Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 868.521
Filter
1.
CMAJ ; 196(12): E394-E409, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most studies of disparities in birth and postnatal outcomes by parental birthplace combine all immigrants into a single group. We sought to evaluate heterogeneity among immigrants in Canada by comparing birth and postnatal outcomes across different immigration categories. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective study using Statistics Canada data on live births and stillbirths (1993-2017) and infant deaths (1993-2018), linked to parental immigration data (1960-2017). We classified birthing parents as born in Canada, economic-class immigrants, family-class immigrants, or refugees, and evaluated differences in preterm births, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births, stillbirths, and infant deaths among singleton births by group. RESULTS: Among 7 980 650 births, 1 715 050 (21.5%) were to immigrants, including 632 760 (36.9%) in the economic class, 853 540 (49.8%) in the family class, and 228 740 (13.4%) refugees. Compared with infants of Canadian-born birthing parents, infants of each of the 3 immigrant groups had higher risk of preterm birth, SGA birth, and stillbirth, but lower risk of LGA birth and neonatal death. Compared with infants of economic-class immigrants, infants of refugees had higher risk of early preterm birth (0.9% v. 0.8%, adjusted risk ratio [RR] 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.15) and LGA birth (9.2% v. 7.5%, adjusted RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.10-1.15), but lower risk of SGA birth (10.2% v. 11.0%, adjusted RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.90-0.94), while infants of family-class immigrants had higher risk of SGA birth (12.2% v. 11.0%, adjusted RR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02). Risk of stillbirth, neonatal death, and overall infant death did not differ significantly among immigrant groups. INTERPRETATION: Heterogeneity exists in outcomes of infants born to immigrants to Canada across immigration categories. These results highlight the importance of disaggregating immigrant populations in studies of health disparities.


Subject(s)
Emigrants and Immigrants , Perinatal Death , Premature Birth , Infant , Pregnancy , Female , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Canada/epidemiology , Parents , Infant Mortality , Infant Death , Birth Weight
2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2846, 2024 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565530

ABSTRACT

Hybrid immunity, acquired through vaccination followed or preceded by a COVID-19 infection, elicits robust antibody augmentation. We hypothesize that maternal hybrid immunity will provide greater infant protection than other forms of COVID-19 immunity in the first 6 months of life. We conducted a case-control study in Israel, enrolling 661 infants up to 6 months of age, hospitalized with COVID-19 (cases) and 59,460 age-matched non-hospitalized infants (controls) between August 24, 2021, and March 15, 2022. Infants were grouped by maternal immunity status at delivery: Naïve (never vaccinated or tested positive, reference group), Hybrid-immunity (vaccinated and tested positive), Natural-immunity (tested positive before or during the study period), Full-vaccination (two-shot regimen plus 1 booster), and Partial-vaccination (less than full three shot regimen). Applying Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the hazard ratios, which was then converted to percent vaccine effectiveness, and using the Naïve group as the reference, maternal hybrid-immunity provided the highest protection (84% [95% CI 75-90]), followed by full-vaccination (66% [95% CI 56-74]), natural-immunity (56% [95% CI 39-68]), and partial-vaccination (29% [95% CI 15-41]). Maternal hybrid-immunity was associated with a reduced risk of infant hospitalization for Covid-19, as compared to natural-immunity, regardless of exposure timing or sequence. These findings emphasize the benefits of vaccinating previously infected individuals during pregnancy to reduce COVID-19 hospitalizations in early infancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Case-Control Studies , Israel/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Hospitalization , Adaptive Immunity
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7744, 2024 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565633

