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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Models, Statistical
2.
Schizophr Res ; 241: 24-35, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074529

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Maternal schizophrenia is linked to complications in offspring near the time of birth. Whether there is also a higher future risk of the child having a complex chronic condition (CCC) - a pediatric condition affecting any bodily system expected to last at least 12 months that is severe enough to require specialty care and/or a period of hospitalization - is not known. METHODS: In this population-based health administrative data cohort study (Ontario, Canada, 1995-2018), the risk for CCC was compared in 5066 children of women with schizophrenia (the exposed) vs. 2,939,320 unexposed children. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) were generated for occurrence of any CCC, by CCC category, and stratified by child sex, and child prematurity. RESULTS: CCC was more frequent in the exposed (7.7 per 1000 person-years [268 children]) than unexposed (4.2 per 100 person-years [124,452 children]) - an aHR of 1.25 (95% CI 1.10-1.41). aHRs were notably higher in 5 of 9 CCC categories: neuromuscular (1.73, 1.28-2.33), cardiovascular (1.94, 1.64-2.29), respiratory (1.83, 1.32-2.54), hematology/immunodeficiency (2.24, 1.24-4.05) and other congenital or genetic defect (1.59, 1.16-2.17). The aHR for CCC was more pronounced among boys (1.32, 1.13-1.55) than girls (1.16, 0.96-1.40), and of similar magnitude in term (1.22, 1.05-1.42) and preterm infants (1.18, 0.95-1.46). CONCLUSIONS: The risk for a CCC appears to be higher in children born to women with schizophrenia. This finding introduces opportunities for targeted preconception counselling, optimization of maternal risk factors, and intervention to support a vulnerable parent population who will experience unique challenges caring for a child with CCCs.


Subject(s)
Schizophrenia , Child , Chronic Disease , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Male , Ontario , Schizophrenia/epidemiology
3.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 20(1): 57, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35337338

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To evaluate whether the incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) in pregnant women was related to endometriosis (EM), ovulation and embryo vitrification technology. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on the clinical data of 3674 women who were treated with IVF / ICSI in the Reproductive Medicine Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University and maintained clinical pregnancy for more than 20 weeks. All pregnancies were followed up until the end of pregnancy. The follow-up consisted of recording the course of pregnancy, pregnancy complications, and basic situation of newborns. RESULTS: Compared with NC-FET without EM, HRT-FET without EM was found to have a higher incidence of HDP during pregnancy (2.7% V.S. 6.1%, P<0.001); however, no significant difference was found in the incidence of HDP between NC-FET and HRT-FET combined with EM (4.0% V.S. 5.7%, P>0.05). In total frozen-thawed embryo transfer (total-FET), the incidence of HDP in the HRT cycle without ovulation (HRT-FET) was observed to be higher than that in the NC cycle with ovulation (NC-FET) (2.8% V.S. 6.1%, P<0.001). In patients with EM, no significant difference was found in the incidence of HDP between fresh ET and NC-FET (1.2% V.S. 4.0%, P>0.05). CONCLUSION: EM does not seem to have an effect on the occurrence of HDP in assisted reproductive technology. During the FET cycle, the formation of the corpus luteum may play a protective role in the occurrence and development of HDP. Potential damage to the embryo caused by cryopreservation seems to have no effect on the occurrence of HDP.


Subject(s)
Endometriosis , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Endometriosis/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Retrospective Studies , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic
4.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 67-75, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130567

ABSTRACT

Resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome (RTHS) is defined as increased thyroxine and triiodothyronine associated with normal or increased thyrotropin. This is usually due to a pathogenic variant of the gene coding for thyroid hormone receptor B (THRB). THRB is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an altered response of target tissue to the thyroid hormone action. Retrospective cross-sectional observational study with diagnosis of RTHS evaluated in secondary and tertiary hospitals for 6 years, from 2014 to 2020, in order to describe variables including age, sex, anthropometric data, clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients, who were divided according to age, in a pediatric group from 0 to 14 years (index cases), and an adult group composed of adult relatives of index cases. A molecular analysis of the THRB gene was performed. The total retrospective cohort included 7 pediatric patients and 15 adults. We found 22 cases with a clear male predominance (14/22). Mean age is 24.8 years old (22 days-70 years). Patients were referred because of symptoms 18.2% (4/22), analysis results 22.7% (5/22), or familial study 59.1% (13/22). About 31.8% (7/22) cases show goiter, 31.8% (7/22) sympathetic symptoms and 13.6% (3/22) abnormalities in behavior. In most cases, 77.3%, (17/22) show familial background of thyroid abnormalities. It is important to remark that 18.2% (4/22) relatives received previous incorrect treatments such as thyroidectomy, because of wrong diagnosis. In conclusion, a better understanding of RTHS, its prompt molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling, could avoid unnecessary tests and inappropriate treatments.


