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Science ; 377(6612): 1241, 2022 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108013


The ocean is Earth's greatest climate mitigator, but it cannot do its work without biodiversity. Yet, accelerating climate change, unsustainable fishing, and widespread plastic and other pollutants, combined with increased resource demands, are threatening life throughout our global ocean. This is particularly acute in the two-thirds of the ocean (the high seas and seabed below) located beyond national boundaries, and as such, no state can solve these problems alone. Since 2018, member states of the United Nations have been crafting an international treaty to protect high-seas biodiversity and to ensure that human pressures are kept to a level that sustains this variety. Last month, the fifth and supposedly final session of the UN Intergovernmental Conference fell short of this goal. Unfortunately, disagreements on fundamental issues meant that negotiators ran out of time. Achieving a timely treaty requires resuming the dialogue as soon as possible with more visible public and political support to surmount remaining hurdles.

Environmental Pollutants , International Cooperation , Humans , Oceans and Seas , Plastics , United Nations
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078845


Although an enormous amount of aid has been invested in water and sanitation, few studies have analyzed the criteria used by the international community to select recipient countries and allocate official development assistance (ODA). We examined whether ODA has been allocated in proportion to water and sanitation needs and whether this has improved over the past 18 years. For water, 141 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and least-developed countries (LDCs) were selected, whereas 104 LMICs and LDCs were chosen for sanitation due to a lack of data. For aid disbursement, we used ODA data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Developments (OECD) Creditor Reporting System (CRS) from 2002 to 2019. OECD CRS data on water and sanitation are available from 2002 onward. For water and sanitation coverage, we collected data from the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program from 2002 to 2019. We examined annual ODA trends and performed linear regression analysis adjusted for GNI per capita using log-transformed dependent variables. Neither total ODA nor ODA per capita was found to be associated with countries' needs for water and sanitation. For instance, no significant association was detected between at least basic water and sanitation coverage and total ODA per capita in 2019 (log coefficient: 0.002, p = 0.52). The global community needs to determine the reasons for and means of addressing this discrepancy.

International Cooperation , Sanitation , Developing Countries , Global Health , Water
J Law Med ; 29(3): 663-676, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056658


The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) provides for global minimum standard patents. These patents potentially limit access to products and processes for the surveillance, tracking, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. A possible solution currently under consideration is a TRIPS waiver of the implementation, application and enforcement for the prevention, containment or treatment of COVID-19. This article addresses the ways that TRIPS patents might be mediated including through TRIPS flexibilities. The article argues that there are sufficient means of derogating from patents (and potentially copyright, industrial designs and undisclosed information), although they alone will not resolve the access problems. The article concludes that the key patent problem is the transfer of know-how and that developing new ideas about addressing these patent know-how transfers is the presently unaddressed challenge.

COVID-19 , Intellectual Property , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Commerce , Drug Industry , Humans , International Cooperation , Pandemics/prevention & control
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 9714591, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046074


The development of a new type of international relations is the advancement and improvement of diplomatic thinking among contemporary nations. It also serves as a crucial yardstick for assessing the future global pattern and the direction of order changes. Proper interaction between major powers can foster the growth of new international relations and has a significant impact on advancing global cooperation and the promotion of human peace. The goal of this essay is to examine how friendly interactions between major powers have affected the development of new international relations. A deep learning network model is presented for this purpose. The deep learning model was used to identify the emotions of the survey results, analyze each person's emotional tendencies, and summarize and compare the data. Relevant questionnaire surveys were conducted using the online questionnaire survey method on individuals in various countries. The survey results in this paper demonstrate that 96.5 percent of Chinese, 89.3 percent of Russians, and 81.6 percent of Americans support friendly relations between major nations. Only a very small percentage of the investigators supported hostile relations, with their support being 1.06 percent, 3.11 percent, and 2.94 percent, respectively. Therefore, creating a win-win partnership between major powers is exactly what the people of all nations are calling for. In contrast to the past, it is no longer hostile and violent. People anticipate that more great powers will coexist peacefully.