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the effects of resistance training combined with a probiotic supplement enriched with vitamin D and leucine on sestrin2, oxidative stress, antioxidant defense, and mitophagy markers in aged Wistar rats. Thirty-five male rats were randomly assigned to two age groups (old with 18-24 months of age and young with 8-12 weeks of age) and then divided into five groups, including (1) old control (OC: n = 5 + 2 for reserve in all groups), (2) young control (YC: n = 5), (3) old resistance training (OR: n = 5), (4) old resistance training plus supplement (ORS: n = 5), and old supplement group (OS: n = 5). Training groups performed ladder climbing resistance training 3 times per week for 8 weeks. Training intensity was inserted progressively, with values equal to 65, 75, and 85, determining rats' maximal carrying load capacity. Each animal made 5 to 8 climbs in each training session, and the time of each climb was between 12 and 15 s, although the time was not the subject of the evaluation, and the climbing pattern was different in the animals. Old resistance plus supplement and old supplement groups received 1 ml of supplement 5 times per week by oral gavage in addition to standard feeding, 1 to 2 h post training sessions. Forty-eight hours after the end of the training program, 3 ml of blood samples were taken, and all rats were then sacrificed to achieve muscle samples. After 8 weeks of training, total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase activity levels increased in both interventions. A synergistic effect of supplement with resistance training was observed for total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and PTEN-induced kinase 1. Sestrin 2 decreased in intervention groups. These results suggest that resistance training plus supplement can boost antioxidant defense and mitophagy while potentially decreasing muscle strength loss.


Subject(s)
Physical Conditioning, Animal , Probiotics , Resistance Training , Humans , Aged , Rats , Male , Animals , Infant , Child, Preschool , Rats, Wistar , Antioxidants/metabolism , Resistance Training/methods , Mitophagy , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Oxidative Stress , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism
4.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301042, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the well-established benefits of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months to promote optimal neonatal and child health, evidence indicates that in Ethiopia, a significant number of newborns initiate breastfeeding late, do not adhere to exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the recommended duration, and instead are fed with bottles. OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of delayed initiation of breast milk, exclusive breastfeeding, and its individual and community-level predictors among mothers in Ethiopia. METHODS: A secondary data analysis was done using the 2019 Ethiopian Mini Demographic Health Survey data. We examined a weighted sample of 2,012 children born within the past 24 months and 623 children aged 0-5 months at the time of the survey. The data analysis was done using STATA version 15. To understand the variation in delayed initiation and exclusive breastfeeding, statistical measures such as the Intraclass correlation coefficient, median odds ratio, and proportional change in variance were calculated. We employed a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model to identify predictors for each outcome variable. Statistical significance was determined with a p-value < 0.05. RESULTS: The proportion of delayed initiation of breast milk and exclusive breastfeeding were 24.56 and 84.5%, respectively. Women aged 34-49 years old (AOR = 0.33: 95% CI; 0.15-0.72), having a television in the house (AOR = 0.74: 95%CI; 0.33-0.97), delivered by cesarean section (AOR = 3.83: 95% CI; 1.57-9.32), and resided in the Afar regional state (AOR = 1.43: 95%CI; 1.03-12.7) were significantly associated with delayed initiation of breast milk. On the other hand, attended primary education (AOR = 0.67: 95%CI; 0.35-0.99), secondary education (AOR = 0.34: 95%CI; 0.19-0.53), women whose household headed by male (AOR = 0.68; 95% CI; 0.34-0.97), and rural residents (AOR = 1.98: 95%CI; 1.09-3.43) were significantly associated with exclusive breastfeeding practice. CONCLUSION: Health promotion efforts that encourage timely initation of breast milk and promote EBF, focused on young mothers, those who gave birth through cesarean section, and those residing in urban and the Afar regional state. Furthermore, government health policymakers and relevant stakeholders should consider these identified predictors when revising existing strategies or formulating new policies.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Milk, Human , Child , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Female , Male , Pregnancy , Infant , Adult , Middle Aged , Ethiopia , Cesarean Section , Mothers , Multilevel Analysis
5.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 60(4): 215-225, 2024 Apr.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569771

ABSTRACT

Severe bronchiolitis (i.e., bronchiolitis requiring hospitalization) during infancy is a heterogeneous condition associated with a high risk of developing childhood asthma. Yet, the exact mechanisms underlying the bronchiolitis-asthma link remain uncertain. Birth cohort studies have reported this association at the population level, including only small groups of patients with a history of bronchiolitis, and have attempted to identify the underlying biological mechanisms. Although this evidence has provided valuable insights, there are still unanswered questions regarding severe bronchiolitis-asthma pathogenesis. Recently, a few bronchiolitis cohort studies have attempted to answer these questions by applying unbiased analytical approaches to biological data. These cohort studies have identified novel bronchiolitis subtypes (i.e., endotypes) at high risk for asthma development, representing essential and enlightening evidence. For example, one distinct severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis endotype is characterized by the presence of Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, higher levels of type I/II IFN expression, and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in nasal airway samples, and is associated with a high risk for childhood asthma development. Although these findings hold significance for the design of future studies that focus on childhood asthma prevention, they require validation. However, this scoping review puts the above findings into clinical context and emphasizes the significance of future research in this area aiming to offer new bronchiolitis treatments and contribute to asthma prevention.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Bronchiolitis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Infant , Humans , Child , Asthma/etiology , Asthma/complications , Bronchiolitis/etiology , Bronchiolitis/complications , Cohort Studies , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/complications , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology
6.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 37(1): 2333929, 2024 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570191