Subject(s)
Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mutation , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta/genetics , Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome/diagnosis , Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome/genetics , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine , Young Adult
5.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 76-83, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130568

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) on maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes in pregnant women. A total of 296 singleton pregnant women were classified into four groups according to the thyroid auto-antibody in the first trimester. Finally, there were 97 women in TPOAb positive group (TPOAb+/TgAb-), 35 in TgAb positive group (TPOAb-/TgAb+), 85 in TPOAb and TgAb positive group (TPOAb+/TgAb+), and 79 in TPOAb and TgAb negative group (TPOAb-/TgAb-). Thyroid function, TPOAb, and TgAb were checked during pregnancy and followed up at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months postpartum. Levothyroxine sodium tablets could be taken to maintain euthyroid antepartum. Thyroid function of women with postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) were followed up at 2 and 3 years postpartum. We observed the incidence of PPT, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), placental abruption, placenta previa, polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, postpartum hemorrhage, preterm birth, and low birth Weight in the four groups. 19.93% of the women had PPT. The incidence of PPT in TPOAb+/TgAb-, TPOAb-/TgAb+, TPOAb+/TgAb+groups was significantly higher than that in TPOAb-/TgAb- group, respectively (16.49 vs. 6.33%, 22.86 vs. 6.33%, 35.29 vs. 6.33%, p <0.05). The incidence of PPT in TPOAb+/TgAb+group was significantly higher than that in TPOAb+/TgAb- group (35.29 vs. 16.49%, p <0.01). PPT occurred as early as 6 weeks postpartum, but mainly at 3 and 6 months postpartum in the four groups (62.50%, 75.00%, 70.00%, 80.00%). All PPT in TPOAb-/TgAb- group occurred within 6 months postpartum, while it was found at 9 months or 12 months postpartum in other three groups. There was no classical form of PPT in TPOAb-/TgAb- group, while in the other three groups, all three types (classical form, isolated thyrotoxicosis, isolated hypothyroidism) existed. At 2 years postpartum of the women with PPT, the rate of euthyroidism in TPOAb+/TgAb+group was significantly lower than that in TPOAb-/TgAb- group (p <0.05). At 3 years postpartum of the women with PPT, the rate of euthyroidism in TPOAb+/TgAb-, TPOAb-/TgAb+, and TPOAb+/TgAb+groups were significantly lower than that in TPOAb-/TgAb- group (p <0.05). The values of TPOAb and TgAb postpartum were significantly higher than those during pregnancy (p <0.05). The incidence of PROM in TPOAb+/TgAb- group was significantly higher than that in TPOAb-/TgAb- group (32.99 vs. 17.72%, p <0.05). The binary logistic regression for PPT showed that the OR value of TPOAb was 2.263 (95% CI 1.142-4.483, p=0.019). The OR value of TgAb was 3.112 (95% CI 1.700-5.697, p=0.000). In conclusion, pregnant women with positive thyroid auto-antibodies had an increased risk of PPT and a reduced rate of euthyroidism at 2 and 3 years postpartum. TPOAb is associated with the incidence of PROM. Both of TPOAb and TgAb were independent risk factors for PPT. TgAb deserves more attention when studying autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) combined with pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Hypothyroidism , Premature Birth , Autoantibodies , Female , Humans , Hypothyroidism/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn , Iodide Peroxidase , Placenta , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Thyroglobulin
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 241, 2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35321691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sonography based estimate of fetal weight is a considerable issue for delivery planning. The study evaluated the influence of diabetes, obesity, excess weight gain, fetal and neonatal anthropometrics on accuracy of estimated fetal weight with respect to the extent of the percent error of estimated fetal weight to birth weight for different categories. METHODS: Multicenter retrospective analysis from 11,049 term deliveries and fetal ultrasound biometry performed within 14 days to delivery. Estimated fetal weight was calculated by Hadlock IV. Percent error from birth weight was determined for categories in 250 g increments between 2500 g and 4500 g. Estimated fetal weight accuracy was categorized as accurate ≤ 10% of birth weight, under- and overestimated by > ± 10% - ± 20% and > 20%. RESULTS: Diabetes was diagnosed in 12.5%, obesity in 12.6% and weight gain exceeding IOM recommendation in 49.1% of the women. The percentage of accurate estimated fetal weight was not significantly different in the presence of maternal diabetes (70.0% vs. 71.8%, p = 0.17), obesity (69.6% vs. 71.9%, p = 0.08) or excess weight gain (71.2% vs. 72%, p = 0.352) but of preexisting diabetes (61.1% vs. 71.7%; p = 0.007) that was associated with the highest macrosomia rate (26.9%). Mean percent error of estimated fetal weight from birth weight was 2.39% ± 9.13%. The extent of percent error varied with birth weight with the lowest numbers for 3000 g-3249 g and increasing with the extent of birth weight variation: 5% ± 11% overestimation in the lowest and 12% ± 8% underestimation in the highest ranges. CONCLUSION: Diabetes, obesity and excess weight gain are not necessarily confounders of estimated fetal weight accuracy. Percent error of estimated fetal weight is closely related to birth weight with clinically relevant over- and underestimation at both extremes. This work provides detailed data regarding the extent of percent error for different birth weight categories and may therefore improve delivery planning.


