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1.
Parasite ; 28: 42, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33944775

ABSTRACT

Several studies have assessed the potential of essential oils as substitutes for synthetic pesticides, in order to counter insect resistance to commercial pesticides. Piper aduncum L. is a very common shrub in the Amazon Rainforest and in other subtropical areas. The objective of this review was to analyse the existing information on P. aduncum essential oil as a raw material for new bioproducts for sustainable pest disease management. With this review, we collected and critically analysed 59 papers, representing all the studies that aimed to evaluate the essential oil properties of this species as an insecticide, acaricide and antiparasitic. The chemical composition differs depending on the origin, although phenylpropanoid dillapiole is the most cited component, followed by myristicin, 1,8-cineole and ß-ocimene. Between the acaricidal, antiparasitic and synergistic activities, the insecticidal effects are highly promising, with optimal results against the malaria vector Aedes aegypti, with an LC50 that ranges between 57 and 200µg/mL. Acaricidal activity has mainly been reported against Tetranychus urticae, showing an LC50 that ranges between 5.83 and 7.17µg/mL. Antiparasitic activity has predominately been found on Leishmania amazonensis, and antipromastigote activity has been found to be between 23.8 and 25.9µg/mL. Concerning the synergistic effect between dillapiole and synthetic insecticides, four studies on Spodoptera frugiperda found promising results with cypermethrin. In this review, we highlighted the potential of P. aduncum essential oil as a biopesticide, also focusing on the lack of information about applied research. We also provide suggestions for future investigations.


Subject(s)
Acaricides , Anopheles , Insecticides , Malaria , Oils, Volatile , Piper , Animals , Antiparasitic Agents , Insecticides/pharmacology , Mosquito Vectors , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology
2.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e0835, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886820

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Bioprospection of plant products is used to discover new insecticides. METHODS: The larvicidal activity of ethanolic extract and triterpene (tingenone B) from the bark of Maytenus guianensis and their effect on pupation and emergence were evaluated against Aedes aegypti. RESULTS: Crude extract LC50 was 11.3 ppm and caused ejection of the larvae intestine; tingenone B LC50 was 14.8 ppm. Pupation was reduced by 20% and 10%, respectively; however, the emergence was not affected. CONCLUSIONS: The crude bark extract exhibited a higher larvicidal effect against the vector.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Anopheles , Celastraceae , Insecticides , Maytenus , Animals , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva , Mosquito Vectors , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves
3.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 174: 104831, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838702

ABSTRACT

The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is a major lepidopteran pest of global importance in cultivation of numerous crops including cotton, maize, soybean, onion, cabbage, and ornamentals. It has evolved resistance to different insecticides. However, the current status of insecticide resistance in S. exigua has not been well examined in China. In this study, concentration-mortality responses of S. exigua to seven insecticides, including chlorantraniliprole, tetraniliprole, methoxyfenozide, indoxacarb, chlorfenapyr, emamectin benzoate and beta-cypermethrin were evaluated. The results showed that most of the tested populations had developed moderate to high resistance to chlorantraniliprole, with resistance ratios ranging from 6.3 to 2477.3-fold. Our results also showed that chlorantraniliprole have cross-resistance with tetraniliprole in S. exigua. The AY19 population collected from Anyang in Henan Province in 2019 exhibited a high resistance level to beta-cypermethrin (RR = 277.5). Methoxyfenozide and chlorfenapyr were highly effective against all of the tested populations with resistance ratios (RR) ranging from 0.1 to 2.2-fold. One of the tested populations showed moderate resistance to indoxacarb and emamectin benzoate. We detected the known ryanodine receptor target site resistance mutation, I4743M, in the field populations of S. exigua with different levels of diamide resistance.


