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1.
Recent Adv Food Nutr Agric ; 15(1): 59-73, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is amongst the most substantial mental health problems in elderly people, and inflammation is an underlying mechanism for cognitive impairment. The dietary inflammatory index (DII®) reflects the overall inflammatory potential of individuals' diets. The current study aimed to assess the relationship between the DII and cognitive function among the Iranian old population. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 221 subjects≥65 years old in healthcare centers in five socioeconomically distinct districts of Tehran, Iran. Dietary intake data were obtained using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Energy-adjusted-DII (E-DIITM) scores were calculated for each participant according to a total of 35 food parameters, which were available from the FFQ. Mini mental state examination (MMSE), a brief screening questionnaire was used to assess cognitive function. RESULTS: E-DII scores were not significantly associated with cognitive function, both in the crude model (ß=-0.04, p-value=0.82) and after adjusting for potential confounders (ß=0.22, pvalue= 0.14). Additionally, in the unadjusted model, individuals in the highest tertile of E-DII score had increased odds of mild cognitive impairment (OR=1.13, p-trend=0.01) compared to those older adults in the lowest tertile of E-DII score. However, after controlling for potential confounders, these relationships faded (AOR=1.46, p-trend=0.12). CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study showed no significant relationship between E- DII and cognitive function among the Iranian elderly. Future prospective studies should be undertaken to explore the association between diet-associated inflammation and cognitive decline in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction , Diet , Inflammation , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Aged , Male , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Inflammation/epidemiology , Cognition/physiology , Diet/adverse effects , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Aged, 80 and over , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 24(1): 79, 2024 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research on Metabolic Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD) is still in its early stages, with few studies available to identify and predict effective indicators of this disease. On the other hand, early diagnosis and intervention are crucial to reduce the burden of MAFLD. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of eleven anthropometric indices and their appropriate cut-off values as a non-invasive method to predict and diagnose MAFLD in the Iranian population. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed baseline data from the Hoveyzeh Cohort Study, a prospective population-based study conducted in Iran that enrolled a total of 7836 subjects aged 35 to 70 years from May 2016 through August 2018. RESULTS: The optimal cut-off values of anthropometric indices for predicting MAFLD risk were determined for waist circumference(WC) (102.25 cm for males and 101.45 cm for females), body mass index (BMI) (27.80 kg/m2 for males and 28.75 kg/m2 for females), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (0.96 for both males and females), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) (0.56 for males and 0.63 for females), body adiposity index (BAI) (23.24 for males and 32.97 for females), visceral adiposity index (VAI) (1.64 for males and 1.88 for females), weight-adjusted waist index (WWI) (10.63 for males and 11.71 for females), conicity index (CI) (1.29 for males and 1.36 for females), body roundness index (BRI) (4.52 for males and 6.45 for females), relative fat mass (RFM) (28.18 for males and 44.91 for females) and abdominal volume index (AVI) (18.85 for males and for 21.37 females). VAI in males (sensitivity: 77%, specificity: 60%, Youden's Index: 0.37) and RFM in females (sensitivity: 76%, specificity: 59%, Youden's Index: 0.35) were found to have higher sensitivity and specificity compared to other anthropometric indices. Furthermore, anthropometric indices demonstrated statistically significant correlations with various hepatic and cardiometabolic indices. Among these, the strongest positive correlations were observed between WC, BMI, BAI, BRI, and AVI with the Hepatic Steatosis Index (HSI), TyG-BMI, and TyG-WC, as well as between VAI and the Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP), Lipid Accumulation Product (LAP), Cardiometabolic Index (CMI), and the Triglyceride and Glucose (TyG) Index. CONCLUSION: Anthropometric indices are effective in predicting MAFLD risk among Iranian adults, with WWI, VAI, and RFM identified as the strongest predictors. The proposed cutoff values could serve as a straightforward and non-invasive methods for the early diagnosis of MAFLD.