Subject(s)
Diabetes, Gestational , Fetal Weight , Birth Weight , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Obesity/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
8.
Rev. urug. enferm ; 17(1): 1-13, jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF - Nursing | ID: biblio-1363018

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En la investigación desarrollada en el servicio de neonatología del hospital Docente Ginecobstétrico "Eusebio Hernández", se pudo constatar que para el personal de enfermería el cuidado del recién nacido que se encuentra en recuperación nutricional es un elemento importante para el progreso de la atención del neonato en las salas de cuidados intensivos neonatales. Objetivo: Identificar las competencias específicas de enfermería para el cuidado del recién nacido en recuperación nutricional. Métodos: Investigación de desarrollo tecnológico en el Hospital Ginecobstétrico Eusebio Hernández en La Habana durante 2020. El universo lo constituyeron 50 profesionales de enfermería que laboran en el servicio de neonatología. Para el desarrollo de la investigación se utilizó el método DACUM (desarrollo del currículum laboral), se confeccionó las funciones y tareas, con la participación de expertos, se construyó el mapa DACUM. Resultados: Se identificaron 6 competencias específicas en relación con 6 funciones y sus tareas en lo que la totalidad de los expertos estuvieron de acuerdo por tener un alto nivel científico. Conclusiones: Se identificaron las competencias específicas de enfermería para el cuidado de neo-natos en recuperación nutricional, lo que permitió mejorar la calidad de la atención a estos recién nacidos y el perfeccionamiento de los profesionales.


Introduction: In the research carried out in the neonatology service of the Eusebio Hernández Gyneco-Obstetric Teaching Hospital, it was found that for the nursing staff the care of the newborn who is in nutritional recovery is an important element for the progress of care of the neonate in neonatal intensive care wards. Objective: To identify the specific nursing competencies for the care of the newborn in nutritional recovery. Methods: Technological development research at the Eusebio Hernández Gyneco-Obstetric Hospital in Havana during 2020. The universe was made up of 50 nursing professionals working in the neonatology service. For the development of the research, the DACUM method (development of the work curriculum) was used, the functions and tasks were prepared, with the participation of experts, the DACUM map was constructed. Results: 6 specific competences were identified in relation to 6 functions and their tasks, in which all the experts agreed due to having a high scientific level. Conclusions: Specific nursing competencies for the care of neonates in nutritional recovery were identified, which allowed improving the quality of care for these newborns and the improvement of professionals.


Introdução: Na pesquisa realizada no serviço de neonatologia do Hospital Universitário Gineco-Obstétrico "Eusebio Hernández", constatou-se que para a equipe de enfermagem o cuidado ao recém-nascido em recuperação nutricional é um elemento importante para o andamento da assistência do recém-nascido em enfermarias de terapia intensiva neonatal. Objetivo: Identificar as competências específicas de enfermagem para o cuidado ao recém-nascido em recuperação nutricional. Métodos: Pesquisa de desenvolvimento tecnológico no Hospital "Eusebio Hernández" Gyneco-Obstétrico de Havana em 2020. O universo era formado por 50 profissionais de enfermagem que atuavam no serviço de neonatologia. Para o desenvolvimento da pesquisa, foi utilizado o método DACUM (elaboração do currículo do trabalho), foram elaboradas as funções e tarefas, com a participação de especialistas, foi construído o mapa DACUM. Resultados: identificaram-se 6 competências específicas em relação a 6 funções e respetivas tarefas, em que todos os peritos concordaram por possuírem um elevado nível científico. Conclusões: Foram identificadas competências específicas de enfermagem para o cuidado ao recém-nascido em recuperação nutricional, o que permitiu melhorar a qualidade da assistência a esses recém-nascidos e o aprimoramento dos profissionais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care, Neonatal , Neonatal Nursing , Cuba , Infant Nutrition , Nurses, Neonatal
9.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 41(1): 16, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the project was to improve newborn health in neonatal care units in a low resource area with high neonatal mortality, predominantly by better nutrition and educational exchange of health care workers. METHOD: A fourfold program to make human milk production and distribution feasible and desirable. 1 Education to enlighten health care workers and parents to the excellence of human milk. 2 Lactation counselling to address the various challenges of breastfeeding. 3 Improving infants´ general condition. 4 Infrastructure alterations in the hospital. A collaboration between hospitals in India and Norway. RESULTS: The number of infants receiving human milk increased pronouncedly. Systematic, professional lactation counselling, the establishment of a milk bank, and empowerment of nurses was perceived as the most important factors. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to greatly improve nutrition and the quality of newborn care in low/middle income settings by optimising human resources. Viable improvements can be obtained by long-term health partnership, by involving all hierarchal levels and applying locally developed customized methods.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Infant Health , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Income , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Poverty
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 879, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505427