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of oral dydrogesterone in preventing miscarriage in threatened miscarriage. METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial study was conducted among pregnant Thai women at the gestational age of six to less than 20 weeks who visited King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand with threatened miscarriage from August 2021 to August 2022. These pregnant women were randomized to receive oral dydrogesterone 20 mg per day or placebo twice a day until one week after vaginal bleeding stopped or otherwise for a maximum of six weeks. RESULTS: A total of 100 pregnancies were recruited. Fifty of them were assigned to receive oral dydrogesterone and 50 were assigned to receive placebo. The rate of continuing pregnancy beyond 20 weeks of gestational age was 90.0% (45 out of 50 women) in the dydrogesterone group and 86.0% (43 out of 50 women) in the placebo group (p = 0.538). The incidence of adverse events did not differ significantly between the groups. CONCLUSION: Oral dydrogesterone 20 mg/day could not prevent miscarriages in women with threatened miscarriage.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , Abortion, Threatened , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Infant , Dydrogesterone/adverse effects , Abortion, Spontaneous/prevention & control , Abortion, Threatened/drug therapy , Abortion, Threatened/prevention & control , Thailand , Progestins , Double-Blind Method , Progesterone/therapeutic use
7.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 16(1): e1-e8, 2024 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:  Unavailability of healthcare resources can lead to poor patient outcomes. The latter is true for infants with hearing loss and require early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI). AIM:  To determine the availability and distribution of resources for EHDI in state hospitals in the Eastern Cape (EC) province, South Africa. SETTING:  Sixteen state hospitals (nine district, four regional and three tertiary hospitals). METHODS:  Descriptive cross-sectional survey completed between July 2022 and October 2022. RESULTS:  Thirteen hospitals had audiologists (n = 4) or speech therapists and audiologists (n = 9). Specific to equipment, 10 hospitals had a screening otoacoustic emissions or automated auditory brainstem response, 8 hospitals had diagnostic middle ear analysers and only 3 hospitals had diagnostic auditory brainstem response and/or auditory steady state response. Twelve hospitals did not have visual response audiometry (VRA) and 94% had no hearing aid verification systems. Budget allocations were uneven, with only 10 hospitals, i.e., 4 districts, all regional and 2 tertiary hospitals being allocated varying amounts. Subsequently, only 50% provided newborn hearing screening, 56% provided diagnostic evaluations and 14 hospitals fitted hearing aids. CONCLUSION:  Results revealed a limited and uneven distribution of resources, which negatively impacted the provision of EHDI. Even distribution of healthcare resources and further research aimed at strengthening hearing health services is recommended as these could potentially improve equitable access to EHDI and the overall quality of healthcare provided.Contribution: This study highlights the need for even distribution of resources and strengthening of health systems, especially in the dawn of the National Health Insurance.


Subject(s)
Hearing Loss , Hearing , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Child , Humans , South Africa , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hearing Tests , Hearing Loss/diagnosis , Hearing Loss/therapy , Neonatal Screening
8.
S Afr J Commun Disord ; 71(1): e1-e4, 2024 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572898