Subject(s)
Anthropometry , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anthropometry/methods , Iran/epidemiology , Aged , Prospective Studies , Body Mass Index , Waist-Hip Ratio , Waist Circumference , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Prognosis , Adiposity , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies
3.
Reprod Health ; 21(1): 79, 2024 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840155

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of quantitative studies that specifically measure the association between the experience of pregnancy and unintended pregnancy. The present study aims to address the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and identify its predictors. Additionally, the study explores whether unintended pregnancy is associated with pregnancy uplifts and hassles. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 488 pregnant women between 20 to 40 weeks' gestation at the comprehensive health center in Tabriz City from February 2022 to January 2023. A cluster sampling method was used for sampling, and data were collected using socio-demographic questionnaires and the Pregnancy Experience Scale (PES). Descriptive statistics were used to describe the socio-demographic characteristics and the prevalence of unintended pregnancy. Binary logistic regression was employed to identify the predictors of pregnancy desirability. To examine the relationship between unintended pregnancy and pregnancy experience, an independent t-test was used for bivariate analysis, and a general linear model (GLM) was utilized for multivariate analysis, with control for potential confounding variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of unintended pregnancies was 30.7% (24.3% unwanted pregnancies, and 6.4% mistimed pregnancies). The results of the binary logistic regression indicated that the lower age of both the woman and her spouse were significant predictors for unintended pregnancy (P < 0.05). Based on an independent t-test, the mean score for uplifts in women with unintended pregnancy was significantly lower than in women with intended pregnancy (mean difference (MD): -4.99; 95% confidence interval (CI): -5.96 to -4.02; p < 0.001), While the mean score of hassles in women with unintended pregnancy was significantly higher than women with intended pregnancy (MD: 2.92; 95% CI: 2.03 to 3.80; p < 0.001). The results of GLM showed that women who had unintended pregnancies had significantly lower scores for uplifts (B = -4.99; 95% CI: -5.96 to -4.03; P < 0.001) and higher scores for hassles (B = 2.92; 95% CI: 2.06 to 3.78; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of unintended pregnancies in Tabriz highlights the importance of targeted interventions to address this issue, considering the policy framework and unique challenges faced by women. Future studies should focus on developing context-specific interventions that effectively meet the needs of women with unintended pregnancies.


An unintended pregnancy is a pregnancy that occurs either when the woman did not intend to get pregnant at all or when she intended to get pregnant but became pregnant at an inappropriate time. This type of pregnancy can have negative effects on the physical and mental health of women during pregnancy and after delivery. So far, no study has investigated the relationship between the experience of pregnancy and unintended pregnancy, and the existing studies, which are qualitative and based on interviews, have examined women's experiences of unintended pregnancy. For the first time, our study examined the relationship between pregnancy experience and unintended pregnancy in 488 women using a valid questionnaire, the Pregnancy Experience Scale, which includes two parts: uplifts and hassles specific to pregnancy. Our findings showed that women who have an unintended pregnancy have a worse pregnancy experience in both uplifts and hassles specific to pregnancy. Also, limited studies have investigated the prevalence of unintended pregnancy in Iran, especially in the city of Tabriz in recent years. Our study, found this prevalence to be 30.7% in Tabriz, with 24.3% of women having no intention of getting pregnant and 6.4% of women experiencing pregnancy at an inappropriate time. The recommendation is to implement strategies to reduce unintended pregnancy rates and improve women's knowledge of fertility, sexuality, and contraception.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy, Unplanned , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Iran/epidemiology , Adult , Prevalence , Young Adult , Adolescent , Pregnancy, Unwanted/psychology
4.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0300736, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cancer is one of the main causes of death in the worldwide. Pancreatic Cancer (PC) is prevalent in developed and increasing in developing countries. PC is important because of its low survival rate, high fatality, and increasing incidence. Therefore, identifying risk factors to prevent its development is necessary. This study aimed to determine incidence of PC and its risk factors in the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS) in Iran. METHOD: This study is a prospective population-based cohort study in the frame of GCS with 15 years of follow-up for PC. GCS was launched in the Golestan province of Iran with 50045 participants who were 40 to 75 years old. variables included: age, gender, education status, smoking, alcohol consumption, opium usage, type of blood group, dyslipidemia, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), family history (FH) of PC, ethnicity, and history of diabetes mellitus (DM). RESULT: Among 50045 participants of GCS during 15 years of follow up, 100 people were diagnosed PC. PC incidence was 0.2%. Age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of PC in the study population was 11.12 per 100,000 person-years. People with age ≥60 years were 46, in 50-59 years old group were 36, and 18 of them were <50 years (p<0.001). The smoking rate in PC group was 27% (p<0.01). Univariate model of cox regression analysis showed age 50-59, ≥60 years compared to <50 years [HR:3.006, 95%CI (1.707-5.294), p<0.001], [HR: 6.727, 95% CI (3.899-11.608), p<0.001], male gender [HR:1.541, 95%CI (1.041-2.281), p = 0.031], opium use [HR:1.436, 95% CI (0.887-2.324), p = 0.141], and smoking [HR:1.884, 95%CI (1.211-2.929), p = 0.005] were predictors for PC. In the multivariate model after adjusting, age 50-59 [HR:2.99, 95% CI (1.698-5.265), p<0.001], and ≥60 years [HR: 6.564, 95% CI (3.797-11.346), p<0.001] was the only predictor for PC. CONCLUSION: This study revealed an incidence of PC 0.2% in GCS in Iran. Main risk factor for PC was older age.