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coexisting Forms of Malnutrition (CFM) refers to the presence of more than one type of nutritional disorder in an individual. Worldwide, CFM affects more than half of all malnourished children, and compared to standalone forms of malnutrition, CFM is associated with a higher risk of illness and death. This review examined published literature for assessing the prevalence, trends, and determinants of CFM in neonates, infants, and children. METHODS: A review of community-based observational studies was conducted. Seven databases, (CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) were used in December-2021 to retrieve literature. Google, Google Scholar and TROVE were used to search for grey literature. Key stakeholders were also contacted for unpublished documents. Studies measuring the prevalence, and/or trends, and/or determinants of CFM presenting in individuals were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal tools for prevalence and longitudinal studies. RESULTS: The search retrieved 14,207 articles, of which 24 were included in this review. The prevalence of CFM varied by geographical area and specific types. In children under 5 years, the coexistence of stunting with overweight/obesity ranged from 0.8% in the United States to over 10% in Ukraine and Syria, while the prevalence of coexisting wasting with stunting ranged from 0.1% in most of the South American countries to 9.2% in Niger. A decrease in CFM prevalence was observed in all countries, except Indonesia. Studies in China and Indonesia showed a positive association between rurality of residence and coexisting stunting with overweight/obesity. Evidence for other risk and protective factors for CFM is too minimal or conflicting to be conclusive. CONCLUSION: Evidence regarding the prevalence, determinants and trends for CFM is scarce. Apart from the coexistence of stunting with overweight/obesity, the determinants of other types of CFM are unclear. CFM in any form results in an increased risk of health adversities which can be different from comparable standalone forms, thus, there is an urgent need to explore the determinants and distribution of different types of CFM.


Subject(s)
Malnutrition , Overweight , Child , Child, Preschool , Growth Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Prevalence
11.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 919, 2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based policy-making to reduce perinatal health inequalities requires an accurate measure of social disparities. We aimed to evaluate the relevance of two municipality-level deprivation indices (DIs), the French-Deprivation-Index (FDep) and the French-European-Deprivation-Index (FEDI) in perinatal health through two key perinatal outcomes: preterm birth (PTB) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA). METHODS: We used two data sources: The French National Perinatal Surveys (NPS) and the French national health data system (SNDS). Using the former, we compared the gradients of the associations between individual socioeconomic characteristics (educational level and income) and "PTB and SGA" and associations between municipality-level DIs (Q1:least deprived; Q5:most deprived) and "PTB and SGA". Using the SNDS, we then studied the association between each component of the two DIs (census data, 2015) and "PTB and SGA". Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were estimated using multilevel logistic regression with random intercept at the municipality level. RESULTS: In the NPS (N = 26,238), PTB and SGA were associated with two individual socioeconomic characteristics: maternal educational level (≤ lower secondary school vs. ≥ Bachelor's degree or equivalent, PTB: aOR = 1.43 [1.22-1.68], SGA: (1.31 [1.61-1.49]) and household income (< 1000 € vs. ≥ 3000 €, PTB: 1.55 [1.25-1.92], SGA: 1.69 [1.45-1.98]). For both FDep and FEDI, PTB and SGA were more frequent in deprived municipalities (Q5: 7.8% vs. Q1: 6.3% and 9.0% vs. 5.9% for PTB, respectively, and 12.0% vs. 10.3% and 11.9% vs. 10.2% for SGA, respectively). However, after adjustment, neither FDep nor FEDI showed a significant gradient with PTB or SGA. In the SNDS (N = 726,497), no FDep component, and only three FEDI components were significantly associated (specifically, the % of the population with ≤ lower secondary level of education with both outcomes (PTB: 1.5 [1.15-1.96]); SGA: 1.25 [1.03-1.51]), the % of overcrowded (i.e., > 1 person per room) houses (1.63 [1.15-2.32]) with PTB only, and unskilled farm workers with SGA only (1.52 [1.29-1.79]). CONCLUSION: Some components of FDep and FEDI were less relevant than others for capturing ecological inequalities in PTB and SGA. Results varied for each DI and perinatal outcome studied. These findings highlight the importance of testing DI relevance prior to examining perinatal health inequalities, and suggest the need to develop DIs that are suitable for pregnant women. .