Subject(s)
Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides , Animals , China , Diamide , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva , Pyrazoles , Pyridines , Spodoptera , Tetrazoles
4.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 174: 104807, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838708

ABSTRACT

Two acetylcholinesterase genes (Boace1 and Boace2) were cloned from Bradysia odoriphaga, a devastating soil pest that mainly damages Chinese chives. The Boace1 encodes BoAChE1 protein consisting of 696 amino acid residues, while Boace2 encodes BoAChE2 containing 638 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Boace1 and Boace2 are appeared to be distinct clusters. The gene expression patterns at different development stages and various body parts tissues were examined, and their biological functions were characterized by RNA interference and analog docking prediction. The results showed that both Boace genes were expressed in all developmental stages and examined tissues. The transcript level of Boace2 was significantly higher than Boace1 in all tested samples, and Boace1 was found most abundant in the head while Boace2 was highly expressed in the fat body of B. odoriphaga. The silencing of Boace1 and Boace2 significantly decreased the AChE activity of 36.6% and 14.8% separately, and increased the susceptibility of B. odoriphaga to phoxim, with 60.8% and 44.7% mortality. Besides, overexpression and gene duplication of Boace1 were found in two field resistant populations, and two major mutations, A319S and G400V, were detected in Boace1. Moreover, the docking results revealed that BoAChE1 had a higher affinity towards organophosphorus than BoAChE2. It is concluded that Boace2 is the most abundant ace type in B. odoriphaga, while both Boace play vital roles. Boace1 might play a major neurological function and more likely be the prime target for insecticides, while Boace2 might play some important unidentified roles.


Subject(s)
Chive , Diptera , Insecticides , Acetylcholinesterase/genetics , Animals , Diptera/genetics , Insecticides/pharmacology , Phylogeny
5.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 174: 104823, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838716

ABSTRACT

Conventional and volatile pyrethroids are widely used to control the vectors of dengue arboviral diseases, Aedes albopictus in China. The development of resistance to conventional pyrethroids has become an increasing problem, potentially affecting the use of volatile pyrethroid. The Ae. albopictus dimefluthrin-resistant (R) strain by selecting the field population with dimefluthrin were investigated the multiple and cross-resistance levels between conventional and volatile pyrethroids and analyzed both target-site and metabolic resistant mechanisms to dimefluthrin compared with three volatile pyrethroids metofluthrin, meperfluthrin and esbiothrin and type II pyrethroid deltamethrin. The R strain displayed moderate to low resistance to selected pyrethroids (dimefluthrin, metofluthrin, meperfluthrin, esbiothrin and deltamethrin) associated with metabolic enzymes, but less distinctly to selected pyrethroids (dimefluthrin and metofluthrin) associated with a high frequency of sodium channel gene mutation (F1534S). Profiles of the multiple and cross-resistance of the R strain to other three volatile pyrethroids and type II pyrethroid deltamethrin were detected. Both synergistic and enzyme activity studies indicated that multifunctional oxidase (MFO) played an important role in this resistance.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Insecticides , Pyrethrins , Aedes/genetics , Animals , China , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Insecticides/pharmacology , Mosquito Vectors , Pyrethrins/pharmacology
6.
Environ Pollut ; 278: 116880, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743269

ABSTRACT

The house fly, Musca domestica L., is a cosmopolitan insect pest of public and animal health importance that serves as a mechanical vector of pathogens. Aimed at prospective resistance management to reduce environmental pollution, we characterized the inheritance pattern, realized heritability, fitness cost, cross resistance, stability and mechanism of clothianidin resistance in M. domestica that were collected from the poultry farm. By continuous selection with clothianidin for 11 generations, the clothianidin selected M. domestica strain (Clotha-SEL) developed a 3827-fold resistance compared to a susceptible strain. However, resistance to clothianidin was proved to be unstable when selection with clothianidin was removed for five generations (G7 to G12). Inheritance pattern analysis at G8 of Clotha-SEL (RR = 897) revealed that resistance to clothianidin was polygenic, autosomal and incompletely dominant. Realized heritability (h2) for resistance value was 0.38 (at G11) in the tested strain. Synergist bioassays showed that microsomal oxidases and esterases might not contribute significantly in resistance evolution. Fitness costs of clothianidin resistance were present, for example, reduction in growth potential of the Clotha-SEL strain in comparison to the untreated counterpart strain (UNSEL) was observed. No cross resistance to bifenthrin and fipronil and a very low cross-resistance to spinosad were observed. These insecticides could be alternated with clothianidin as an insecticide resistance management tool to sustain its efficacy for a longer time period. These results shall be utilized to devise a proactive resistance management strategy for use of clothianidin against M. domestica that will be helpful to alleviate the allied threats to environmental and human health.