Subject(s)
Pancreatic Neoplasms , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pancreatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Male , Female , Risk Factors , Incidence , Adult , Aged , Follow-Up Studies , Prospective Studies , Smoking/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects
5.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 198, 2024 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849724

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hemotropic Mycoplasma species (hemoplasmas) cause hemolytic anemia in cats worldwide and are recognized as emerging zoonotic pathogens. There is no comprehensive study on the prevalence and species diversity of hemoplasmas in domestic cat populations in different regions in Iran. Thus, the aims of the present study were to provide data on the prevalence and molecular characterization of hemotropic Mycoplasma species in apparently healthy cats from six Iranian provinces with different climates. In addition, potential risk factors associated with hemoplasmosis in cats were assessed. RESULTS: Mycoplasma spp. DNA was detected in the blood of 56 / 361 cats (15.5%) using genus-specific PCR. Further examinations with species-specific PCR and Sanger sequencing showed that 38 cats (10.5%) tested positive for Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum (CMhm), 8 cats (2.2%) tested positive for Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), and 2 cats (0.6%) tested positive for Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis (CMt). Co-infection with CMhm, and Mhf was observed in 7 cats (1.9%). One cat (0.3%) showed mixed infection with CMhm, Mhf, and CMt. There were statistically significant relationships between Mycoplasma positivity and being female, living in shelter (cattery), and being over 3 years old (P < 0.05). No significant association was observed for the cat breed and sampling localities. CONCLUSIONS: Current study findings revealed that hemoplasma infections are common among Iran cat populations. Considering the impact of such emerging zoonotic pathogens on the One Health, routine screenings, increasing public awareness, effective control, and prophylactic strategies for minimizing infection in cats and subsequently in human are strongly recommended.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases , DNA, Bacterial , Mycoplasma Infections , Mycoplasma , Phylogeny , Animals , Cats , Iran/epidemiology , Mycoplasma Infections/veterinary , Mycoplasma Infections/epidemiology , Mycoplasma Infections/microbiology , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Mycoplasma/genetics , Mycoplasma/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma/classification , Prevalence , Female , Male , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/veterinary , Coinfection/epidemiology
6.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 23(2): 127-138, 2024 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822508