Deep Learning , International Cooperation , Data Analysis , Humans , Internationality , United States
Front Public Health ; 10: 894816, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35910909


The rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020 has impacted the politics, economy and society of countries around the world. The public health diplomacy system through which developed countries in Europe and America used to provide vertical one-way assistance to developing countries faces huge challenges. How emerging economies can cooperate to fight the pandemic on the basis of mutual trust and mutual benefit has become an urgent issue. In this paper, we examine the impact of political mutual trust on the effectiveness of pandemic prevention and control from the perspective of establishing strategic partnerships between emerging economies. Furthermore, taking into account the huge differences between emerging economies, this paper explores institutional distance, cultural distance, and geographical distance-the adjustment effect of the control effect. Studies have shown that the improvement of political mutual trust is conducive to the formation of a community of shared futures between countries and has a positive effect on curbing the spread of the pandemic. The increase of the three-dimensional distance of institutions, culture, and geography will weaken the effect of establishing strategic partners for pandemic prevention and control. This paper explores a new model of horizontal international cooperation among emerging economies, and provides a reference for emerging economies to deal with common globalization issues in the future.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , International Cooperation , Pandemics , Politics , Public Health
Rev Sci Tech ; 41(1): 211-218, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925621


The World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH, founded as OIE) is the recognised intergovernmental standard-setting organisation for animal health and welfare. The WOAH mandate is to support its members in the prevention of the spread of animal diseases of concern, as listed in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Terrestrial Code). Once a disease, infection or infestation is listed, national Veterinary Authorities have the obligation regularly to notify WOAH of the presence or absence of the listed disease. In regard to insects, the scope of the Terrestrial Code limits its recommendations to preserving the health of bees (species of the genus Apis, extended to the genus Bombus and to the stingless bees for one disease). However, it does not include standards to mitigate the potential animal health risks associated with the international trade of other insects. A description of the standard-setting process and a review of the history of the standards for bee health highlight the resources and requirements to expand the scope of the Terrestrial Code to include recommendations for animal health risk mitigation measures for the safety of international trade in insects. Any initiative to develop guidance on insect trade should include WOAH in its role as the sole global standard-setting organisation on animal health and welfare matters. This aligns with the WOAH commitment to a One Health approach.

L'Organisation mondiale de la santé animale (OMSA, fondée en tant qu'OIE) est l'organisation inter-gouvernementale reconnue pour l'élaboration de normes relatives à la santé et au bien-être des animaux. L'OMSA a pour mandat d'apporter un soutien à ses Membres afin de prévenir la propagation des maladies animales d'importance majeure listées dans le Code sanitaire pour les animaux terrestres (Code terrestre). Dès lors qu'une maladie, une infection ou une infestation figure sur cette liste, les Autorités vétérinaires ont l'obligation de notifier régulièrement à l'OMSA la présence ou l'absence de cette maladie sur leur territoire. S'agissant des insectes, le champ d'application du Code terrestre limite ses recommandations à la préservation de la santé des abeilles (espèces du genre Apis, avec l'inclusion du genre Bombus et des abeilles sans dard pour une maladie). Néanmoins, le Code terrestre ne contient pas de normes visant à atténuer les risques pour la santé animale associés aux échanges internationaux d'autres insectes. La description faite par les auteurs du processus d'élaboration des normes et leur aperçu rétrospectif de la mise au point des normes relatives à la santé des abeilles font ressortir les ressources et les conditions nécessaires pour élargir le champ d'application du Code terrestre afin d'y inclure des recommandations portant sur les mesures d'atténuation des risques pour la santé animale applicables à la sécurité sanitaire des échanges internationaux d'insectes. Toute initiative visant à fournir des orientations sur les échanges d'insectes devrait inclure l'OMSA dans son rôle d'unique organisation chargée de l'élaboration des normes internationales relatives à la santé animale et au bien-être des animaux. Cette exigence est en cohérence avec l'engagement de l'OMSA en faveur de l'approche Une seule santé.

La Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal (OMSA, fundada como OIE) es la organización intergubernamental facultada para ejercer funciones normativas en materia de sanidad y bienestar de los animales. La OMSA tiene por mandato ayudar a sus miembros a prevenir la propagación de una serie de enfermedades animales de importancia, recogidas en el Código Sanitario para los Animales Terrestres (Código Terrestre) de la OMSA. La inclusión de una enfermedad, infección o infestación en la lista de la OMSA obliga a las autoridades veterinarias nacionales a dar cuenta periódicamente a la OMSA de la presencia o ausencia de esa patología en su territorio. Por lo que respecta a los insectos, en el Código Terrestre solo se formulan una serie de recomendaciones para proteger la salud de las abejas (categoría que corresponde a las especies del género Apis, extensible también al género Bombus y, en el caso de una enfermedad, a las abejas sin aguijón). El Código Terrestre, sin embargo, no contiene norma alguna destinada a mitigar los posibles riesgos zoosanitarios ligados al comercio internacional de otros insectos. Los autores describen el proceso normativo y repasan la historia de las normas relativas a la sanidad de las abejas, con lo que ponen de relieve los recursos y demás elementos necesarios para conferir mayor alcance al Código Terrestre incluyendo en él recomendaciones sobre medidas de mitigación del riesgo zoosanitario para un comercio seguro de insectos a escala internacional. Toda iniciativa encaminada a marcar pautas sobre el comercio de insectos debería incluir a la OMSA, única organización con potestad normativa mundial sobre temas de sanidad y bienestar de los animales, lo que además se encuadra en el compromiso de la OMSA con los planteamientos de «Una sola salud¼.