Subject(s)
Houseflies , Insecticides , Animals , Guanidines , Houseflies/genetics , Humans , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Insecticides/pharmacology , Neonicotinoids , Prospective Studies , Thiazoles
7.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 173: 104772, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771251

ABSTRACT

Metabolic resistance driven by multiple P450 genes is worsening insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. However, it remains unclear whether such multiple over-expression imposes an additive fitness cost in the vectors. Here, we showed that two highly over-expressed P450 genes (CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b) combine to impose additive fitness costs in pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles funestus. Genotyping of the CYP6P9b resistance allele in hybrid mosquitoes from a pyrethroid-resistant FUMOZ-R and the susceptible FANG strains revealed that this gene imposes a fitness cost in resistant mosquitoes similar to CYP6P9a. Homozygote susceptible CYP6P9b_S (SS) significantly lay more eggs than the resistant (OR = 2.2, P = 0.04) and with greater hatching rate (p < 0.04). Homozygote resistant larvae CYP6P9b_R (RR) developed significantly slower than homozygote susceptible from L1-L4 (χ2 = 7.2; P = 0.007) with a late pupation observed for RR compared to both heterozygotes and homozygotes susceptible (χ2 = 11.17; P = 0.0008). No difference was observed between genotypes for adult longevity with no change in allele frequency and gene expression across the lifespan. Furthermore, we established that CYP6P9b combines with CYP6P9a to additively exacerbate the fitness cost of pyrethroid resistance with a greater reduction in fecundity/fertility and increased developmental time of double homozygote resistant mosquitoes. Moreover, an increased proportion of double homozygote susceptible individuals was noted over 10 generations in the insecticide-free environment (χ2 = 6.3; P = 0.01) suggesting a reversal to susceptibility in the absence of selection. Such greater fitness cost imposed by multiple P450 genes shows that resistance management strategy based on rotation could help slow the spread of resistance.


Subject(s)
Anopheles , Insecticides , Malaria , Pyrethrins , Animals , Anopheles/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Insecticides/pharmacology , Malaria/genetics , Mosquito Vectors/genetics , Pyrethrins/toxicity
8.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 106(4): e21772, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719088

ABSTRACT

The ß-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor (OA2B2), which binds the biogenic amine octopamine, belongs to the class of G-protein coupled receptors and significantly regulates many physiological and behavioral processes in insects. In this study, the putative open reading frame sequence of the MsOA2B2 gene in Mythimna separata was cloned, the full-length complementary DNA was 1191 bp and it encoded a 396-amino acid protein (GenBank accession number MN822800). Orthologous sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree analysis, and protein sequence analysis all showed that the cloned receptor belongs to the OA2B2 protein family. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction of spatial and temporal expression analysis revealed that the MsOAB2 gene was expressed in all developmental stages of M. separata and was most abundant in egg stages and second and fourth instars compared with other developmental stages, while the expression level during the pupal stage was much lower than that at the other stages. Further analysis with sixth instar M. separata larvae showed that the MsOA2B2 gene was expressed 1.81 times higher in the head than in integument and gut tissues. Dietary ingestion of dsMsOA2B2 significantly reduced the messenger RNA level of MsOA2B2 and decreased mortality following amitraz treatment. This study provides both a pharmacological characterization and the gene expression patterns of OA2B2 in M. separata, facilitating further research for insecticides using MsOA2B2 as a target.