ABSTRACT

The tragic COVID-19 pandemic affected many children worldwide. Among the factors that may influence the course of viral infections including COVID-19, it is still uncertain whether atopy has a protective or predisposing role. The study aims to address the knowledge gap by investigating the prevalence and severity of COVID-19 among atopic children in Kerman, in 2022. A descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study on children with a history of atopy was performed in Kerman Medical University. Demographic information, type of atopy (including allergic rhinitis, Hyper-Reactive Airway Disease (HRAD) or asthma, eczema, urticaria, anaphylaxis, and food allergy), history of COVID-19 infection, and disease severity were recorded. A total of 1007 children and adolescents, (boys: 56.4%, girls: 43.6%, age:5.61±2.64 years) were included in the study. History of COVID-19 infection was positive in 53.5%, with 75.9% of the cases exhibiting mild disease severity. The frequency of atopies was HRAD or asthma (67.2%), allergic rhinitis (42.6%), and food allergy (27.4%). The frequency of COVID-19 cases was significantly higher among patients with HRAD or asthma, whereas it was significantly lower among those with food allergies, anaphylaxis, and eczema. Among atopic individuals, COVID-19 severity was significantly lower in those with allergic rhinitis, while the opposite trend was observed among food-allergic individuals. This study sheds light on the relationship between atopy and COVID-19 among pediatric patients. It seems specific types of atopies may influence the risk and severity of COVID-19 infection differently. A better understanding of these associations can inform clinical management and preventive measures for vulnerable pediatric populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Iran/epidemiology , Female , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , Child , Prevalence , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Asthma/epidemiology , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Food Hypersensitivity/epidemiology
7.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 23(2): 139-148, 2024 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822509

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) associated with antiepileptic medications. The current study aims to investigate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of antiepileptic medication-induced SCARs in hospitalized children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The current five-year retrospective study was conducted at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. This study included all children with a definite diagnosis of SCARs secondary to the use of antiepileptic medications based on the world health organization (WHO) definition. In our study SCARs were categorized into three fields: Hypersensitivity syndrome, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). RESULTS: Among 259 children with SCARs induced by antiepileptic medications, 199 (76.83%), 42 (16.22%), and 18 (6.95%) had hypersensitivity syndrome, DRESS, and SJS/TEN, respectively. Phenobarbital was the most common offending drug in all types of SCARs. The multinomial logistic regression model revealed that lymphadenopathy increased the occurrence of DRESS by 35 times compared to hypersensitivity syndrome (P < 0.001). Girls were at risk of SJS/TEN approximately 6 times more than boys (P = 0.027). Age (P = 0.021), weight (P = 0.036), and mucosal involvement (P < 0.001) affected the hospitalization duration in children with SCARs related to antiepileptic medication. CONCLUSION: There are some similarities and differences in the clinical and epidemiological features of Iranian children suffering from antiepileptic medication-induced SCARs.


Subject(s)
Anticonvulsants , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome , Humans , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects , Female , Male , Child , Retrospective Studies , Child, Preschool , Iran/epidemiology , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/epidemiology , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/etiology , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome/epidemiology , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome/etiology , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Infant , Child, Hospitalized , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 244, 2024 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Snails of the Lymnaeidae family are the intermediate hosts of Fasciola species, the causative agents of fascioliasis. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Fasciola species in lymnaeid snails and to investigate the association of geoclimatic factors and Fasciola species distribution in northwestern provinces of Iran using geographical information system (GIS) data. METHODS: A total of 2000 lymnaeid snails were collected from 33 permanent and seasonal habitats in northwestern Iran during the period from June to November 2021. After identification by standard morphological keys, they were subjected to shedding and crushing methods. Different stages of Fasciola obtained from these snails were subjected to the ITS1 polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method for species identification. The associations of weather temperature, rainfall, humidity, evaporation, air pressure, wind speed, elevation, and land cover with the distribution of Fasciola species were investigated. Geographical and statistical analysis was performed using ArcMap and SPSS software, respectively, to determine factors related to Fasciola species distribution. RESULTS: Of the 2000 snails collected, 19 were infected with Fasciola hepatica (0.09%), six with F. gigantica (0.03%), and 13 with other trematodes. Among geoclimatic and environmental factors, mean humidity, maximum humidity, and wind speed were significantly higher in areas where F. hepatica was more common than F. gigantica. The altitude of F. hepatica-prevalent areas was generally lower than F. gigantica areas. No significant relationship was observed between other investigated geoclimatic factors and the distribution of infected snails. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed the relationship of humidity and wind speed with the distribution of snails infected with F. hepatica or F. gigantica in the northwestern regions of Iran. In contrast to F. gigantica, F. hepatica was more prevalent in low-altitude areas. Further research is recommended to elucidate the relationship between geoclimatic factors and the presence of intermediate hosts of the two Fasciola species.