Subject(s)
Premature Birth , Cities , Female , Fetal Growth Retardation , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
12.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 208, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Paediatric traumatic cataracts are an important but preventable cause of acquired blindness. Understanding the epidemiology of paediatric traumatic cataracts is a prerequisite for prevention. This study aimed to characterize the epidemiological profile of paediatric traumatic cataracts in southwest China. METHODS: The medical records of children (age range, 0-14 years old) who developed traumatic cataracts following open-globe injuries and were hospitalized at the Department of Ophthalmology at West China Hospital, between January 2011 and December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The demographic data, causes of injuries, posttraumatic complications, and visual acuity were recorded and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 716 eyes from 716 patients were analysed in this study, including 521 (72.8%) males and 195 females in a gender ratio of 2.67:1; 117 of the patients were of ethnic minorities. Paediatric traumatic cataracts occurred more frequently in winter (32.5%). Sharp metal objects (scissors/knives/needles/sheet metal/nails/darts) - induced ocular injuries accounted for the highest proportion, followed by botanical sticks (wooden sticks /bamboo sticks /bamboo skewers)-induced injuries, and then stationery items (pencils/pens/rulers/paper)-induced injuries. The majority (68.7%) of the patients were aged 2-8 years, and the peak range of age was 4 - 6 years. The injuries were a result of penetrating trauma in 64.9% of patients, and blunt force trauma in the remainder (35.1%). Additionally, 131 (18.3%) cases developed posttraumatic infectious endophthalmitis after injuries. Patients with eye injuries caused by needles (P < 0.001), wooden sticks (P = 0.016), and bamboo skewers (P = 0.002) were at a greater risk of developing infectious endophthalmitis. The most common identified foreign organism was Streptococcus, which accounted for 42% (21/50) of all culture-positive specimens and was sensitive to vancomycin. Among the children who were younger than 5 years, 44.4% (55/124) of those with traumatic cataracts presented a corrected distance visual acuity less than or equal to 0.1 after undergoing cataract surgery, but among the children who were older than 5 years, this proportion was significantly smaller, just 20.4% of children aged 6-10 years (P < 0.001) and 18.4% of children aged 11-14 years (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The main causative agents of paediatric traumatic cataracts in southwest China were sharp metal objects, botanical sticks, and stationery items. Specific preventive measures are essential to reduce the incidence of paediatric traumatic cataract.