Subject(s)
Moths/genetics , Receptors, Biogenic Amine , Animals , Gene Expression/drug effects , Genes, Insect , Insect Control , Insect Proteins/chemistry , Insect Proteins/genetics , Insect Proteins/metabolism , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/genetics , Larva/metabolism , Moths/metabolism , Phylogeny , Pupa/genetics , Pupa/metabolism , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta/chemistry , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta/drug effects , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta/genetics , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta/metabolism , Receptors, Biogenic Amine/chemistry , Receptors, Biogenic Amine/drug effects , Receptors, Biogenic Amine/genetics , Receptors, Biogenic Amine/metabolism , Toluidines/pharmacology
9.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e05762020, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656151

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue and yellow fever. Recently, the use of plant-sourced larvicides has gained momentum. METHODS: The hydroethanolic extracts and fractions ofOcotea nutansleaves and stems were bioassayed to determine the larvicidal efficacy of these samples. RESULTS: S-HEX (hexane fraction from the crude stem extract) demonstrated high potential for controlling third-stage larvae, with an LC50 of 14.14 µg.mL-1 (concentration required to inhibit 50% of the treated larvae). CONCLUSIONS: Extracts from O. nutans were effective against third-stage larvae ofA. aegyptiafter 24 h of exposure.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Insecticides , Ocotea , Animals , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva , Mosquito Vectors , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves
10.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e236498, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787746

ABSTRACT

Mormodica charantia (Curcubitaceae) is a plant with great medicinal potential, also used as an alternative of mosquitoes control as demonstrated by previous studies. We evaluated the larvicidal activity of crude extracts of ethyl acetate, methanol and hexane from flowers and fruits of M. charantia against Aedes aegypti (Culicidae). Flowers and fruits were macerated in methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane. Bioassays were performed with application of the extracts at final concentrations of 1 - 200 µg/mL in the middle of the third instar larvae of A. aegypti (L3). The results showed high toxicity to ethyl acetate extracts from flowers and fruits at concentrations of 200 µg/mL and 100 µg/mL, with 97% and 87% of larvae mortality (L3), respectively. Hexane extract demonstrated low toxicity, while methanol extract exhibited 78% larval mortality. The data suggested that the ethyl acetate extracts of flowers and fruits of M. charantia can effectively contribute to larvicidal activity. In addition, purification of M. charantia extracts may lead to a promising larvicidal activity to control the A. aegypti population.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Insecticides , Momordica charantia , Animals , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves
11.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 173: 104781, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771260

ABSTRACT

Metabolic resistance to chemical insecticides implies a greater capacity to detoxify insecticides due to an increase in the expression of genes and/or in the activity of enzymes related to detoxification metabolism. The insect integument is known to participate as the cuticular penetration factor of resistance, but recently this tissue was also linked with metabolic resistance due to P450-dependent detoxification in the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans. The objectives of this study were i) to name and classify all P450s known to date in T. infestans, ii) to characterise one of them, CYP4PR1, representing the first member of a new cytochrome P450 subfamily described in insects, and iii) to investigate the potential role of CYP4PR1 in metabolic resistance to deltamethrin in T. infestans. We found that CYP4PR1 is expressed almost exclusively in the integument tissue, and its expression was not induced by deltamethrin. Knockdown of CYP4PR1 by RNA interference in pyrethroid-resistant nymphs caused a significant increment in insect mortality after topical application of two different doses of deltamethrin. These results support the role of the integument on metabolic resistance and suggest that CYP4PR1 might contribute to resistance in integument tissue of T. infestans.