Subject(s)
Fasciola , Fascioliasis , Snails , Animals , Iran/epidemiology , Fascioliasis/epidemiology , Fascioliasis/veterinary , Fascioliasis/parasitology , Snails/parasitology , Fasciola/genetics , Fasciola/isolation & purification , Fasciola/classification , Fasciola hepatica/genetics , Fasciola hepatica/isolation & purification , Fasciola hepatica/physiology , Fasciola hepatica/classification , Climate , Ecosystem , Seasons , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12703, 2024 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830913

ABSTRACT

Studies on the beneficial role of dietary antioxidants in preventing or managing hypertension in postmenopausal women are infrequent. The present cross-sectional study aimed to assess the association between dietary antioxidants and hypertension among menopausal women in Rafsanjan, a city located in the southeast of Iran. This study was based on data from the Rafsanjan Cohort Study (RCS), as part of the Prospective Epidemiological Research Studies in IrAN (PERSIAN). Among 2359 postmenopausal women, finally, 1936 women were included in this study. Participants were grouped as having normal blood pressure (BP), elevated BP, stage 1 hypertension, or stage 2 hypertension as defined by the 2017 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) BP guideline. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), was utilized to ascertain the levels of various nutrients and dietary antioxidants in the diet. The association between dietary intakes of antioxidants and blood pressure groups was evaluated by crude and adjusted models in the multinominal logistics regression analysis. Normal BP, elevated BP, stage 1 hypertension, and stage 2 hypertension were observed in 35.69%, 3.62%, 10.59%, and 50.10% of postmenopausal women respectively. In the adjusted model, in subjects with higher consumption of ß-carotene, the odds ratios of elevated BP in the 3rd quartile was about 2 times (OR: 2.04 (1.06-3.93) higher than 1st quartile. Also, in subjects with medium quality of DAQS, the odds ratios of elevated BP and stage 1 blood pressure were about 2 times (OR: 2.09 (1.05-4.17) and 1.69 times (OR: 1.69 (1.09-2.63) higher than subjects with low quality respectively. Furthermore, we did not find any statistically significant association between increased intake of dietary antioxidants and decreased odds of hypertension. After controlling the effects of confounding variables, increased dietary intake of selenium, carotenoids, vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E did not decrease the odds of hypertension in postmenopausal women. Accordingly, it is suggested that this association be further investigated in the follow-up phase of this prospective study.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Hypertension , Humans , Female , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/prevention & control , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Iran/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Postmenopause , Blood Pressure , Cohort Studies , Menopause , Prospective Studies , Aged
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 553, 2024 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831292

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a global health emergency necessitates continued investigation of the disease progression. This study investigated the relationship between eosinophilia and the severity of COVID-19 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 73 COPD patients infected by COVID-19 in Afzalipour Hospital, Iran. Peripheral blood samples were collected for hematological parameter testing, including eosinophil percentage, using Giemsa staining. Eosinophilia was defined as≥ 2% and non-eosinophilia as< 2%. The severity of pulmonary involvement was determined based on chest CT severity score (CT-SS) (based on the degree of involvement of the lung lobes, 0%: 0 points, 1-25%: 1 point, 26-50%: 2 points, 51-75%: 3 points, and 76-100%: 4 points). The CT-SS was the sum of the scores of the five lobes (range 0-20). RESULTS: The average age of patients was 67.90±13.71 years, and most were male (54.8%). Non-eosinophilic COPD patients were associated with more severe COVID-19 (P= 0.01) and lower oxygen saturation (P= 0.001). In addition, the study revealed a significant difference in the chest CT severity score (CT-SS) between non-eosinophilic (9.76±0.7) and eosinophilic COPD patients (6.26±0.63) (P< 0.001). Although non-eosinophilic COPD patients had a higher mortality rate, this difference was not statistically significant (P= 0.16). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that reduced peripheral blood eosinophil levels in COPD patients with COVID-19 correlate with unfavorable outcomes. Understanding this association can help us identify high-risk COPD patients and take appropriate management strategies to improve their prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/blood , Male , Female , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Middle Aged , Eosinophilia/blood , Aged, 80 and over , Iran/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiopathology , Leukocyte Count
11.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 44(1): 2362962, 2024 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38853776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can have negative effects on both the pregnancy and perinatal outcomes, as well as the long-term health of the mother and the child. It has been suggested that exposure to air pollution may increase the risk of developing GDM. This study investigated the relationship between exposure to air pollutants with gestational diabetes. METHODS: The present study is a retrospective cohort study. We used data from a randomised community trial conducted between September 2016 and January 2019 in Iran. During this period, data on air pollutant levels of five cities investigated in the original study, including 6090 pregnant women, were available. Concentrations of ozone (O3), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter < 2.5 (PM2.5) or <10 µm (PM10) were obtained from air pollution monitoring stations. Exposure to air pollutants during the three months preceding pregnancy and the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy for each participant was estimated. The odds ratio was calculated based on logistic regression in three adjusted models considering different confounders. Only results that had a p < .05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: None of the logistic regression models showed any statistically significant relationship between the exposure to any of the pollutants and GDM at different time points (before pregnancy, in the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy and 12 months in total) (p > .05). Also, none of the adjusted logistic regression models showed any significant association between PM10 exposure and GDM risk at all different time points after adjusting for various confounders (p > .05). CONCLUSIONS: This study found no association between GDM risk and exposure to various air pollutants before and during the different trimesters of pregnancy. This result should be interpreted cautiously due to the lack of considering all of the potential confounders.