Subject(s)
Cataract , Endophthalmitis , Eye Injuries, Penetrating , Eye Injuries , Adolescent , Cataract/complications , Cataract/etiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Endophthalmitis/complications , Eye Injuries/complications , Eye Injuries/epidemiology , Eye Injuries/surgery , Eye Injuries, Penetrating/complications , Eye Injuries, Penetrating/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Retrospective Studies
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 611, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic may have affected the utilization of maternal and newborn child health services in Nigeria but the extent, directions, contextual factors at all the levels of healthcare service delivery in Nigeria is yet to be fully explored. The objective of the study was to explore the barriers and facilitators of access to MNCH services during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted among different stakeholder groups in 18 public health facilities in Nigeria between May and July,2020. In-depth interviews were conducted among 54 study participants (service users, service providers and policymakers) selected from across the three tiers of public health service delivery system in Nigeria (primary health centers, secondary health centers and tertiary health centers). Coding of the qualitative data and identification of themes from the transcripts were carried out and thematic approach was used for data analyses. RESULTS: Barriers to accessing MNCH services during the first wave of COVID-19-pandemic in Nigeria include fear of contracting COVID-19 infection at health facilities, transportation difficulties, stigmatization of sick persons, lack of personal protective equipment (PPE) /medical commodities, long waiting times at hospitals, shortage of manpower, lack of preparedness by health workers, and prioritization of essential services. Enablers to access include the COVID-19 non-pharmacological measures instituted at the health facilities, community sensitization on healthcare access during the pandemic, and alternative strategies for administering immunization service at the clinics. CONCLUSION: Access to MNCH services were negatively affected by lockdown during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria particularly due to challenges resulting from restrictions in movements which affected patients/healthcare providers ability to reach the hospitals as well as patients' ability to pay for health care services. Additionally, there was fear of contracting COVID-19 infection at health facilities and the health systems inability to provide enabling conditions for sustained utilization of MNCH services. There is need for government to institute alternative measures to halt the spread of diseases instead of lockdowns so as to ensure unhindered access to MNCH services during future pandemics. This may include immediate sensitization of the general public on modes of transmission of any emergent infectious disease as well as training of health workers on emergency preparedness and alternative service delivery models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Health Services , Maternal Health Services , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy
14.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 61, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tribal peoples are among the most marginalised groups worldwide. Evidence on birth outcomes in these groups is scant. We describe inequalities in Stillbirth Rate (SBR), Neonatal Mortality Rate (NMR), and uptake of maternal and newborn health services between tribal and less disadvantaged groups in eastern India, and examine the contribution of poverty and education to these inequalities. METHODS: We used data from a demographic surveillance system covering a 1 million population in Jharkhand State (March 2017 - August 2019) to describe SBR, NMR, and service uptake. We used logistic regression analysis combined with Stata's adjrr-command to estimate absolute and relative inequalities by caste/tribe (comparing Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG) and other Scheduled Tribes (ST) with the less marginalised Other Backward Class (OBC)/none, using the Indian government classification), and by maternal education and household wealth. RESULTS: PVTGs had a higher NMR (59/1000) than OBC/none (31/1000) (rate ratio (RR): 1.92, 95%CI: 1.55-2.38). This was partly explained by wealth and education, but inequalities remained large after adjustment (adjusted RR: 1.59, 95%CI: 1.28-1.98). NMR was also higher among other STs (44/1000), but disparities were smaller (RR: 1.47, 95%CI: 1.23-1.75). There was a systematic gradient in NMR by maternal education and household wealth. SBRs were only higher in poorer groups (RRpoorest vs. least poor:1.56, 95%CI: 1.14-2.13). Uptake of facility-based services was low among PVTGs (e.g. institutional birth: 25% vs. 69% in OBC/none) and among poorer and less educated women. However, 65% of PVTG women with an institutional birth used a maternity vehicle vs. 34% among OBC/none. Visits from frontline workers (Accredited Social Health Activists [ASHAs]) were similar across groups, and ASHA accompaniment of institutional births was similar across caste/tribe groups, and higher among poorer and less educated women. Attendance in participatory women's groups was similar across caste/tribe groups, and somewhat higher among richer and better educated women. CONCLUSIONS: PVTGs are highly disadvantaged in terms of birth outcomes. Targeted interventions that reduce geographical barriers to facility-based care and address root causes of high poverty and low education in PVTGs are a priority. For population-level impact, they are to be combined with broader policies to reduce socio-economic mortality inequalities. Community-based interventions reach disadvantaged groups and have potential to reduce the mortality gap.


Subject(s)
Infant Mortality , Stillbirth , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant Health , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Social Class , Socioeconomic Factors , Stillbirth/epidemiology
15.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(5): 586-588, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500542

ABSTRACT

We report a case of congenital brucellosis subsequently associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in a Saudi preterm neonate. A girl born with severe respiratory distress was admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. Laboratory examinations revealed thrombocytopenia and slight leukocytosis. Her mother was a confirmed case of brucellosis. Initial blood culture confirmed the diagnosis of infection, and the baby was treated empirically with rifampicin, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin. Follow-up revealed that her general condition was gradually improved. On day 27, the baby deteriorated, showing abdominal distension and signs of sepsis and requiring intubation. Rifampicin was replaced by amikacin. A septic workup showed a normal total leukocyte count, with 68.3% neutrophils, decreased platelet count, and increased C-reactive protein level. Blood culture and sensitivity testing reported multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae susceptible to amikacin and resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and beta-lactam antibiotics. The baby remains critically ill, showing a poor treatment response with rapid deterioration, and arrested on day 33. Concomitant bacterial infections might explain signs of sepsis and respiratory distress among neonates with congenital brucellosis. Accurate and early diagnosis, parental history, and adequate treatment are associated with the prognosis of congenital brucellosis and other related bacterial infections.