ABSTRACT

Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) programmes are recognised as the standard of care for newborns and infants presenting with hearing impairment, globally. However, widespread implementation of these programmes is far from being realised and faces numerous challenges within the South African context. The United Nations' sustainable development goal 3.8 and South Africa's national development plan seek to achieve equitable access to healthcare service, including EHDI. However, healthcare access is a complex concept which encompasses the dimensions: availability, affordability, acceptability and accommodation in healthcare. South Africa has made great progress towards universal implementation of EHDI programmes. Despite this progress, availability and affordability of these programmes are limited and their acceptability has received limited research focus in this context. Furthermore, accommodation of caregivers, as co-drivers of EHDI programmes and ensuring that EHDI programmes are linguistically and culturally congruent have also been overlooked within the South African context.Contribution: Increased robust efforts in improving access through availability and affordability of EHDI programmes are warranted in South Africa. However, improving access to these programmes through availability and affordability initiatives alone will not result in a pragmatic improvement in their accessibility. Acceptability of these programmes and accommodations such as involving caregivers and family members of children with hearing impairment as equal partners in EHDI programmes and being cognisant of their linguistic and cultural needs must be considered.


Subject(s)
Hearing Loss , Hearing , Infant , Child , Infant, Newborn , Humans , South Africa , Hearing Tests , Hearing Loss/diagnosis , Linguistics
9.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 52(3): 189-198, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573091

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Significant involvement of the cardiovascular system is known in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). This study aimed to examine the recovery of affected cardiovascular parameters over a medium-term follow-up. METHODS: A cohort of 69 children was studied prospectively. Assessments of left ventricular (LV) function and coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) were conducted at admission, 1.5 months, and 3 months. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) antibody titers were assessed at these three time points. Echocardiographic and antibody parameters (rising/decreasing) were analyzed for correlation. Outcomes were assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS: At admission, among the 78.2% of patients who were tested, 88.9% tested positive for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A quarter of the patients had pericardial effusion, and half had valvulitis. Decreased ejection fraction, global circumferential strain (GCS), and global longitudinal strain (GLS) were seen in 54.4%, 68.6%, and 35.8% of patients, respectively. CAAs were observed in 27.78% of patients. Systolic dysfunction was significantly associated with older age. During follow-up, severe LV dysfunction normalized within 6-7 weeks, while mild to moderate dysfunction reached normalcy by two weeks. Both GCS and GLS reached normalcy within a median of two weeks. Diastolic parameters recovered by six weeks. Most small and moderate coronary aneurysms resolved, but a giant aneurysm in an infant remained large even after 15 months. Trends in antibodies and ejection fraction (EF) at three months were significantly correlated. Admission EF, GLS (at 6 weeks) and deceleration time (at 3 months) were significantly associated with intensive care unit (ICU) admission. The median segmental strain of the cohort remained low in certain segments at three months. CONCLUSION: Smaller CAAs resolve, whereas giant CAAs persist. EF and GLS are important predictors of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) stay. The residual impairment of median segmental strain and persistent diastolic dysfunction at three months indicate the need for long-term follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Infant , Humans , Child , Follow-Up Studies , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 132(4): 47004, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that prenatal air pollution exposure alters DNA methylation (DNAm), which could go on to affect long-term health. It remains unclear whether DNAm alterations present at birth persist through early life. Identifying persistent DNAm changes would provide greater insight into the molecular mechanisms contributing to the association of prenatal air pollution exposure with atopic diseases. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated DNAm differences associated with prenatal nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure (a surrogate measure of traffic-related air pollution) at birth and 1 y of age and examined their role in atopic disease. We focused on regions showing persistent DNAm differences from birth to 1 y of age and regions uniquely associated with postnatal NO2 exposure. METHODS: Microarrays measured DNAm at birth and at 1 y of age for an atopy-enriched subset of Canadian Health Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study participants. Individual and regional DNAm differences associated with prenatal NO2 (n=128) were identified, and their persistence at age 1 y were investigated using linear mixed effects models (n=124). Postnatal-specific DNAm differences (n=125) were isolated, and their association with NO2 in the first year of life was examined. Causal mediation investigated whether DNAm differences mediated associations between NO2 and age 1 y atopy or wheeze. Analyses were repeated using biological sex-stratified data. RESULTS: At birth (n=128), 18 regions of DNAm were associated with NO2, with several annotated to HOX genes. Some of these regions were specifically identified in males (n=73), but not females (n=55). The effect of prenatal NO2 across CpGs within altered regions persisted at 1 y of age. No significant mediation effects were identified. Sex-stratified analyses identified postnatal-specific DNAm alterations. DISCUSSION: Regional cord blood DNAm differences associated with prenatal NO2 persisted through at least the first year of life in CHILD participants. Some differences may represent sex-specific alterations, but replication in larger cohorts is needed. The early postnatal period remained a sensitive window to DNAm perturbations. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP13034.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , DNA Methylation , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Prospective Studies , Canada/epidemiology , Fetal Blood
11.
13.
J Clin Immunol ; 44(4): 93, 2024 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578360