The health of pregnant women and their children can be impacted by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), one of the prevalent pregnancy complications. Some of studies showed that the incidence of gestational diabetes can be influenced by genetic or environmental factors. Air pollution is an environmental stimulus that may predispose pregnant women to GDM. This research explored whether air pollution could increase the risk of developing gestational diabetes. Over 6000 pregnant women in five cities of Iran participated in the study and were screened for gestational diabetes. Their exposure to the various air pollutants during the three months preceding pregnancy and total pregnancy period was measured. In this study, we found no clear association between air pollution and gestational diabetes. However, this finding needs to be interpreted cautiously since all the influential factors were not assessed.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Diabetes, Gestational , Particulate Matter , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Air Pollution/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Adult , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Iran/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Nitrogen Dioxide/adverse effects , Logistic Models , Ozone/analysis , Ozone/adverse effects , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Maternal Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Risk Factors
12.
Arch Iran Med ; 27(6): 298-304, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38855799

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On a global scale, approximately 350 million are affected by hepatitis B, and 71 million by hepatitis C. People in custody face elevated risks for these infections. The prevalence and risk factors in Iranian prisons are insufficiently documented. The principal objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of hepatitis B and C, coupled with the identification of pertinent influencing factors, within the confines of Zahedan central prison, situated in the southeastern region of Iran. METHODS: In 2019, we conducted an analytical cross-sectional study involving 407 people in custody, using stratified random sampling. To definitively diagnose hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (P<0.05), a checklist developed by the researchers, along with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques, were employed. RESULTS: This study comprised 406 participants (96.3% male) with a median age of 32 years (27-38). Approximately 62% were married, and a substantial proportion of the participants had low education levels (47%), unemployment (64%), and belonged to the Baloch ethnicity (64%). The overall prevalence of hepatitis C and B infections was 2.7% and 10.6%, respectively. Tattooing (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.9-4.5) and marriage (AOR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.05-3.04) were identified as risk factors for hepatitis B. Moreover, hepatitis C showed a statistically significant association with a family history of hepatitis B and C (AOR: 3.31, 95% CI: 3.93-24.64) and intravenous (IV) drug use (AOR: 7.01, 95% CI: 1.52-32.78) according to the multivariable logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of hepatitis B and C was higher among people in custody in Zahedan central prison. Consequently, targeted interventions are vital to address and reduce viral hepatitis burden in custodial settings.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Prisoners , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Adult , Female , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models
13.
Arch Iran Med ; 27(6): 305-312, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38855800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) refers to the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the serum or liver of individuals who tested negative for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). This study aimed to determine seropositivity for antibodies against HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) and the frequency of OBI among the HBsAg non-reactive blood donors in Mashhad, northeastern Iran. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, serum samples of HBsAg-negative blood donors were examined for anti-HBc during June and August 2018. Anti-HBc-positive samples were tested for antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs), and those with negative results were classified as isolated anti-HBc cases. The presence of HBV DNA in the C, S, and X gene regions was assessed by a qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method in all HBsAg-negative samples. OBI subjects were detected by the presence of at least one HBV genomic region. RESULTS: Of 540 HBsAg-negative donors, 29 (5.4%; 95% confidence interval: 3.6-7.6%) showed seroreactivity for anti-HBc, of whom 18 individuals were also seropositive for anti-HBs. All donors showed negative results for all three HBV genes regardless of their serum anti-HBc status. CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, we suggest routine screening of Iranian blood donation volunteers for serum anti-HBc and anti-HBs but not HBV DNA.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , DNA, Viral , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Hepatitis B Core Antigens , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Iran/epidemiology , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , DNA, Viral/blood , Adult , Male , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/blood , Female , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/immunology , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/blood , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Prevalence , Adolescent
14.
Arch Iran Med ; 27(6): 289-297, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38855798

