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1.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 17(1): 33, 2022 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526038

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patterns of movement, heterogeneity of context, and individual space-time patterns affect health, and individuals' movement throughout the landscape is shaped by addiction, meeting basic needs, and maintaining relationships. Place and social context enable or constrain behavior and individuals use social networks and daily routines to accomplish individual goals and access resources. METHODS: This article explores drug use as part of daily routines and daily paths among people who inject drugs in Dnipro City, Ukraine. Between March and August 2018, we interviewed 30 people who inject drugs living in Dnipro City, Ukraine. Study participants completed a single interview that lasted between 1 and 2 hours. During the interview, participants described their daily routine and daily path using a printed map of Dnipro as a prompt. Participants were asked to draw important sites; give time estimates of arrival and departure; and annotate on the map the points, paths, and areas most prominent or important to them. Participants also described to what extent their daily routines were planned or spontaneous, how much their daily path varied over time, and how drug use shaped their daily routine. RESULTS: We identified 3 major types of daily routine: unpredictable, predictable, and somewhat predictable. Participants with unpredictable daily routines had unreliable sources of income, inconsistent drug suppliers and drug use site, and dynamic groups of people with whom they socialized and used drugs. Participants with predictable daily routines had reliable sources of income, a regular drug dealer or stash source, and a stable group of friends or acquaintances with whom they bought and/or used drugs. Participants with somewhat predictable daily routines had some stable aspects of their daily lives, such as a steady source of income or a small group of friends with whom they used drugs, but also experienced circumstances that undermined their ability to have a routinized daily life, such as changing drug use sites or inconsistent income sources. CONCLUSIONS: Greater attention needs to be paid to the daily routines of people who use drugs to develop and tailor interventions that address the place-based and social contexts that contribute to drug-use related risks.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Humans , Income , Social Environment , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Ukraine/epidemiology
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7582, 2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534602

ABSTRACT

This study assesses the feedbacks between water, food, and energy nexus at the national level with a dynamic-system model, taking into account the qualitative and quantitative environmental water needs. Surface and groundwater resources are considered jointly in the water resources subsystem of this dynamic system. The developed model considers the effects of reducing the per capita use water and energy on its system's components. Results indicate that due to feedbacks the changes in per capita uses of water and energy have indirect and direct effects. About 40% of the total water savings achieved by the per capita change policy was related to energy savings, in other words, it is an indirect saving. Implementation of per capita use reductions compensates for 9% of the decline of Iran's groundwater reservoirs (non-renewable resources in the short term) that occur during the five-year study period. The Manageable and Exploitable Renewable Water Stress Index (MRWI) corresponding to water and energy savings equals 214.5%, which is better than its value under the current situation (which is equal to 235.1%).


Subject(s)
Groundwater , Water Resources , Food , Income , Renewable Energy
3.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267004, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522612

ABSTRACT

Public efforts to battle COVID-19 have been portrayed as a trade-off between health and the economy in the U.S. public discourse. We investigate how the U.S. general public prioritizes the health and the income dimensions amid COVID-19 using an incentivized instrument with real monetary consequences. We also employ between-subject information treatments highlighting negative health and income consequences of the pandemic. Specifically, participants have to divide monetary contributions between two charitable organizations representing either the health or the income dimension. An overwhelming majority of participants supports both dimensions, with higher monetary contributions to the health dimension (56%) compared to income (44%), but the difference is not large. Only a small fraction of respondents contributes exclusively to the health (10%) or income (5%) dimensions. Increasing the salience of negative health outcomes of COVID-19 raises differential token allocations in favor of the health-oriented charity. This finding is important since the course of COVID-19 will be shaped by the policies governments implement and how the general public reacts to these policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Income , Pandemics , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Pediatrics ; 149(Suppl 5)2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503329