Subject(s)
Brucellosis , Coinfection , Klebsiella Infections , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sepsis , Amikacin , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Brucellosis/complications , Brucellosis/diagnosis , Brucellosis/drug therapy , Ciprofloxacin , Coinfection/drug therapy , Female , Gentamicins/therapeutic use , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Klebsiella Infections/complications , Klebsiella Infections/diagnosis , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Rifampin , Sepsis/microbiology
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e058901, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501079

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this evaluation is to understand whether introducing stabilisation rooms equipped with pulse oximetry and oxygen systems to frontline health facilities in Ikorodu, Lagos State, alongside healthcare worker (HCW) training improves the quality of care for children with pneumonia aged 0-59 months. We will explore to what extent, how, for whom and in what contexts the intervention works. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Quasi-experimental time-series impact evaluation with embedded mixed-methods process and economic evaluation. SETTING: seven government primary care facilities, seven private health facilities, two government secondary care facilities. TARGET POPULATION: children aged 0-59 months with clinically diagnosed pneumonia and/or suspected or confirmed COVID-19. INTERVENTION: 'stabilisation rooms' within participating primary care facilities in Ikorodu local government area, designed to allow for short-term oxygen delivery for children with hypoxaemia prior to transfer to hospital, alongside HCW training on integrated management of childhood illness, pulse oximetry and oxygen therapy, immunisation and nutrition. Secondary facilities will also receive training and equipment for oxygen and pulse oximetry to ensure minimum standard of care is available for referred children. PRIMARY OUTCOME: correct management of hypoxaemic pneumonia including administration of oxygen therapy, referral and presentation to hospital. SECONDARY OUTCOME: 14-day pneumonia case fatality rate. Evaluation period: August 2020 to September 2022. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval from University of Ibadan, Lagos State and University College London. Ongoing engagement with government and other key stakeholders during the project. Local dissemination events will be held with the State Ministry of Health at the end of the project (December 2022). We will publish the main impact results, process evaluation and economic evaluation results as open-access academic publications in international journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12621001071819; Registered on the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Australia , Child, Preschool , Hospitals , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Nigeria , Oximetry , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/complications
17.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 483, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A critical challenge in current acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy is treatment intensification in order to reduce the relapse rate in the subset of patients at the highest risk of relapse. The year-long maintenance phase is essential in relapse prevention. The Thiopurine Enhanced ALL Maintenance (TEAM) trial investigates a novel strategy for ALL maintenance. METHODS: TEAM is a randomized phase 3 sub-protocol to the ALLTogether1 trial, which includes patients 0-45 years of age with newly diagnosed B-cell precursor or T-cell ALL, and stratified to the intermediate risk-high (IR-high) group, in 13 European countries. In the TEAM trial, the traditional methotrexate (MTX)/6-mercaptopurine (6MP) maintenance backbone (control arm) is supplemented with low dose (2.5-12.5 mg/m2/day) oral 6-thioguanine (6TG) (experimental arm), while the starting dose of 6MP is reduced from 75 to 50 mg/m2/day. A total of 778 patients will be included in TEAM during ~ 5 years. The study will close when the last included patient has been followed for 5 years from the end of induction therapy. The primary objective of the study is to significantly improve the disease-free survival (DFS) of IR-high ALL patients by adding 6TG to 6MP/MTX-based maintenance therapy. TEAM has 80% power to detect a 7% increase in 5-year DFS through a 50% reduction in relapse rate. DFS will be evaluated by intention-to-treat analysis. In addition to reducing relapse, TEAM may also reduce hepatotoxicity and hypoglycemia caused by high levels of methylated 6MP metabolites. Methotrexate/6MP metabolites will be monitored and low levels will be reported back to clinicians to identify potentially non-adherent patients. DISCUSSION: TEAM provides a novel strategy for maintenance therapy in ALL with the potential of improving DFS through reducing relapse rate. Potential risk factors that have been considered include hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome/nodular regenerative hyperplasia, second cancer, infection, and osteonecrosis. Metabolite monitoring can potentially increase treatment adherence in both treatment arms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT, 2018-001795-38. Registered 2020-05-15, Clinicaltrials.gov , NCT04307576 . Registered 2020-03-13, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04307576.