Subject(s)
Insecticides , Pyrethrins , Triatoma , Animals , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Insecticides/pharmacology , Nitriles/pharmacology , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Triatoma/genetics
12.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 173: 104783, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771262

ABSTRACT

In the central western Senegal, malaria transmission has been reduced low due to the combination of several effective control interventions. However, despite this encouraging achievement, residual malaria transmission still occurring in few areas, mainly ensured by An. arabiensis and An. melas. The resurgence or the persistence of the disease may have originated from the increase and the spread of insecticide resistance genes among natural malaria vectors populations. Therefore, assessing the status and mechanisms of insecticides resistance among targeted malaria vectors is of highest importance to better characterize factors underlying the residual transmission where it occurs. Malaria vectors were collected from three selected villages using nocturnal human landing catches (HLC) and pyrethrum spray collections (PSC) methods. An. gambiae s.l. specimens were identified at the species level then genotyped for the presence of kdr-west (L1014F), kdr-east (L1014S) and ace-1R mutations by qPCR. An. arabiensis (69.36%) and An. melas (27.99%) were the most common species of the Gambiae complex in the study area. Among An. arabiensis population, the allelic frequency of the kdr-east (22.66%) was relatively higher than for kdr-west mutation (9.96%). While for An. melas populations, the overall frequencies of both mutations were very low, being respectively 1.12% and 0.40% for the L1014S and L1014F mutations. With a global frequency of 2%, only the heterozygous form of the G119S mutation was found only in An. arabiensis and in all the study sites. The widespread occurrence of the kdr mutation in both An. arabiensis and An. melas natural populations, respectively the main and focal vectors in the central-western Senegal, may have contributed to maintaining malaria transmission in the area. Thus, compromising the effectiveness of pyrethroids-based vector control measures and the National Elimination Goal. Therefore, monitoring and managing properly insecticide resistance became a key programmatic intervention to achieve the elimination goal where feasible, as aimed by Senegal. Noteworthy, this is the first report of the ace-1 mutation in natural populations of An. arabiensis from Senegal, which need to be closely monitored to preserve one of the essential insecticide classes used in IRS to control the pyrethroids-resistant populations.


Subject(s)
Anopheles , Insecticides , Malaria , Pyrethrins , Animals , Anopheles/genetics , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Insecticides/pharmacology , Malaria/genetics , Mosquito Vectors/genetics , Mutation , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Senegal
13.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 173: 104800, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771269

ABSTRACT

Increased production of detoxification enzymes appears to be the primary route for insecticide resistance in many crop pests. However, the mechanisms employed by resistant insects for overexpression of detoxification genes involved in insecticide resistance remain obscure. We report here that the NR2E nuclear receptor HR83 plays a critical role in chlorpyrifos resistance by regulating the expression of detoxification genes in the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens. HR83 was highly expressed in the fat body and ovary of adult females in chlorpyrifos-resistant BPHs. Knockdown of HR83 by RNA interference showed no effect on female fecundity, whereas caused a decrease of resistance to chlorpyrifos. This treatment also led to a dramatic reduction in the expression of multiple detoxification genes, including four UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), three cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) and four carboxylesterases (CarEs). Among these HR83-regulated genes, UGT-1-3, UGT-2B10, CYP6CW1, CYP4CE1, CarE and Esterase E4-1 were over-expressed both in the fat body and ovary of the resistant BPHs. Functional analyses revealed that UGT-2B10, CYP4CE1, CarE and Esterase E4-1 are essential for the resistance of BPH to chlorpyrifos. Generally, this study implicates HR83 in the metabolic detoxification-mediated chlorpyrifos resistance and suggests that the regulation of detoxification genes may be an ancestral function of the NR2E nuclear receptor subfamily.


Subject(s)
Chlorpyrifos , Hemiptera , Insecticides , Animals , Chlorpyrifos/toxicity , Female , Hemiptera/genetics , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Insecticides/pharmacology , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
14.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 172: 104769, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518040