ABSTRACT

Newborn screening (NBS) for severe inborn errors of immunity (IEI), affecting T lymphocytes, and implementing measurements of T cell receptor excision circles (TREC) has been shown to be effective in early diagnosis and improved prognosis of patients with these genetic disorders. Few studies conducted on smaller groups of newborns report results of NBS that also include measurement of kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KREC) for IEI affecting B lymphocytes. A pilot NBS study utilizing TREC/KREC detection was conducted on 202,908 infants born in 8 regions of Russia over a 14-month period. One hundred thirty-four newborns (0.66‰) were NBS positive after the first test and subsequent retest, 41% of whom were born preterm. After lymphocyte subsets were assessed via flow cytometry, samples of 18 infants (0.09‰) were sent for whole exome sequencing. Confirmed genetic defects were consistent with autosomal recessive agammaglobulinemia in 1/18, severe combined immunodeficiency - in 7/18, 22q11.2DS syndrome - in 4/18, combined immunodeficiency - in 1/18 and trisomy 21 syndrome - in 1/18. Two patients in whom no genetic defect was found met criteria of (severe) combined immunodeficiency with syndromic features. Three patients appeared to have transient lymphopenia. Our findings demonstrate the value of implementing combined TREC/KREC NBS screening and inform the development of policies and guidelines for its integration into routine newborn screening programs.


Subject(s)
Lymphopenia , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Neonatal Screening/methods , Pilot Projects , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , T-Lymphocytes , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/diagnosis , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/genetics , DNA , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e245362, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578638

ABSTRACT

Importance: Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is the most common type of vasculitis in children. The factors that trigger the disease are poorly understood. Although several viruses and seasonal bacterial infections have been associated with HSP, differentiating the specific associations of these pathogens with the onset of HSP remains a challenge due to their overlapping seasonal patterns. Objective: To analyze the role of seasonal pathogens in the epidemiology of HSP. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study comprised an interrupted time-series analysis of patient records from a comprehensive national hospital-based surveillance system. Children younger than 18 years hospitalized for HSP in France between January 1, 2015, and March 31, 2023, were included. Exposure: Implementation and relaxation of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) for the COVID-19 pandemic, such as social distancing and mask wearing. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were the monthly incidence of HSP per 100 000 children, analyzed via a quasi-Poisson regression model, and the estimated percentage of HSP incidence potentially associated with 14 selected common seasonal pathogens over the same period. Results: The study included 9790 children with HSP (median age, 5 years [IQR, 4-8 years]; 5538 boys [56.4%]) and 757 110 children with the infectious diseases included in the study (median age, 0.7 years [IQR, 0.2-2 years]; 393 697 boys [52.0%]). The incidence of HSP decreased significantly after implementation of NPIs in March 2020 (-53.6%; 95% CI, -66.6% to -40.6%; P < .001) and increased significantly after the relaxation of NPIs in April 2021 (37.2%; 95% CI, 28.0%-46.3%; P < .001). The percentage of HSP incidence potentially associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae was 37.3% (95% CI, 22.3%-52.3%; P < .001), the percentage of cases associated with Streptococcus pyogenes was 25.6% (95% CI, 16.7%-34.4%; P < .001), and the percentage of cases associated with human rhino enterovirus was 17.1% (95% CI, 3.8%-30.4%; P = .01). Three sensitivity analyses found similar results. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that significant changes in the incidence of HSP simultaneously with major shifts in circulating pathogens after NPIs for the COVID-19 pandemic indicated that approximately 60% of HSP incidence was potentially associated with pneumococcus and group A streptococcus. This finding suggests that preventive measures against these pathogens could reduce the incidence of pediatric HSP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , IgA Vasculitis , Male , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Infant , Seasons , IgA Vasculitis/epidemiology , IgA Vasculitis/complications , Cohort Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e245369, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578643

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study investigates perioperative oxygen saturation differences in Black and White infants with single ventricles undergoing stage 1 palliation.