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the significant occurrence of skin cancer in the Middle East and the existing research gap concerning its incidence and trends, this research aimed to study the epidemiology and trend changes of skin cancer in the Golestan province, Northeastern Iran. METHODS: The Golestan Population-based Cancer Registry's (GPCR's) data bank was utilized to gather information on confirmed skin cancer cases in the province during 2005-2018. We used Poisson regression analysis for comparing incidence rates between groups. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of 1690 patients (mean age: 62.05±15.83 years), most were male (60.1%) and resided in urban areas (61.5%). The age-standardized rate (ASR) of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer was 8.49 and 0.56 per 100000 persons-year, respectively. A notably higher ASR for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) was observed in men (ASR: 10.60; 95% CI: 9.91-11.29) (P<0.01) and urban residents (ASR: 10.19; 95% CI: 9.52-10.82) (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the ASR of melanoma skin cancer based on gender (P=0.24) and place of residence (P=0.48). The incidence trend of melanoma (estimated annual percent change [EAPC]: -3.28; 95% CI: -18.54 to 14.83) and NMSC (EAPC: 0.39; 95% CI: -3.99 to 4.97) did not differ significantly. CONCLUSION: During the 14-year study period, the ASR of both types of skin cancer exhibited a consistent pattern, except for NMSC, which showed higher rates among men and urban residents. This should be taken into consideration when formulating preventive and control strategies in the study area.


Subject(s)
Melanoma , Registries , Skin Neoplasms , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Incidence , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Adult , Melanoma/epidemiology , Aged, 80 and over , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Young Adult , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/epidemiology
15.
Arch Iran Med ; 27(6): 323-333, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38855802

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elder abuse (EA) is a serious public health issue recognized as a healthcare priority. Personality traits can influence social behaviors. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of self-reported domestic EA and its relationship with personality traits of older people and their family caregivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2022. The research population included older people living in the urban community of the Lorestan Province (in the western region of Iran) selected by multistage cluster sampling. In general, 998 older people and their family caregivers were sampled. The data collection tool was a three-part questionnaire: a. demographic characteristics of the older people, b. questionnaire on the incidence of elder abuse, and c. short version of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory-Revised (NEO-FFI-R) for measuring the personality traits of the older people or family caregivers. The statistical software used was Stata 14. RESULTS: The present study reported that the prevalence of EA at home was 37.78%. In the present study, older age, female gender, unmarried/single status, lower education, unemployment, and rented house characteristics were predictors of EA. High agreeableness, high extroversion, and low neuroticism reduce conflict and tension in older people with their relatives and family, which appear to be protective factors against EA. CONCLUSION: Policymakers and health experts should prepare training and screening programs to consider these factors so that older people exposed to EA can be identified more quickly and early interventions can be used to improve their health status and increase their quality of life.