ABSTRACT

Cantharidin (CTD) is a natural toxin with effective toxicity to lepidopteran pests. Nevertheless, little information is available on whether pests develop resistance to CTD. After being exposed to CTD (50 mg/L to 90 mg/L) or 10 generations, the resistance ratio of laboratory selected cantharidin-resistant Mythimna separata (Cantharidin-SEL) strain was only elevated 1.95-fold. Meanwhile, the developmental time for M. separata was prolonged (delayed1.65 in males and 1.84 days in females). The reported CTD target, the serine/threonine phosphatases (PSPs), have not been shown significant activity variation during the whole process of CTD-treatment. The activity of detoxification enzymes (cytochrome monooxygenase P450, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and carboxylesterase) were affected by CTD selection, but this change was not mathematically significant. More importantly, no obvious cross-resistance with other commonly used insecticides was observed in the M. separata population treated with CTD for 10 generations (resistance ratios were all lower 2.5). Overall, M. separata is unlikely to produce target-site insensitivity resistance, metabolic resistance to CTD. Meanwhile, cantharidin-SEL is not prone to develop cross-resistance with other insecticides. These results indicate that CTD is a promising biogenetic lead compound which can be applied in the resistance management on M. separata.


Subject(s)
Insecticides , Lepidoptera , Moths , Animals , Cantharidin , Female , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides/pharmacology , Lead , Male
15.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562562

ABSTRACT

Some plant species are less susceptible to herbivore infestation than others. The reason for this is often unknown in detail but is very likely due to an efficient composition of secondary plant metabolites. Strikingly, carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes show extremely less herbivory both in the field and in green house. In order to identify the basis for the efficient defense against herbivorous insects in Nepenthes, we performed bioassays using larvae of the generalist lepidopteran herbivore, Spodoptera littoralis. Larvae fed with different tissues from Nepenthes x ventrata grew significantly less when feeding on a diet containing leaf tissue compared with pitcher-trap tissue. As dominating metabolite in Nepenthes tissues, we identified a naphthoquinone, plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone). When plumbagin was added at different concentrations to the diet of S. littoralis larvae, an EC50 value for larval growth inhibition was determined with 226.5 µg g-1 diet. To further determine the concentration causing higher larval mortality, sweet potato leaf discs were covered with increasing plumbagin concentrations in no-choice-assays; a higher mortality of the larvae was found beyond 60 µg plumbagin per leaf, corresponding to 750 µg g-1. Plant-derived insecticides have long been proposed as alternatives for pest management; plumbagin and derivatives might be such promising environmentally friendly candidates.


Subject(s)
Caryophyllales/chemistry , Insecticides/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Larva/growth & development , Naphthoquinones/chemistry , Naphthoquinones/pharmacology , Animals , Plant Leaves/chemistry
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 212: 111967, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524911

ABSTRACT

Non-target effects of genetically engineered (GE) plants on aquatic Daphnia magna have been studied by feeding the species with different maize materials containing insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The results of those studies were often difficult to interpret, because only one GE plant was compared to one related non-GE control. In such a setting, effects of the Cry proteins cannot be distinguished from plant background effects, in particular when the test species is nutritionally stressed. In the present study, we tested the suitability of three different maize materials, i.e., flour, leaves and pollen, from five diverse non-GE maize lines (including EXP 258, a breeding line that is closely related to a SmartStax Bt maize) as exclusive food sources for D. magna. The parameters recorded included survival, sublethal endpoints such as body size, number of moltings to first offspring, time to first offspring, number of individuals in first clutch, total number of clutches, total number of offspring, average number of offspring per clutch, and population measures such as net reproductive rate R0, generation time T and intrinsic rate of increase rm. The results showed that D. magna can survive, grow and reproduce when fed only maize materials, although the performance was poorer than when fed algae, which indicates nutritional stress. Large differences in life table and population parameters of D. magna were observed among the different maize lines. Our results suggest that confounding effects caused by nutritional stress and plant background might explain some of the conflicting results previously published on the effects of Bt crops on D. magna. Using 95% confidence intervals for the means of the five maize lines for all measured parameters of D. magna performance in our study, we captured the natural range of variation. This information is useful for the interpretation of observed differences in D. magna performance between a GE plant and its non-GE comparator as it helps judging whether observed effects are of biological relevance. If differences between a GE and comparator line are observed and their biological relevance needs to be assessed in future risk assessments of GE maize, 1) the data on natural variation of the different parameters generated by previous studies can be informative (e.g. data from our study for maize fed D. magna); 2) for additional experiments the inclusion of multiple unrelated non-GE comparators should be considered; In addition, it should be taken into account that nutritional stress can affect the outcome of the study.