Subject(s)
Oximetry , Oxygen , Infant , Humans
16.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0290111, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Undernutrition and anemia are significant public health issues among under-5 children, with potential long-term consequences for growth, development, and overall health. Thus, this study aims to conduct a bivariate binary logistic regression model by accounting for the possible dependency of childhood undernutrition and anemia. METHODS: The data came from the DHS program's measurement. A total of 3,206 under-five children were involved in this study. A single composite index measure was calculated for stunting, wasting, and underweight using principal component analysis. A bivariate binary logistic regression model is used to assess the association between undernutrition and anemia given the effect of other predictors. RESULTS: Among 3,206 under-five children considered in this study, 1482 (46.2%) and 658 (20.5%) children were agonized by anemia and undernutrition, respectively. In bivariate binary logistic regression model; Urban children [AOR = 0.751, 96% CI: 0.573-0.984; AOR = 0.663, 95% CI: 0.456-0.995] and anemic mothers [AOR = 1.160, 95% CI: 1.104-1.218; AOR = 1.663, 95% CI: 1.242-2.225] were significantly associated with both childhood anemia and undernutrition, respectively. Improved water sources [AOR = 0.681, 95% CI: 0.446-0.996], average-sized children [AOR = 0.567, 95% CI: 0.462-0.696], and diarrhea [AOR = 1.134, 95% CI: 1.120-2.792] were significantly associated with childhood anemia. Large-sized children [AOR = 0.882, 95% CI: 0.791-0.853] and those with fever [AOR = 1.152, 95% CI: 1.312-2.981] were significantly associated with under-five children's undernutrition. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of both undernutrition and anemia among under-five-year-old children was high in Rwanda. The following determinants are statistically associated with both childhood undernutrition and anemia: place of residence; source of drinking water; maternal anemia; being a twin; birth size of children; diarrhea; fever; and child age. Anemia and nutritional deficiencies must be treated concurrently under one program, with evidence-based policies aimed at vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Malnutrition , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Logistic Models , Rwanda/epidemiology , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Growth Disorders/epidemiology , Growth Disorders/complications , Housing , Anemia/epidemiology , Anemia/complications , Prevalence , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/complications , Ethiopia/epidemiology
17.
JBJS Case Connect ; 14(2)2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579020

ABSTRACT

CASE: A 1-year-old girl was treated with chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation because of CD40 ligand deficiency. Four years later, she presented with pain in her right leg, diagnosed as atypical acute slipped capital femoral epiphysis, without a clear cause, besides chemotherapy possibly. She was treated with fixation of the epiphysis with a cannulated screw. Two years later, the same diagnosis was made for the left hip and the same surgery was applied. After the 2-year follow-up, clinical outcomes were good. CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy may be a risk factor for atypical slipped capital femoral epiphysis, even without the combination with radiotherapy.


Subject(s)
Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphyses , Female , Humans , Infant , Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphyses/diagnostic imaging , Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphyses/surgery , Radiography , Bone Screws , Risk Factors , Pain
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(14): e37658, 2024 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579057

ABSTRACT

To investigate the status quo and influencing factors of general postpartum well-being in primiparas, analyze its correlation with postpartum depression, and provide a theoretical foundation for enhancing the postpartum well-being of primiparas. From the start of November 2021 to the end of December 2021, the General Information Questionnaire, General Well-Being Scale, and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale were used to survey primiparas in a tertiary hospital, and the correlation between general well-being and postpartum depression was analyzed. We surveyed a total of 225 primiparas. The average score for general well-being in primiparas was 77.84 ±â€…6.83, and the total score for postpartum depression was 9.11 ±â€…2.51. Confinement location, planned pregnancy, pregnancy complications, neonatal sex, medical expenses, etc, had statistically significant effects on the general well-being scores (P < .05), whereas per capita monthly income, pregnancy complications, maternal and infant care skills, and medical expenses had statistically significant effects on postpartum depression scores (P < .05). Postpartum depression scores were negatively correlated with general well-being, health anxiety, energy, sad or happy mood, relaxation, and tension. There is a negative correlation between the general well-being of primiparas and postpartum depression, suggesting that in clinical care, the focus should be on primiparas with pregnancy complications, and psychological counseling should be provided in advance to prevent postpartum depression and the resulting decrease in well-being.


