidence of COVID-19 was 66% in patients and 67% in HC, with re-infection occurring in 12% of patients. Severe COVID-19 was recorded in 22 (2%) patients and no HC. No COVID-19-related deaths occurred. Vaccine-induced immunity gave higher risk of COVID-19 (HR 5.89 (95% CI 4.45 to 7.80)) than hybrid immunity. Post-immunisation anti-RBD levels <6000 binding antibody units/mL were associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 following three (HR 1.37 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.74)) and four doses (HR 1.28 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.62)), and of COVID-19 re-infection (HR 4.47 (95% CI 1.87 to 10.67)). CONCLUSION: Vaccinated patients with IMID have a low risk of severe COVID-19. Hybrid immunity lowers the risk of infection. High post-immunisation anti-RBD levels protect against COVID-19. These results suggest that knowledge on COVID-19 history, and assessment of antibody levels post-immunisation can help individualise vaccination programme series in high-risk individuals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04798625.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines , Humans , Incidence , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Immunization , Immunosuppression Therapy , Immunomodulating Agents , Adaptive Immunity
15.
Arch Osteoporos ; 19(1): 28, 2024 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602605

ABSTRACT

This study reported the incidence of validated adult distal radius fractures in Oslo, Norway, in 2019. The incidence has been reduced over the last 20 years. However, it is still high compared to other regions in Norway and some of the other Nordic countries. PURPOSE: We aimed to report the incidence of distal radius fractures in Oslo in 2019 and compare it to the incidence rates in 1998/1999. METHODS: Patients aged ≥ 20 years resident in Oslo sustaining a distal radius fracture in 2019 were identified by electronic diagnosis registers, patient protocols, and/or radiology registers. The diagnosis was verified using medical records and/or radiology descriptions. We used the same method as the previous study from Oslo, making the comparison over time more accurate. The age-adjusted incidence rates and the age-standardized incidence rate ratio (IRR) were calculated. RESULTS: The absolute number of fractures decreased from 1490 in 1998/1999 to 1395 in 2019. The IRR for women and men in the age group ≥ 20 years in 2019 compared to 1998/1999 was 0.77 (95% CI 0.71-0.84) and 0.77 (95% CI 0.66-0.90), respectively. The IRR for women and men in the age group ≥ 50 years in 2019 compared to 1998/1999 was 0.78 (95% CI 0.71-0.86) and 0.78 (95% CI 0.63-0.97), respectively. For the population in Oslo with Asian background compared to Norwegian background in the age group ≥ 50 years, the IRR in 2019 was 0.57 (95% CI 0.40-0.80) for women and 0.77 (95% CI 0.44-1.37) for men. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of distal radius fractures in Oslo has decreased over the last 20 years. It is still, however, higher than in other areas of Norway and in some of the other Nordic countries.


Subject(s)
Fractures, Bone , Wrist Fractures , Adult , Male , Humans , Female , Incidence , Norway/epidemiology
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8747, 2024 04 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627483

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and likelihood of antibiotic-associated encephalopathy (AAE), comparing rates among the classes of antibiotics in monotherapy or in combination therapy. We also investigated the associations between the incidence of AAE and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and electroencephalogram features. Consecutive admissions that used any kind of antibiotics to treat infectious diseases were identified from six hospitals. We classified antibiotics according to three distinct pathophysiologic mechanisms and clinical subtypes. We searched for the incidence of AAE as the primary outcome. A total of 97,433 admission cases among 56,038 patients was identified. Cases that received type 1 antibiotics had significantly more frequent AAE compared to those that received type 2 antibiotics (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-5.95; P = 0.021). Combined use of type 1 + 2 antibiotics was associated with a significantly higher incidence of AAE compared to the use of type 2 antibiotics alone (adjusted OR, 3.44; 95% CI 1.49-7.93; P = 0.004). Groups with GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 had significantly higher incidence rates of AAE compared to those with GFRs ≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 among cases that received type 1 + 2 antibiotics. Detection of spike-and-wave or sharp-and-wave patterns on electroencephalogram was significantly more common in the combination therapy group. Combination use of antibiotics was associated with a higher incidence of AAE compared to monotherapy. The incidence of AAE significantly increased as renal function decreased, and epileptiform discharges were more likely to be detected in cases receiving combined antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Brain Diseases , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Incidence , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Brain Diseases/chemically induced , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/drug therapy , Hospitals
17.
Int Wound J ; 21(4): e14873, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629589