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Previous reviews of mental health interventions have focused on adolescents (10-19 years), with a paucity of comprehensive evidence syntheses on preventive interventions for school-aged children (5-10 years). OBJECTIVE: To summarize and synthesize the available evidence from systematic reviews of mental health and positive development interventions for children aged 5-14.9 years in both high-income (HIC) and low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), with a focus on preventive and promotive strategies. DATA SOURCES: This overview includes all relevant reviews from OVID Medline, The Cochrane Library, and Campbell Systematic Reviews through December 2020. STUDY SELECTION: We included systematic reviews that synthesized empirical studies using experimental or quasi-experimental designs to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in children aged 5-14.9 years. DATA EXTRACTION: Data extraction and quality assessment were completed independently and in duplicate by two review authors. The AMSTAR2 tool was used to assess methodological quality. RESULTS: We included 162 reviews. The greatest evidence was found in support of school-based universal and anti-bullying interventions in predominantly HIC. Moderate evidence was found for the use of substance abuse prevention, and early learning and positive development interventions in mixed settings. In LMIC-only contexts, the most promising evidence was found for positive youth development programs. LIMITATIONS: The review was primarily limited by paucity of high-quality research due to methodological issues and high heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: This overview of reviews highlights the need for further research to consolidate findings and understand the specific criteria involved in creating positive mental health and development outcomes from the various interventions considered.


Subject(s)
Income , Mental Health , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Poverty , Schools , Systematic Reviews as Topic
6.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0266836, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511911

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Improvements in health-related outcomes for critically ill adults in low and lower-middle income countries need systematic investments in research capacity and infrastructure. High-quality research has been shown to strengthen health systems; yet, research contributions from these regions remain negligible or absent. We undertook a scoping review to describe barriers and facilitators for the conduct of critical care research. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE up to December 2021 using a strategy that combined keyword and controlled vocabulary terms. We included original studies that reported on barriers or facilitators to the conduct of critical care research in these settings. Two reviewers independently reviewed titles and abstracts, and where necessary, the full-text to select eligible studies. For each study, reviewers independently extracted data using a standardized data extraction form. Barriers and facilitators were classified along the lines of a previous review and based on additional themes that emerged. Study quality was assessed using appropriate tools. RESULTS: We identified 2693 citations, evaluated 49 studies and identified 6 for inclusion. Of the included studies, four were qualitative, one was a cross-sectional survey and one was reported as an 'analysis'. The total number of participants ranged from 20-100 and included physicians, nurses, allied healthcare workers and researchers. Barriers identified included limited funding, poor institutional & national investment, inadequate access to mentors, absence of training in research methods, limited research support staff, and absence of statistical support. Our review identified potential solutions such as developing a mentorship network, streamlining of regulatory processes, implementing a centralized institutional research agenda, developing a core-outcome dataset and enhancing access to low-cost technology. CONCLUSION: Our scoping review highlights important barriers to the conduct of critical care research in low and lower-middle income countries, identifies potential solutions, and informs researchers, policymakers and governments on the steps necessary for strengthening research systems.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Health Personnel , Adult , Critical Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Income
7.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 41(1): 16, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the project was to improve newborn health in neonatal care units in a low resource area with high neonatal mortality, predominantly by better nutrition and educational exchange of health care workers. METHOD: A fourfold program to make human milk production and distribution feasible and desirable. 1 Education to enlighten health care workers and parents to the excellence of human milk. 2 Lactation counselling to address the various challenges of breastfeeding. 3 Improving infants´ general condition. 4 Infrastructure alterations in the hospital. A collaboration between hospitals in India and Norway. RESULTS: The number of infants receiving human milk increased pronouncedly. Systematic, professional lactation counselling, the establishment of a milk bank, and empowerment of nurses was perceived as the most important factors. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to greatly improve nutrition and the quality of newborn care in low/middle income settings by optimising human resources. Viable improvements can be obtained by long-term health partnership, by involving all hierarchal levels and applying locally developed customized methods.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Infant Health , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Income , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Poverty
8.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 870, 2022 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted economically-disadvantaged populations in the United States (US). Precarious employment conditions may contribute to these disparities by impeding workers in such conditions from adopting COVID-19 mitigation measures to reduce infection risk. This study investigated the relationship between employment and economic conditions and the adoption of COVID-19 protective behaviors among US workers during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Employing a social media advertisement campaign, an online, self-administered survey was used to collect data from 2,845 working adults in April 2020. Hierarchical generalized linear models were performed to assess the differences in engagement with recommended protective behaviors based on employment and economic conditions, while controlling for knowledge and perceived threat of COVID-19, as would be predicted by the Health Belief Model (HBM). RESULTS: Essential workers had more precarious employment and economic conditions than non-essential workers: 67% had variable income; 30% did not have paid sick leave; 42% had lost income due to COVID-19, and 15% were food insecure. The adoption of protective behaviors was high in the sample: 77% of participants avoided leaving home, and 93% increased hand hygiene. Consistent with the HBM, COVID-19 knowledge scores and perceived threat were positively associated with engaging in all protective behaviors. However, after controlling for these, essential workers were 60% and 70% less likely than non-essential workers, who by the nature of their jobs cannot stay at home, to stay at home and increase hand hygiene, respectively. Similarly, participants who could not afford to quarantine were 50% less likely to avoid leaving home (AOR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.4, 0.6) than those who could, whereas there were no significant differences concerning hand hygiene. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with the accumulating evidence that the employment conditions of essential workers and other low-income earners are precarious, that they have experienced disproportionately higher rates of income loss during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic and face significant barriers to adopting protective measures. Our findings underscore the importance and need of policy responses focusing on expanding social protection and benefits to prevent the further deepening of existing health disparities in the US.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Employment , Humans , Income , Pandemics/prevention & control , Poverty , United States/epidemiology
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(5): 2045-2055, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544830