Animal Diseases , Veterinary Medicine , Animal Diseases/prevention & control , Animal Welfare , Animals , Bees , Commerce , Global Health , Insecta , International Cooperation , Internationality
Rev Sci Tech ; 41(1): 165-169, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925626


The decision to import and release biological control agents is a national one that may involve various authorities. It will be overseen by the national plant protection organisation that implements the responsibilities described in the International Plant Protection Convention. This article provides an overview of the decision processes and roles of these authorities in Argentina. Argentina has a long history of coordination with the other Southern Cone nations on plant protection and other technical sanitary and phytosanitary matters associated with trade. This article reports on 25 years of evaluation, import and release of exotic biological control agents. Not a single import with a permit has faced rejection on the basis of phytosanitary requirements. This record highlights the region's commitment to integrated pest management approaches that rely on international shipments of live insects and other beneficial organisms.

La décision d'importer et d'autoriser des lâchers d'agents de lutte biologique est du ressort national, avec la participation de plusieurs autorités compétentes. Elle est supervisée par l'organisation nationale de protection des végétaux, qui est chargée d'exercer les responsabilités prévues au titre de la Convention internationale pour la protection des végétaux. Les auteurs donnent une vue d'ensemble des procédures décisionnelles et des fonctions respectives des autorités compétentes en Argentine. L'Argentine et les autres nations du Cône Sud ont une longue histoire commune de coordination de la protection des végétaux et d'autres questions sanitaires et phytosanitaires en lien avec les échanges internationaux. Les auteurs font le point sur 25 années d'évaluations, d'importations et de lâchers d'agents de lutte biologique exotiques dans le pays. Aucune importation ayant fait l'objet d'une autorisation préalable n'a été rejetée pour des motifs de conformité phytosanitaire. Ce constat souligne l'engagement fort de la région en faveur de méthodes intégrées de gestion des nuisibles reposant sur le transport international d'insectes vivants et d'autres organismes utiles.

La de importar y liberar al medio agentes de control biológico es una decisión de carácter nacional en la que pueden intervenir diversas autoridades y que supervisará la organización nacional de protección fitosanitaria encargada de trasladar a la práctica las responsabilidades enunciadas en la Convención Internacional de Protección Fitosanitaria. Los autores presentan a grandes líneas los procesos decisorios y las funciones de dichas autoridades en la Argentina, país que tiene una larga trayectoria de coordinación con otras naciones del Cono Sur en materia de protección de los vegetales y otras cuestiones técnicas de índole sanitaria y fitosanitaria ligadas al comercio. Los autores dan cuenta de 25 años de evaluación, importación y liberación al medio de agentes exóticos de control biológico. En ese tiempo, ni una sola importación provista de permiso ha sido denegada en aplicación de requisitos fitosanitarios. Semejante historial pone de relieve el compromiso de la región con fórmulas de gestión integrada de plagas que reposan en los envíos internacionales de insectos vivos y otros organismos beneficiosos.

Biological Control Agents , Quarantine , Animals , Argentina , Commerce , International Cooperation , Risk Assessment
Torture ; 32(1,2): 201-218, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35950434


PURPOSE: Strategic human rights litigation is often associated with filing cases before in-ternational and regional courts and treaty bodies. This article examines ways in which significant advances in protecting the rights of victims of torture and similar crimes can be achieved through domestic courts, even in countries with limited respect for the rule of l aw. METHODOLOGY: This article does not cover universal jurisdiction or transnational cases, but rather focuses on how domestic courts can be used to address torture that takes place in the same country. It is not a review of global practice; rather, it is based on observations drawn from the author's personal experience of over 25 years of strategic litigation and ad-vocacy against torture; lessons learned from the work of partner organizations and lawyers from around the world; and the results of three research projects commissioned by the Open Society Justice Initiative (OSJI): one on the impact of strategic litigation on torture in custody in Argentina, Kenya, and Turkey (OSJI, 2017); another on how do-mestic courts in Latin America handle repa-rations for torture and similar human rights violations (Garcia Garcia, Fierro Ferráez, and Lisitsyna, 2019); and a third on strategic liti-gation against torture in Asia (Bokhari, 2020). CONCLUSION: While acknowledging continued challenges, the author demonstrates that do-mestic courts are often better placed than their international counterparts to address several aspects of human rights litigation and protection of victims' rights and in some cir-cumstances can have broader impact.

