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4.
Radiother Oncol ; 176: 83-91, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2015, the Global Task Force on Radiotherapy for Cancer Control (GTFRCC) called for 80% of National Cancer Control Plans (NCCP) to include radiotherapy by 2020. As part of the ongoing ESTRO Global Impact of Radiotherapy in Oncology (GIRO) project, we assessed whether inclusion of radiotherapy in NCCPs correlates with radiotherapy machine availability, national income, and geographic region. METHODS: A previously validated checklist was used to determine whether radiotherapy was included in each country's NCCP. We applied the CCORE optimal radiotherapy utilisation model to the GLOBOCAN 2020 data to estimate the demand for radiotherapy and compared this to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (DIRAC) supply data, stratifying by income level and world region. World regions were defined according to the IAEA. FINDINGS: Complete data (including GLOBOCAN 2020, DIRAC and NCCP) was available for 143 countries. Over half (55%, n = 79) included a radiotherapy-specific checklist item within the plan. Countries which included radiotherapy services planning in their NCCP had a higher median number of machines (1.68 vs 0.75 machines/1000 patients needing radiotherapy, p < 0.001). There was significant regional and income-level heterogeneity in the inclusion of radiotherapy-related items in NCCPs. Low-income and Asia-Pacific countries were least likely to include radiation oncology services planning in their NCCP (p = 0.06 and p = 0.003, respectively). Few countries in the Asia-Pacific (18.6%) had a plan to develop or maintain radiation services, compared to 57% of countries in Europe. INTERPRETATION: Only 55% of current NCCPs included any information regarding radiotherapy, below the GTFRCC's target of 80%. Prioritisation of radiotherapy in NCCPs was correlated with radiotherapy machine availability. There was regional and income-level heterogeneity regarding the inclusion of specific radiotherapy checklist items in the NCCPs. Ongoing efforts are needed to promote the inclusion of radiotherapy in future iterations of NCCPs in order to improve global access to radiation treatment. FUNDING: No direct funding was used in this research.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Radiation Oncology , Humans , Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Delivery of Health Care , International Agencies , Geography , Radiotherapy
6.
Lancet Oncol ; 23(10): e459-e468, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174632

ABSTRACT

Before 2005, cancer and other non-communicable diseases were not yet health and development agenda priorities. Since the 2005 World Health Assembly Resolution, which encouraged WHO, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to jointly work on cancer control, progress was achieved in low-income and middle-income countries on a small scale. Recently, rapid acceleration in UN collaboration and global cancer activities has focused attention in global cancer control. This Policy Review presents the evolution of the IAEA, IARC, and WHO joint advisory service to help countries assess needs and capacities throughout the comprehensive cancer control continuum. We also highlight examples per country, showcasing a snapshot of global good practices to foster an exchange of experiences for continuous improvement in the integrated mission of Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (imPACT) reviews and follow-up support. The future success of progress in cancer control lies in the high-level political and financial commitments. Linking the improvement of cancer services to the strengthening of health systems after the COVID-19 pandemic will also ensure ongoing advances in the delivery of care across the cancer control continuum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Nuclear Energy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , International Agencies , Pandemics , World Health Organization
7.
J Cancer Policy ; 34: 100357, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998883

ABSTRACT

Nuclear technology plays a key role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a clear mandate and strong technical expertise in the delivery of nuclear medicine and radiotherapy technology to developing countries. The IAEA integrates radiotherapy into comprehensive cancer control and engages with other partners to address cancer control in a holistic way. With strong support from African leaders and heads of key international agencies, the IAEA launched Rays of Hope at the Africa Union summit on World Cancer Day this February. It is an ambitious global initiative that will extend to every region for the initiation or expansion of radiotherapy.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Nuclear Energy , Nuclear Medicine , Radiation Oncology , Humans , Developing Countries , International Agencies , Neoplasms/diagnosis
10.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 20(2): 246-272, mayo-ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409604

ABSTRACT

Resumen (analítico) El objetivo de este artículo es comprender las dinámicas de inclusión de niñas, niños y adolescentes venezolanos en los flujos migratorios internacionales en la ciudad de Bogotá. A partir de una investigación mixta, se presentan cifras frente a la relación migración y derecho a la educación, complementadas con entrevistas semiestructuradas y grupos focales a representantes de instituciones, organizaciones de la sociedad civil y agencias internacionales, así como resultado de talleres de cartografía social con menores venezolanos. El análisis se realiza desde el enfoque de interseccionalidad en los entornos escolares, más allá de la escuela. Se evidencia que los desarrollos frente a las intersecciones entre edad, género, etnia, discapacidad, clase social, entre otras, son bastante precarios en los estudios de migración en Colombia.


Abstract (analytical) The objective of this article is to understand the dynamics of inclusion of Venezuelan Children and Adolescents in international migratory flows in the city of Bogotá. Based on a mixed research, figures are presented regarding the relationship between migration and right to education, complemented with semi-structured interviews and focus groups with representatives of institutions, civil society organizations and international agencies, as well as the results of social mapping workshops with Venezuelan minors. The analysis is carried out from the intersectionality approach in school environments, beyond the school, showing that the developments in the intersections between age, gender, ethnicity, disability, social class, among others, are quite precarious in studies of migration in Colombia.