ABSTRACT

Food insecurity is a source of daily stress, especially in women. The aim was to investigate the association between mental distress and food insecurity in pregnant women. Cross-sectional study with pregnant women from the public health service, regardless risk stratification, or gestational trimester in Colombo-PR, Brazil. Poisson regression models were progressively adjusted for exposure variables. Results: Among the participating pregnant women (N=513) the prevalence of mental distress was 50.1%; associated with mild food insecurity (PR 1.34, 95%CI 1.12; 1.61) and moderate/severe food insecurity (PR 1.70, 95%CI 1.33; 2.19). The variable that most changed the association between the outcome and mild food insecurity was income (-4.48%) and, for moderate/severe food insecurity, education (-7.60%). For mild and moderate/severe food insecurity, the greatest reduction occurred with socioeconomic variables 4.5% (PR 1.27, 95%CI 1.05; 1.53) and 8.0% (PR 1.50, 95% CI 1.17; 1.93), respectively. The association between food insecurity and mental distress was consistent, and increased with the degree of food insecurity, with a greater reduction for socioeconomic variables.


Subject(s)
Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Income , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Socioeconomic Factors
10.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(5): 722-731, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500181

ABSTRACT

The South Korean National Health Insurance scheme has lacked sufficient coverage scope (services covered) and depth (costs covered) since it achieved national coverage in 1989. The government implemented two separate welfare plans (2004-08 and 2009-12) to improve the financial protection of National Health Insurance by mainly focusing on costs covered. The third plan (initiated in 2013) was the most comprehensive, addressing both scope and depth. We evaluated the impact of this benefit expansion policy for four categories of major disease (cancer, cardiac disease, cerebrovascular disease, and rare diseases) on catastrophic health expenditures, impoverishment, and unmet need. Using 2012-17 Korean Health Panel Survey data, we performed difference-in-differences analyses and triple-difference analyses to examine the differential impact of policy across income groups. The policy reduced catastrophic health expenditures among beneficiary households across almost all postpolicy years. However, there was no average effect on reducing household impoverishment or unmet need. The policy had mixed effects by income but did not generally favor low-income households. To provide stronger financial protection, the policy must address issues beyond expanding coverage, such as provider payment structure. In addition, special policy measures for low-income households need to be adopted.