Torture , Crime , Human Rights , Humans , International Cooperation , Social Problems
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272440, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921315


Despite considerable scholarly attention on the institutional and normative aspects of development cooperation, its longitudinal dynamics unfolding at the global level have rarely been investigated. Focusing on aid, we examine the evolving global structure of development cooperation induced by aid flows in its entirety. Representing annual aid flows between donors and recipients from 1970 to 2013 as a series of networks, we apply hierarchical stochastic block models to extensive aid-flow data that cover not only the aid behavior of the major OECD donors but also that of other emerging donors, including China. Despite a considerable degree of external expansion and internal diversification of aid relations over the years, the analysis has uncovered a temporally persistent structure of aid networks. The latter comprises, on the one hand, a limited number of major donors with far-reaching resources and, on the other hand, a large number of mostly poor but globally well-connected recipients. The results cast doubt on the efficacy of recurrent efforts for "aid reform" in substantially changing the global aid flow pattern.

International Cooperation , China
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 111, 2022 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35978323


BACKGROUND: Global health research partnerships have been scrutinised for how they operate and criticised for perpetuating inequities. Guidance to inform fair partnership practice has proliferated and the movement to decolonise global health has added momentum for change. In light of this evolving context, we sought in this study to document contemporary experiences of partnership from the perspective of stakeholders in four sub-Saharan African research institutions. METHODS: We conducted qualitative interviews with 20 stakeholders at research institutions in four countries in anglophone eastern and southern Africa. Interview questions were informed by published guidance on equitable research partnerships. Data was analysed through an iterative process of inductive and deductive coding, supported by NVivo software. RESULTS: Early-career, mid-career and senior researchers and research administrators from four sub-Saharan African research institutions described wide-ranging experiences of partnership with high-income country collaborators. Existing guidelines for partnership provided good coverage of issues that participants described as being the key determinants of a healthy partnership, including mutual respect, role clarity and early involvement of all partners. However, there was almost no mention of guidelines being used to inform partnership practice. Participants considered the key benefits of partnership to be capacity strengthening and access to research funding. Meanwhile, participants continued to experience a range of well-documented inequities, including exclusion from agenda setting, study design, data analysis and authorship; and relationships that were exploitative and dominated by high-income country partners' interests. Participants also reported emerging issues where their institution had been the prime recipient of funds. These included high-income country partners being unwilling to accept a subordinate role and failing to comply with reporting requirements. CONCLUSIONS: Insights from stakeholders in four sub-Saharan African research institutions suggest that contemporary global health research partnerships generate considerable benefits but continue to exhibit longstanding inequities and reveal emerging tensions. Our findings suggest that long-term support targeted towards institutions and national research systems remains essential to fulfil the potential of research led from sub-Saharan Africa. High-income country stakeholders need to find new roles in partnerships and stakeholders from sub-Saharan Africa must continue to tackle challenges presented by the resource-constrained contexts in which they commonly operate.

International Cooperation , Research Personnel , Africa South of the Sahara , Global Health , Humans
Neurochem Res ; 47(9): 2446-2453, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986835


"Neurochemistry" in Japan was established by intensive cooperation between psychiatrists and their collaborators, biochemists, who have sought to investigate the etiology of mental illness to establish treatments. It was a completely different direction from the flow of modern biochemistry that was born using microorganisms or eukaryotic cells as research materials. Neurochemists aimed to elucidate the physiological or pathological functions of the brain through chemical analysis of the morphologically and functionally unique complexity and characteristics of brain. I here describe some of the origin and history of neurochemistry in Japan how researchers estabIished Japanese Society for Neurochemistry in1958 Yasuzo Tsukada as a president in collaboration with Isamu Sano, Genkichiro Takagaki and Masanori Kurokawa. The formation of research groups with the support of MEXT played a major role in promoting neurochemistry. Many international conferences held in Japan promoted the activity of neurochemistry: The International Society of Physiology (Tokyo) in 1965, and the Japan-US Neurochemistry Conference (Oiso) in 1965, and in 1967 the International Conference on Biochemistry (Tokyo). These meetings offered excitements to younger researchers by close interaction with the world top class researchers. Government established Brain Research Institutes in several national universities. The Asia-Pacific Society for Neurochemistry (APSN) was established in 1991 subsequent to an initiative by JSN. APSN presidents: Yasuzo Tsukada, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, and Akio Wanaka contributed to promote neurochemistry. The 4th ISN meeting was organized at Tokyo (Yasuzo Tsukada, president) in 1973 and the 15th ISN meeting at Kyoto (Kinya Kuriyama, president) in 1995. Kunihiko Suzuki and Kazuhiro Ikenaka as ISN Presidents greatly contributed in promoting the activity of ISN.