Subject(s)
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Mercaptopurine , Methotrexate , Middle Aged , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Recurrence , Risk Factors , T-Lymphocytes , Thioguanine/therapeutic use , Young Adult
18.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268014, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Providing compassionate and respectful maternity care to mothers is a vital intervention to improve health outcomes of women and newborns. However, there is less data of compassionate and respectful maternity care in Gondar city. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the magnitude of mistreatment and associated factors among mothers who gave birth at the public health facilities in Gondar city, northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2019 in Gondar city public nine health facilities. A total of 584 randomly selected women in the postpartum period were recruited in this study. A binary logistic regression analysis was done to see whether there was an association between mistreatment and independent variables. Finally, the logistic regression analysis was done by stratifying type of parity and mode of delivery. RESULTS: Overall, 73.2% (95% CI: 69.7-76.7%) of the women were mistreated during their childbirth care. Non-consented care was the most commonly experienced form of mistreatment (63.6%, 95% CI: 59.6-67.6%). Having less than four antenatal care follow-up visits (AOR = 3.58, 95% CI: 2.04-6.29), giving birth in the hospital (AOR = 2.83, 95% CI: 1.52-5.27), and facing complications during delivery (AOR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.52-3.98) were significantly associated with mistreatment among postpartum mothers. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a lower proportion of mistreatment than other studies in Ethiopia. Having less than four ANC follow up, place of current delivery, and facing complication during delivery were identified as the determinants of mistreatment. Therefore, this calls for strengthening actions, like providing maternity education during antenatal care and appropriate management of complications to improve the quality of maternity care at health facilities, and enhancing hospital working health workers capacity on compassionate and respectful maternity care.


Subject(s)
Maternal Health Services , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery, Obstetric , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Health Facilities , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Parturition , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Risk Factors
19.
J Trop Pediatr ; 68(3)2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512365

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Delaying umbilical cord clamping facilitates postnatal transition in neonates but evidence on its effect in reducing hemodynamic instability in preterm neonates is inconclusive. AIMS: To evaluate delayed cord clamping (DCC) in reducing the incidence of hemodynamic instability in preterm neonates below 35 weeks gestational age admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. METHODS: Neonates between 25 weeks and 34 weeks and 6 days gestation were enrolled. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were monitored over 48 h. Hemodynamic instability was defined as persistent tachycardia and/or hypotension necessitating therapy. RESULTS: The DCC cohort included 62 neonates with an equal number in the non-DCC group. The birth weight [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] was 1332.90 ± 390.05 g and the gestational age (mean ± SD) was 31.64 ± 2.52 weeks. Hemodynamic instability was noted in 18/62 (29%) neonates in the DCC cohort and 29/62 (46.7%) in the non-DCC group; relative risk (RR) 0.62 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38-0.99] (p = 0.023). The duration of inotrope requirement in the DCC cohort (mean ± SD) was 38.38 ± 16.99 h compared to 49.13 ± 22.90 h in the non-DCC cohort (p = 0.090). Significantly higher systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures were noted from 6 h to 48 h in the DCC cohort (p < 0.001). The severity of respiratory distress and FiO2 requirement was also less in the first 24 h. There was no difference in the incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, late-onset sepsis or mortality. CONCLUSION: Delaying umbilical cord clamping at birth by 60 s resulted in significantly lower hemodynamic instability in the first 48 h and higher blood pressure parameters.


Subject(s)
Infant, Premature , Umbilical Cord , Constriction , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Female , Hemodynamics , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy
20.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 258, 2022 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538518

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Anogenital distance (AGD) is a marker of prenatal androgen exposure and a tool for assessment of differences of sex development. Data for AGD in newborns have been published, but these findings may not be applicable to Thai newborns. AIM: To provide the sex-specific ranges for AGD in Thai full-term newborns. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in term newborns in Thailand, during 2016-2018. AGD was measured from anus to anterior base of penis (AGDAP) and to perineoscrotal junction (AGDAS) in males and from anus to clitoris (AGDAC) and to posterior fourchette (AGDAF) in females. AGD ratio is defined as AGDAS divided by AGDAP in males and AGDAF divided by AGDAC in females. RESULTS: A total of 364 newborns were studied (male 51.4%). The mean AGDAS, AGDAP and AGD ratio in males were 25.20 ± 4.80, 52.60 ± 6.90 and 0.48 ± 0.08 mm, respectively. The mean AGDAF, AGDAC, and AGD ratio in females were 16.50 ± 3.90, 42.60 ± 6.20 and 0.39 ± 0.08 mm, respectively. There were significant differences between AGDAS and AGDAF, AGDAP and AGDAC, and AGD ratio between males and females (p < 0.001). The AGDAS, AGDAP, AGDAF, AGDAC were correlated with birth weight and length, but AGD ratio showed no correlation. CONCLUSION: The sex-specific ranges for AGD in Thai full-term newborns were determined. AGD ratio is a useful marker of prenatal androgen exposure since it differs between sexes, but constant between races and did not vary by body size.


Subject(s)
Androgens , Penis , Anal Canal , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Thailand
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