Subject(s)
Daphnia/physiology , Plants, Genetically Modified/physiology , Zea mays/physiology , Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Crops, Agricultural/metabolism , Daphnia/drug effects , Endotoxins/metabolism , Flour , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Insecticides/pharmacology , Plant Breeding , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified/toxicity , Pollen , Risk Assessment , Zea mays/metabolism
17.
Parasite ; 28: 8, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528357

ABSTRACT

In Cameroon, pyrethroid-only long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are still largely used for malaria control. The present study assessed the efficacy of such LLINs against a multiple-resistant population of the major malaria vector, Anopheles coluzzii, in the city of Yaoundé via a cone bioassay and release-recapture experimental hut trial. Susceptibility of field mosquitoes in Yaoundé to pyrethroids, DDT, carbamates and organophosphate insecticides was investigated using World Health Organization (WHO) bioassay tube tests. Mechanisms of insecticide resistance were characterised molecularly. Efficacy of unwashed PermaNet® 2.0 was evaluated against untreated control nets using a resistant colonised strain of An. coluzzii. Mortality, exophily and blood feeding inhibition were estimated. Field collected An. coluzzii displayed high resistance with mortality rates of 3.5% for propoxur (0.1%), 4.16% for DDT (4%), 26.9% for permethrin (0.75%), 50.8% for deltamethrin (0.05%), and 80% for bendiocarb (0.1%). High frequency of the 1014F west-Africa kdr allele was recorded in addition to the overexpression of several detoxification genes, such as Cyp6P3, Cyp6M2, Cyp9K1, Cyp6P4 Cyp6Z1 and GSTe2. A low mortality rate (23.2%) and high blood feeding inhibition rate (65%) were observed when resistant An. coluzzii were exposed to unwashed PermaNet® 2.0 net compared to control untreated net (p < 0.001). Furthermore, low personal protection (52.4%) was observed with the resistant strain, indicating reduction of efficacy. The study highlights the loss of efficacy of pyrethroid-only nets against mosquitoes exhibiting high insecticide resistance and suggests a switch to new generation bed nets to improve control of malaria vector populations in Yaoundé.


Subject(s)
Anopheles , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Mosquito Control , Mosquito Vectors , Pyrethrins , Africa, Western , Animals , Anopheles/drug effects , Anopheles/genetics , Cameroon , Insecticide-Treated Bednets/standards , Insecticides/pharmacology , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/transmission , Mosquito Control/standards , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Prevalence , Pyrethrins/pharmacology
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 194, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are currently the primary method of malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa and have contributed to a significant reduction in malaria burden over the past 15 years. However, this progress is threatened by the wide-scale selection of insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. It is, therefore, important to accelerate the generation of evidence for new classes of LLINs. METHODS: This protocol presents a three-arm superiority, single-blinded, cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of 2 novel dual-active ingredient LLINs on epidemiological and entomological outcomes in Benin, a malaria-endemic area with highly pyrethroid-resistant vector populations. The study arms consist of (i) Royal Guard® LLIN, a net combining a pyrethroid (alpha-cypermethrin) plus an insect growth regulator (pyriproxyfen), which in the adult female is known to disrupt reproduction and egg fertility; (ii) Interceptor G2® LLIN, a net incorporating two adulticides (alpha-cypermethrin and chlorfenapyr) with different modes of action; and (iii) the control arm, Interceptor® LLIN, a pyrethroid (alpha-cypermethrin) only LLIN. In all arms, one net for every 2 people will be distributed to each household. Sixty clusters were identified and randomised 1:1:1 to each study arm. The primary outcome is malaria case incidence measured over 24 months through active case detection in a cohort of 25 children aged 6 months to 10 years, randomly selected from each cluster. Secondary outcomes include 1) malaria infection prevalence (all ages) and prevalence of moderate to severe anaemia in children under 5 years old, measured at 6 and 18 months post-intervention; 2) entomological indices measured every 3 months using human landing catches over 24 months. Insecticide resistance intensity will also be monitored over the study period. DISCUSSION: This study is the second cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of these next-generation LLINs to control malaria transmitted by insecticide-resistant mosquitoes. The results of this study will form part of the WHO evidence-based review to support potential public health recommendations of these nets and shape malaria control strategies of sub-Saharan Africa for the next decade. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03931473 , registered on 30 April 2019.