Dementia , Neurochemistry , Humans , International Cooperation , Japan , Societies, Scientific
J Environ Radioact ; 251-252: 106980, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969909


A global-scale simulation of the 133Xe atmospheric background is automated at the French National Data Center (NDC) for the purpose of categorizing the radionuclide measurements of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) International Monitoring System (IMS). These simulations take into account 133Xe releases from all known major industrial emitters in the world, compiled from the literature and described as constant values. Emission data measured directly at the stack of the Institute for Radio Elements (IRE), a medical isotope production facility located in Fleurus (Belgium), were implemented in the simulations with a time resolution of 15 minutes. This work discusses the contribution of real (measured) emissions to the prediction of the 133Xe atmospheric background at IMS noble gas stations and at a location near Paris, for which IMS-like 133Xe measurements were available. For the purpose of this study, simulations initiated with the IRE measured emissions were run in parallel to those with the a priori emissions used to date. The benefits of including actual emissions in the simulations were found as a function of the distance between the station and the source of the release. At the closest stations, i.e., near Paris (France) and at Schauinsland, Freiburg (Germany), respectively 250 and 400 km from Fleurus, the simulated activity concentrations differed by a factor greater than 2 more than one third of the time, and by a factor of more than 5 about 10% of the time. No significant or detectable differences were found beyond 1500-2000 km. Furthermore, at the Paris station, the timing of the measured peaks was better reproduced with the actual emission data. However, not all peak amplitudes were correctly reproduced even though the real emissions were used, highlighting the remaining uncertainties, primarily in the meteorological data and transport modeling.

Air Pollutants, Radioactive , Radiation Monitoring , Air Pollutants, Radioactive/analysis , International Cooperation , Isotopes , Xenon Radioisotopes/analysis
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273546, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994507


In the past 40 years, the continuous strengthening of the greenhouse effect has led to a significant increase in the global average temperature. Although people's understanding of climate change has been strengthened, the world has not yet witnessed a significant decline in pollutant emissions; hence it is imperative to get to the root cause. This paper is based on the STIRPAT model framework and uses the panel data of G20 countries over the period 1999-2019 to examine the role of financial development on carbon emissions under good governance. The results show that financial development significantly promotes carbon dioxide emissions, and the impact presents an inverted "U"-shaped trend when the quadratic term of financial development is introduced. Surprisingly, governance quality indicators increase carbon emissions. However, financial development accompanied by good governance suppresses carbon emissions. Moreover, according to the grouped results of developed and developing countries, different nations should adopt differentiated strategies in development finance to implement the carbon emission targets proposed by the G20. In addition, this paper also confirms the existence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis. In light of this, policymakers should optimize the quality of governance while shifting their agendas toward environmentally responsible financial practices to promote financial development to improve environmental quality effectively. Furthermore, strengthen international cooperation, enhance public environmental protection concepts, and take joint actions to achieve low-carbon and win-win results.

Carbon Dioxide , Economic Development , Climate Change , Greenhouse Effect , Humans , International Cooperation
Yale J Biol Med ; 95(2): 271-280, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35782474


This paper presents an ethical argument in support of an international Pandemic Treaty. It argues that an international Pandemic Treaty is the best way to mark progress on global vaccine equity and broader issues of global pandemic preparedness and response which came to light during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Section I evaluates principles of multilateral charity, national security, and international diplomacy standardly invoked in debates about global vaccine allocation and argues that these approaches fall short. Section II explicates notions of solidarity, duties to the least well-off, and mutual aid as ethical values more fitting for an era of emerging infectious diseases. Section III relates the discussion to an international Pandemic Treaty and presents legal, pragmatic, and ethical reasons to support it. The paper concludes that in an interconnected world, fair sharing of vaccines between nations is morally mandatory.

COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , International Cooperation , Pandemics/prevention & control