Subject(s)
Health Expenditures , Insurance, Health , Humans , Income , Poverty , Republic of Korea
11.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(5): 643-646, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500190

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine use has exploded during the past two years, but it has done so without sufficient attention to disparities by payer, age, race and ethnicity, income, English language proficiency, and geography. The process of designing permanent, postpandemic telehealth policies must center on equity. Current conversations on equity have focused on broadband access and payment parity between telemedicine modalities (audio only and audiovisual) and in-person care. However, creating telehealth policies that ensure equity will require a more comprehensive, cautious approach that acknowledges the unknowns about how to implement telemedicine to improve health, addresses the multilevel barriers to equity, and reconsiders the purpose and value of telemedicine.


Subject(s)
Telemedicine , Communication , Health Policy , Humans , Income
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 890507, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493349

ABSTRACT

Financial inclusion, whereby all adults have effective access to financial products, including insurance, has increasingly become a global priority, particularly in low and middle income economies. This study matches the measured development level of inclusive insurance in Chinese provinces with China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) data and evaluates the impact of inclusive insurance on income distribution and inclusive growth. The findings support that inclusive insurance has a positive impact on income distribution and inclusive growth. The effect is more pronounced in eastern areas, rural areas and low-income households. The policy shocks and instrumental variables introduced prove the robustness of the results. PSM-DID test indicate that the inclusive insurance policy has a significant positive effect on income distribution. Alternative measure of inclusive insurance and GMM test with instrumental variables indicate that the results are robust. Additionally, we also find that there is a threshold effect on the impact of the inclusive insurance on income. When the universal insurance index exceeds the threshold value, the promoting effect on income is enhanced.


Subject(s)
Income , Insurance, Health , China , Family Characteristics , Poverty
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 855327, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493390

ABSTRACT

Happiness is the continuous joy that people experience when they are satisfied with their lives long term, and is the ultimate goal pursued by all citizens. In this study, we investigate the relationship between education, income, and happiness in the migrant population in China. Using 1,31,186 individuals in the 2012 China Migrants Dynamic Survey (CMDS) as research samples, the estimated results of ordinal logistic regression show that education, including secondary education and higher education, has a significant and direct impact on individual happiness, and that the impact of education on happiness can also be mediated by income as an intermediary mechanism. In addition, factors such as gender, flow distance, flow time, employment status, type of housing, number of children, degree of preference for the city, and degree of discrimination by locals have obvious effects on happiness. This work provides important insights for countries seeking to implement an active education policy in order to increase economic income and thus achieve the development goal of universal happiness among their citizens.


Subject(s)
Happiness , Income , Child , China/epidemiology , Educational Status , Employment , Humans
14.
Inquiry ; 59: 469580221100148, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499518

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study aimed to determine the level and predictors of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) among barbers regarding health hazards associated with their profession in Fiji. Methods: A quantitative study was used to assess the levels and predictors of KAP using a structured questionnaire among 117 barbers who were chosen between June and November 2020 in Suva, Fiji. All those barbershops that operated at least for 6 months, were licensed, and 18 years and above were included. A self-administrative closed-ended structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The level of KAP was assessed using the modified Bloom's cut-off points. A correlation test was used to determine predictors of KAP. Results: The majority of participants had a medium level of knowledge (62.4%), medium level of attitude (63.2%), and low level of practice (64.1%) towards health hazards associated with barbering the profession. However, 28.2% had low knowledge and attitude scores. The major source of knowledge was through the internet. The results of the correlation test showed that religion, education level, and weekly income were significantly correlated with knowledge (<.05) whereas age and weekly income was significantly correlated with the level of attitude of participants towards health hazards associated with their profession (<.05). Conclusion: Barbers had medium knowledge and attitude towards health hazards associated with the barbering profession while their practice was poor. These findings call for prompt and target group interventions such as strengthening enforcement, awareness, training on equipment decontamination and Good Hygiene Practices to be conducted.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Income , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fiji , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 99, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501698