Resumo (analítico) O objetivo deste artigo é compreender a dinâmica de inclusão de crianças e adolescentes venezuelanos nos fluxos migratórios internacionais na cidade de Bogotá. Com base em pesquisas mistas, são apresentados números sobre a relação entre migração e direito à educação, complementados com entrevistas semiestruturadas e grupos focais com representantes de instituições, organizações da sociedade civil e agências internacionais, bem como os resultados de oficinas de mapeamento social com menores venezuelanos. A análise é realizada a partir da abordagem da interseccionalidade em ambientes escolares, além da escola, mostrando que os desenvolvimentos nas interseções entre idade, gênero, etnia, deficiência, classe social, entre outros, são bastante precários nos estudos de migração na Colômbia.


Subject(s)
Social Class , Focus Groups , Education , Pandemics , Human Migration , International Agencies , Mainstreaming, Education , Minors
14.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Centro Nacional de Salud Pública; 1 ed; Jul. 2022. 15 p. ilus.(Serie Nota Técnica, 032).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS, MINSAPERÚ, INS-PERU | ID: biblio-1402624

ABSTRACT

La presente publicación describe las recomendaciones emitidas por las autoridades nacionales de los países de España, Estados Unidos, Canadá, Alemania, Francia, Reino Unido, OMS/OPS, CDCUSA, y la información de las vacunas autorizadas por la FDA (Food and Drug Administration), Agencia Europea de Medicamentos (EMA) y la agencia reguladora de medicamentos de Reino Unido. Ninguno de los organismos internacionales revisados recomienda una vacunación masiva contra la viruela símica en población general. La OMS, Reino Unido, España y Estados Unidos recomiendan la vacunación pre-exposición a personas con riesgo ocupacional alto para la exposición al virus de la viruela símica, que incluye a trabajadores de salud específicos. Únicamente España, Alemania y Reino Unido añaden la recomendación de vacunación pre-exposición a grupos que tienen prácticas sexuales de alto riesgo, incluyendo a hombres que tienen sexo con hombres, población gay y bisexual y el caso de España también a personas que viven con VIH


Subject(s)
Variola virus , International Agencies , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Smallpox Vaccine , Mass Vaccination , Monkeypox , Sexual and Gender Minorities
16.
NTM ; 30(2): 245-270, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536307

ABSTRACT

After WWII, global concerns about the uses of nuclear energy and radiation sources in agriculture, medicine, and industry brought about calls for radiation protection. At the beginning of the 1960s radiation protection involved the identification and measurement of all sources of radiation to which a population was exposed, and the evaluation and assessment of populations in terms of the biological hazard their exposure posed. Mexico was not an exception to this international trend. This paper goes back to the origins of the first studies on the effects of radiation and on radioprotective compounds in the Genetics and Radiobiology Program of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy founded in 1960, at a time when the effects of radiation on living beings and radiation protection demanded the attention of highly localized groups of scientists and the creation of international as well as national institutions, and its connection to dosimetry and radiation protection until the 1990s. This historical reconstruction examines the circulation of knowledge, scientists, and their material and cognitive resources, to show that radiobiology, with dosimetry and radiation protection as cases in point, not only were carried out with high international standards in parallel with international agencies, but also reflected local material needs, including the standardization of new experimental techniques.


Subject(s)
Nuclear Energy , Radiation Protection , History, 20th Century , International Agencies , Mexico , Radiobiology
17.
NTM ; 30(2): 167-195, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536308

ABSTRACT

This paper draws attention to the role of the IAEA in shaping radiation dosimetry practices, instrumentation, and standards in the late 1950s and 1960s. It traces the beginnings of the IAEA's radiation dose intercomparison program which targeted all member states and involved the WHO so as to standardize dosimetry on a global level. To standardize dosimetric measurement methods, techniques, and instruments, however, one had to devise a method of comparing absorbed dose measurements in one laboratory with those performed in others with a high degree of accuracy. In 1964 the IAEA thus started to build up what I call the "global experiment," an intercomparison of radiation doses with participating laboratories from many of its member states. To carry out the process of worldwide standardization in radiation dosimetry, I argue, an organization with the diplomatic power and global reach of the IAEA was absolutely necessary. Thus, "global experiment" indicates a novel understanding of the experimental process. What counts as an experiment became governed by a process that was designed and strictly regulated by an international organization; it took place simultaneously in several laboratories across the globe, while experimental data became centrally owned and alienated from those that produced it.


Subject(s)
Nuclear Energy , Radiation Protection , Radiation , International Agencies , Radiometry
18.
NTM ; 30(2): 197-221, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499559

ABSTRACT

The acquisition of a nuclear power reactor from the North American company Westinghouse in 1964 not only brought atomic practices and knowledge to Spain but also introduced new methods of industrial organization and management, as well as regulations created by organizations such as the US Atomic Energy Commission (US AEC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This article analyzes the history of the knowledge, regulations and experimental practices relating to radiation safety and protection that traveled with this reactor to an industrial space: the Zorita nuclear power plant. Within this space, the appropriation, use, and coproduction of knowledge and practices were conditioned by political, economic, industrial and social factors, and by the engineers, researchers and other professionals who contributed expert knowledge. Material held in the Tecnatom Historical Archive-the engineering company that coordinated construction of the plant-is the main source for this work, which delves into the history of knowledge and atomic technologies and adds to the historiography of radiological protection in Spain.


Subject(s)
Nuclear Energy , Radiation Protection , History, 20th Century , International Agencies , Nuclear Power Plants , Spain
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