ABSTRACT

This review aims to synthesize current knowledge on the incidence, characteristics and management of wounds and injuries among professional ice hockey athletes, with the specific focus on the emerging population of Chinese female players. An extensive literature search was conducted across several databases to gather data on injury patterns and wounds, causes, severity and prevention strategies in ice hockey. Special attention was given to studies involving female athletes and unique challenges faced by players in developing regions like China. The review also examined the impact of training modalities, protective equipment and medical interventions on injury rates. The findings reveal a significant seasonal fluctuation in wound incidence, with marked reduction following the preseason period. This trend underscores the effectiveness of adjusted training programmes and essential role of medical teams in injury prevention and rehabilitation. Analysis did not show significant difference in wound rates between technical and physical training sessions, suggesting that injuries are pervasive risk across all training activities. Skating, collisions and inadequate warm-ups were identified as the leading causes of wounds, highlighting areas for targeted preventive measures. The distribution of wounds across various body regions pointed to knee, lower back and wrist as the most vulnerable sites, necessitating focused protection and training adjustments. Ice hockey, particularly among female athletes in China, presents complex injury landscape characterized by the wide range of wounds. The study emphasizes the necessity of comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach to injury prevention that includes training modifications, enhanced protective gear and strategic medical oversight. By addressing the specific causes and patterns of injuries identified, stakeholders can better protect athletes from the inherent risks of the sport, promote safer play and extend career longevity.


Subject(s)
Athletes , Hockey , Humans , Female , Incidence , Hockey/injuries , Lower Extremity , China/epidemiology
18.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 33: e2023899, 2024.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629675

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile of cases of mpox in the city of Rio de Janeiro between June and November 2022. METHODS: This was a descriptive study of secondary data obtained from mpox notification forms. Socioeconomic, clinical and spatial data were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 928 cases, 93.7% were male, 85.0% cisgender male, 65.6% homosexual, 41.8% between 30 and 39 years old, and 41.0% were of White race/skin color. A total of 34.5% had immunosuppression due to illness, and 41.9% reported their HIV status as being positive. The most prevalent signs and symptoms were: skin lesions (96.6%), especially with multiple manifestations (67.8%) in the genital region (46.1%), in addition to fever (58.3%), adenomegaly (43.3%) and headache (38.7%). Most notifications occurred in public services (81.3%) and in hospital care (51.3%). CONCLUSION: The study revealed high incidence of mpox, especially among young, cisgender and homosexual men. Most cases were mild, with genital lesions, progressing to cure without hospitalization. Person-to-person transmission was predominant.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities , Incidence , Socioeconomic Factors
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(4): e0012080, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Snakebite envenoming represents a significant and often neglected public health challenge, particularly in rural communities across tropical and subtropical regions. An estimated 1.2-5.5 million people are envenomed by snakebites annually. More than 125,000 of these bites are fatal, and 3-4 times as many results in disability/disfigurement. Despite its prevalence, collecting accurate epidemiological data on snakebite is challenging. This systematic review and meta-analysis collates global epidemiology data on snakebite morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Medline, Embase, Cochrane and CINAHL Plus databases were searched for articles published between 2001-2022. Pooled incidence and mortality were obtained using random effects modelling, heterogeneity (I2) was tested, and sensitivity analyses performed. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale assessed study quality. RESULTS: Out of the four databases, 5,312 articles were found. After removing duplicates, 3,953 articles were screened by title and abstract and 65 articles containing information on snakebite epidemiology, encompassing 663,460 snakebites, were selected for analysis. The people most at risk for snakebite were men (59%), engaged in agricultural labour (27.5%), and residing in rural areas (66.7%). More than half (57%) of the reported bites resulted in envenoming. Incidents occurred frequently in the summer season (38.5%), during daytime (56.7%), and bites were most often to the lower limb (56.4%). Envenoming severity was frequently mild (46.7%), treated in hospital (68.3%), and was treated with anti-venom (64.7%). The pooled global incidence and mortality was 69.4 /100,000 population (95%CI: 36.8 to 101.9) and 0.33/100,000 population (95%CI, 0.14 to 0.52) per year, respectively. Stratified by continents, Asia had the highest incidence of 130.7/100,000 population (95%CI: 48.3 to 213.1) while Europe has the lowest with 0.7/100,000 population (95%CI: -0.2 to 1.5). The highest mortality was reported in Asia at 0.96/100,000 population (95% CI: 0.22 to 1.70), and Africa 0.44/100,000 population (95%CI: -0.03 to 0.84). Incidence was highest among inhabitants of lower-middle-income countries 132.7/100,000 population (95%CI: 55.4 to 209.9) while mortality was highest in low-income countries at 0.85/100,000 population (95% CI: -0.06 to 2.31). CONCLUSION: Incidence and mortality rates noted here highlight the global impact of snakebite and underscore the critical need to address the burden of snakebite envenoming. It also reveals that while reported snakebite incidence was higher in lower-middle-income countries, the burden of mortality was greatest among inhabitants of low-income countries, again emphasising the need for greater efforts to tackle this neglected tropical disease.