ABSTRACT

Taking the modified Anderson health behavior model as the analysis framework and relying on 1136 empirical research data of S District in Foshan City, Guangdong Province of China, this study explores the influence of predisposing factors, enabling factors and need factors on the utilization of community-based health services among older adults in China. The results show that three variables have a significant impact on the use of family health services, which are whether the pension is the main source of living, income surplus, and major expenditure items. Seven variables have a significant impact on the use of preventive health services, which are household registration type, the basic endowment insurance coverage, the nature of the working unit before retirement, the self-rated health status, chronic diseases, self-care ability in daily life, and preventive health care needs.


Subject(s)
Community Health Services , Health Behavior , Aged , China , Empirical Research , Humans , Income
16.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 48, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The One Health (OH) concept has been promoted widely around the globe. OH framework is expected to be applied as an integrated approach to support addressing zoonotic diseases as a significant global health issue and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of zoonosis prevention and control. This review is intended to overview the social impact of the implementation of OH on zoonosis prevention and control. METHODS: A scoping review of studies in the past 10 years was performed to overview the integration feature of OH in zoonosis prevention and control and the social impacts of OH. PubMed and Web of Science were searched for studies published in English between January 2011 and June 2021. The included studies were selected based on predefined criteria. RESULTS: Thirty-two studies were included in this review, and most of them adopted qualitative and semi-qualitative methods. More than 50% of the studies focused on zoonosis prevention and control. Most studies were conducted in low- and middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. Applying OH approach in diseases control integrates policymakers, stakeholders, and academics from various backgrounds. The impact of OH on economic is estimated that it may alleviate the burden of diseases and poverty in the long term, even though more financial support might be needed at the initial stage of OH implementation. OH implementation considers social and ecological factors related to zoonosis transmission and provides comprehensive strategies to assess and address related risks in different communities according to regions and customs. CONCLUSIONS: Based on reviewed literature, although there seems to be a lack of guidelines for assessing and visualizing the outcomes of OH implementation, which may limit the large-scale adoption of it, evidence on the contributions of implementing OH concepts on zoonosis prevention and control indicates long-term benefits to society, including a better integration of politics, stakeholders and academics to improve their cooperation, a potential to address economic issues caused by zoonosis, and a comprehensive consideration on social determinants of health during zoonosis prevention and control.


Subject(s)
One Health , Animals , Global Health , Income , Poverty , Zoonoses/prevention & control
17.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2456, 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508551

ABSTRACT

Income-based energy poverty metrics ignore people's behavior patterns, particularly reducing energy consumption to limit financial stress. We investigate energy-limiting behavior in low-income households using a residential electricity consumption dataset. We first determine the outdoor temperature at which households start using cooling systems, the inflection temperature. Our relative energy poverty metric, the energy equity gap, is defined as the difference in the inflection temperatures between low and high-income groups. In our study region, we estimate the energy equity gap to be between 4.7-7.5 °F (2.6-4.2 °C). Within a sample of 4577 households, we found 86 energy-poor and 214 energy-insecure households. In contrast, the income-based energy poverty metric, energy burden (10% threshold), identified 141 households as energy-insecure. Only three households overlap between our energy equity gap and the income-based measure. Thus, the energy equity gap reveals a hidden but complementary aspect of energy poverty and insecurity.