Subject(s)
Insecticide Resistance/drug effects , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Malaria/prevention & control , Mosquito Control/methods , Mosquito Vectors/physiology , Animals , Benin/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Insecticides/pharmacology , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/transmission , Prevalence , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology
19.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200313, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533870

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is the sole vector of urban arboviruses in French Guiana. Overtime, the species has been responsible for the transmission of viruses during yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika outbreaks. Decades of vector control have produced resistant populations to deltamethrin, the sole molecule available to control adult mosquitoes in this French Territory. OBJECTIVES: Our surveillance aimed to provide public health authorities with data on insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti populations and other species of interest in French Guiana. Monitoring resistance to the insecticide used for vector control and to other molecule is a key component to develop an insecticide resistance management plan. METHODS: In 2009, we started to monitor resistance phenotypes to deltamethrin and target-site mechanisms in Ae. aegypti populations across the territory using the WHO impregnated paper test and allelic discrimination assay. FINDINGS: Eight years surveillance revealed well-installed resistance and the dramatic increase of alleles on the sodium voltage-gated gene, known to confer resistance to pyrethroids (PY). In addition, we observed that populations were resistant to malathion (organophosphorous, OP) and alpha-cypermethrin (PY). Some resistance was also detected to molecules from the carbamate family. Finally, those populations somehow recovered susceptibility against fenitrothion (OP). In addition, other species distributed in urban areas revealed to be also resistant to pyrethroids. CONCLUSION: The resistance level can jeopardize the efficiency of chemical adult control in absence of other alternatives and conducts to strongly rely on larval control measures to reduce mosquito burden. Vector control strategies need to evolve to maintain or regain efficacy during epidemics.


Subject(s)
Aedes/drug effects , Insect Vectors/genetics , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Insecticides/pharmacology , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Aedes/genetics , Aedes/virology , Animals , French Guiana , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Mosquito Control/methods , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419204

ABSTRACT

Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius and C. hemipterus, are common blood-sucking ectoparasites of humans with a large geographical distribution, worldwide. In France, little is known about the status of bed bugs' infestation and their resistance to insecticides, particularly, pyrethroids. Here, we aimed to find mutations in the kdr gene, known to be involved in resistance to insecticides. We gathered bed bugs from various infested locations, including 17 private houses, 12 HLM building complex, 29 apartments, 2 EHPAD, and 2 immigrants' residences. A total of 1211 bed bugs were collected and morphologically identified as C. lectularius. Two fragments of the kdr gene, encompassing codons V419L and L925I, were successfully amplified for 156 specimens. We recorded sense mutation in the first amplified fragment (kdr1) in 89 out of 156 (57%) samples, in which in 61 out of 89 (68.5%) sequences, a change of valine (V) into leucine (L) V419L was observed. Within the second fragment (kdr2), a homozygous mutation was recorded in 73 out of 156 (46.7%) specimens at the codon 925. At this position, 43 out of 73 (58.9%) specimens had a sense mutation leading to the replacement of leucine (L) by isoleucine (I). Among 162 mutant sequences analyzed (89 for the kdr1 fragment and 73 for the kdr2 one), we detected single point mutation in 26.6%, while 73.4% presented the mutation in both kdr1 and kdr2 fragments. All modifications recorded in bed bug populations of Paris are described to be involved in the knockdown resistance (kdr) against pyrethroids.


Subject(s)
Bedbugs , Insecticides , Pyrethrins , Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels , Animals , Bedbugs/genetics , France , Humans , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Insecticides/pharmacology , Mutation , Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels/genetics
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