Subject(s)
Depression, Postpartum , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology
19.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 154: 3369, 2024 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579321

ABSTRACT

AIMS OF THE STUDY: Unlicensed drugs are frequently used in paediatric care. To what extent they are prescribed in hospital care in Switzerland is unclear. Because prescribing errors seem to occur more frequently with unlicensed drugs, we aimed to assess the prevalence of unlicensed drug prescriptions in two study periods (2018 and 2019) at the University Children's Hospital Zurich, compare these periods and investigate whether unlicensed drugs were more prone to prescribing errors than licensed drugs. METHODS: We conducted a sub-analysis of a retrospective single-centre observational study and analysed 5,022 prescriptions for a total of 1,000 patients from 2018 and 2019 in paediatric general wards. The rate of unlicensed drugs, consisting of imported or formula drugs, was investigated. The prescriptions from 2019 were further analysed on prescribing errors to see whether errors occurred more often in unlicensed or licensed drug use. RESULTS: Of all prescriptions, 10.8% were unlicensed drugs, with around half each being imported and formula drugs. Among all patients, 34% were prescribed at least one unlicensed drug. Younger paediatric patients were prescribed more unlicensed drugs than older paediatric patients (newborns: 15.8% of prescriptions, infants: 13.4%, children: 10.6%, adolescents: 7.1%). Ibuprofen suppositories, midazolam oral solution and gentamicin i.v. solution were the most frequently prescribed imported drugs. Macrogol powder, lisinopril oral suspension and potassium chloride i.v. solution were the most frequently prescribed formula drugs. The most common drug forms in unlicensed use were oral liquid forms and i.v. SOLUTIONS: Unlicensed drugs had a significantly higher rate of prescribing errors than licensed drugs (31.6 errors per 100 prescriptions [95% CI: 26.1-37.0] versus 24.3 errors per 100 prescriptions [95% CI: 22.3-26.2], p = 0.024). In particular, formula drugs carried a higher risk (36.4 errors per 100 prescriptions, p = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Unlicensed drugs are frequently prescribed in this paediatric hospital setting in Switzerland. Around every tenth prescription is an unlicensed drug. Because unlicensed drugs showed a significantly higher rate of prescribing errors, licensed drugs are favourable in terms of medication safety and should be prescribed whenever possible. If no licensed drug is available, imported drugs should be favoured over formula drugs due to lower prescribing error rates. To increase medication safety in paediatrics in Switzerland, efforts are necessary to increase the number of suitable licensed drug formulations for paediatric patients, including developing new innovative drug formulations for children.


Subject(s)
Drug Prescriptions , Hospitals, Pediatric , Infant , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Retrospective Studies , Switzerland , Hospitals, University
20.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 245, 2024 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic use for early-onset sepsis represents a high percentage of antibiotic consumption in the neonatal setting. Measures to assess infants at risk of early-onset sepsis are needed to optimize antibiotic use. Our primary objective was to assess the impact of a departmental guideline on antibiotic use among term infants with suspected EOS not confirmed, in our neonatal unit. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study, to compare antibiotic use in term infants during a baseline period of January to December 2018, and a postintervention period from October 2019, to September 2020, respectively. The primary outcome was antibiotic use measured by days of therapy, the antibiotic spectrum index, the antibiotic use rate, and the length of therapy. RESULTS: We included 71 infants in the baseline period and 66 infants in the postintervention period. Compared to those in the baseline period, there was a significant reduction in overall antibiotic measures in the postintervention period, (P < 0.001). The total days of therapy/1000 patient-days decreased from 63/1000 patient-days during the baseline period to 25.8/1000 patient-days in the postintervention period, representing a relative reduction of 59%. The antibiotic use rate decreased by more than half of the infants, from 3.2% during the baseline period to 1.3% in the postintervention period. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a departmental guideline to assess infants at risk of early-onset sepsis based on their clinical condition and prompt discontinuation of antibiotics, is a simple and low-cost measure that contributed to an important decrease in antibiotic use.


Subject(s)
Neonatal Sepsis , Sepsis , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/drug therapy , Neonatal Sepsis/diagnosis , Neonatal Sepsis/drug therapy
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...