Subject(s)
Income , Poverty , Family Characteristics , Food Supply , Humans
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7280, 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508678

ABSTRACT

Evidence suggests that there are social inequalities in multimorbidity, with a recent review indicating that area levels of deprivation are consistently associated with greater levels of multimorbidity. Definitions of multimorbidity, the most common of which is the co-occurrence of more than one long term condition, can include long term physical conditions, mental health conditions or both. The most commonly used measure of deprivation in England and Wales is the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), an index of seven different deprivation domains. It is unclear which features of IMD may be mediating associations with multimorbidity. Thus, there may be associations because of the individual characteristics of those living in deprived areas, characteristics of the areas themselves or overlap in definitions. Data from over 25,000 participants (aged 16+) of Understanding Society (Wave 10, 1/2018-3/2020) were used to understand the most salient features of multimorbidity associated with IMD and whether physical or mental conditions are differentially associated with the seven domains of IMD. 24% of participants report multimorbidity. There is an increased prevalence of multimorbidity composed of only long-term physical conditions in the most deprived decile of deprivation (22%, 95% CI[19,25]) compared to the least deprived decile (16%, 95% CI[14,18]). Mental health symptoms but not reporting of conditions vary by decile of IMD. Associations with multimorbidity are limited to the health, income, education and employment domains of IMD. We conclude that multimorbidity represents a substantial population burden, particularly in the most deprived areas in England and Wales.


Subject(s)
Income , Multimorbidity , Adult , Employment , Humans , Socioeconomic Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology
19.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 884, 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bingo is often understood as a low-harm form of gambling. This view has been challenged by a growing body of literature identifying gambling harm to bingo players in a range of countries. In this study, we aimed to identify which conditions enabled, facilitated, intensified or mitigated gambling harm for bingo players in three populations in Victoria in the context of corporate, technological and regulatory changes. METHODS: Our qualitative study investigated experiences of bingo-related gambling harm in three populations in Victoria, Australia where bingo was popular and structural disadvantage common: Indigenous people in the east, Pacific people in the state's north and older people on low or fixed incomes in the capital. Data was generated through interviews with 53 bingo players and 13 stakeholders as well as 12 participant observations of bingo sessions. RESULTS: We found that while bingo is overwhelmingly positive for many players, a minority of bingo players and their families experience notable harm. Harm was generated through traditional paper-based bingo games, new technologies such as tablet-based bingo and by the widespread tactic of placing bingo sessions in close proximity to harmful electronic gambling machines. Overall, the risk of harm to bingo players appears to be escalating due to commercial, technological and regulatory changes. CONCLUSIONS: These changes can be better managed by regulators: reforms are needed to safeguard bingo's distinct character as a lower-risk form of gambling at a time when it, and its players, are under threat. Significantly, we found that harm to bingo players is intensified by factors external to gambling such as racialised poverty and adverse life events. Strategies that recognise these factors and grapple with gambling harm to bingo players are needed.


Subject(s)
Gambling , Aged , Gambling/epidemiology , Humans , Income , Qualitative Research , Victoria/epidemiology
20.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266484, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35381028

ABSTRACT

Mapping population distribution at a fine spatial scale is essential for urban studies and planning. Numerous studies, mainly supported by geospatial and statistical methods, have focused primarily on predicting population counts. However, estimating their socio-economic characteristics beyond population counts, such as average age, income, and gender ratio, remains unattended. We enhance traditional population estimation by predicting not only the number of residents in an area, but also their demographic characteristics: average age and the proportion of seniors. By implementing and comparing different machine learning techniques (Random Forest, Support Vector Machines, and Linear Regression) in administrative areas in Singapore, we investigate the use of point of interest (POI) and real estate data for this purpose. The developed regression model predicts the average age of residents in a neighbourhood with a mean error of about 1.5 years (the range of average resident age across Singaporean districts spans approx. 14 years). The results reveal that age patterns of residents can be predicted using real estate information rather than with amenities, which is in contrast to estimating population counts. Another contribution of our work in population estimation is the use of previously unexploited POI and real estate datasets for it, such as property transactions, year of construction, and flat types (number of rooms). Advancing the domain of population estimation, this study reveals the prospects of a small set of detailed and strong predictors that might have the potential of estimating other demographic characteristics such as income.


Subject(s)
Income , Residence Characteristics , Singapore
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