Subject(s)
Snake Bites , Male , Humans , Female , Snake Bites/therapy , Antivenins , Incidence , Asia , Prevalence
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e246453, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619841

ABSTRACT

Importance: It is unclear whether nonfunctional adrenal tumors (NFATs) are associated with fractures. Objective: To analyze fracture frequencies in individuals with NFATs. Design, Setting, and Participants: A national retrospective cohort study was conducted in patients with NFATs diagnosed in Sweden between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2019, and control participants without adrenal tumors followed up until death or the end of 2019. Individuals with a diagnosis of adrenal hormonal excess or previous malignant tumors were excluded. Sensitivity analyses were performed in subgroups of individuals with a combination of gallbladder, biliary tract, and pancreas diseases (for whom it was assumed that controls would also have undergone computed tomography) and 3- and 12-month survival free of malignant tumors after the NFAT diagnosis. The data were analyzed from September to November 2023. Exposures: Diagnosis of NFATs. Main Outcomes and Measures: Main study outcomes were prevalence and incidence of fractures after adjustment for sex, age, and comorbidities. Secondary outcomes were fragility fractures, fractures with fall on the same level, and fracture locations (distal arm and vertebral and hip fractures). Fracture incidence after adrenalectomy was also studied. Results: Among 20 390 patients, 12 120 (59.4%) were women, and the median (IQR) age was 66 (57-73) years; among 125 392 controls, 69 994 (55.8%) were women, and the median (IQR) age was 66 (57-73) years. Previous fractures were more common in patients diagnosed with NFATs compared with controls (4310 of 20 390 [21.1%] vs 20 323 of 125 392 [16.2%]; odds ratio [OR], 1.39; 95% CI, 1.34-1.45; adjusted OR [AOR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.23-1.33). During the follow-up period (median [IQR], 4.9 [2.2-8.2] years), incident fractures were more common in patients with NFATs (3127 of 20 390 [15.3%] vs 16 086 of 125 392 [12.8%]; hazard ratio [HR], 1.40; 95% CI, 1.34-1.45; adjusted HR [AHR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.22-1.33). An association between NFATs and vertebral fractures was found (AOR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.33-1.72; AHR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.60-2.09). In men younger than 50 years, NFATs were associated with fractures (AOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.21-1.74; AHR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.20-1.82). There was no association among individuals who had undergone adrenalectomy (AHR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.90-1.38). The association between NFATs and fractures remained significant and of similar magnitude in all sensitivity analyses. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, NFATs were associated with fractures, particularly among younger men; thus, patients with NFATs should have bone health evaluation with appropriate treatment and monitoring, especially in younger men.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms , Hip Fractures , Male , Humans , Female , Aged , Prevalence , Cohort Studies , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/epidemiology
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