Subject(s)
Caregivers , Elder Abuse , Personality , Self Report , Humans , Elder Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Elder Abuse/psychology , Female , Male , Caregivers/psychology , Caregivers/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Iran/epidemiology , Prevalence , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1389330, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854691

ABSTRACT

Objectives: A single measurement of adiposity indices could predict the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD); nonetheless their long-term pattern and its association with incident CVD are rarely studied. This study aimed to determine distinct trajectories of adiposity indices among participants of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) and their association with incident CVD. Furthermore, this study aimed to investigate whether this association differed among individuals according to their menopausal status. Method: A total of 6840 women participated in TLGS, aged 20 years and older were included in this study; they were followed for a median of 16 years. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), conicity index (CI) and body roundness index (BRI) were included in the analysis as adiposity indices. The cohort outcome panel of medical specialists identified the CVD outcomes. Trajectory analyses were used to identify homogeneous distinct clusters of adiposity indices trajectories. The association between the trajectory group membership and incident CVD were explored by Cox proportional hazard models, with unadjusted and adjusted model for baseline age, physical activity, smoking status, menopause and family history of CVD. Results: Three BMI trajectory groups of low, medium, and high and two trajectories for WC, BRI and CI were identified. Adjusted cox proportional hazard models revealed significant associations between the hazard of CVD experience and the high trajectory group of the BMI (HR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.38-3.07), WC (HR: 2.71, 95% CI: 1.98-3.70), CI (HR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.26-2.77) and BRI (HR: 1.55-95% CI: 1.12-2.15), compared to the low trajectory group. Subgroup analysis based on the menopausal status of participants showed that the HR of CVD incidences for all of trajectories adiposity indices, except BMI, was statistically significant. Adjusted cox proportional hazard models, in those women not reached menopause during study, revealed that the HR (95% CI) of CVD incidences for high trajectory of BMI, WC, CI and BRI were 2.80 (1.86-7.05); 2.09 (1.40-6.16); 1.72 (1.42-5.61), and 3.09 (1.06-9.01), respectively. These values for those were menopause at the initiation of the study were 1.40 (1.11, 2.53); 1.65 (1.04-2.75); 1.69 (1.01-2.87), and 1.61 (0.98-2.65), respectively. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that adiposity trajectories, particularly central adiposity index of CI, could precisely predict the CVD risk. Consequently, preventive strategies should be tailored accordingly.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases , Menopause , Waist Circumference , Humans , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Adiposity/physiology , Middle Aged , Menopause/physiology , Adult , Cohort Studies , Iran/epidemiology , Incidence , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Aged , Young Adult
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13240, 2024 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38853175

ABSTRACT

Several risk factors including environmental exposures, socioeconomic status, and dietary factors including dietary patterns have been considered for childhood Asthma. The present study tried to examine the association between a western-style pattern and the likelihood of asthma and its symptoms in Yazd, Iran. In the present cross-sectional study, dietary intakes of elementary and high-school children were obtained through a validated GAN questionnaire. The GAN questionnaire, derived from the ISAAC questionnaire was used to assess the symptoms of allergic diseases and their related risk factors. A western dietary pattern score considered 9 food groups including chicken eggs, margarine, butter, sugar, fast foods, soft drinks, snacks, sauce, and chocolate. In total 7667 children aged 10.9 ± 3.35 years were included in the current investigation. Boys with higher adherence to western dietary pattern had a higher risk of wheezing in the past 12 months (OR 1.37, 5% CI 1.01-1.87, P = 0.04) and this association was also observed in the whole population (OR 1.30, 5% CI 1.05-1.60, P = 0.01). However, after adjustment for confounders this relation did not remain significant in boys. Our results support the hypothesis that a western dietary pattern is associated with an increased risk of wheezing in the past 12 months in children with asthma. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Diet, Western , Humans , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/etiology , Male , Child , Adolescent , Female , Diet, Western/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Iran/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Respiratory Sounds/etiology
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13639, 2024 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38871848

ABSTRACT

Health literacy and mental health are among the most important issues in the modern health and era of public health. This study aimed to investigate the association between health literacy and mental health status. This was a national cross-sectional study that was conducted in Iran. A sample of literate individuals aged 18-65 was entered into the study using multistage sampling. The data were collected by the Health Literacy Instrument for Adults (HELIA) and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Logistic regression and path analysis were used for data analysis. A total of 20,571 individuals completed the questionnaires. The mean(± SD) age of participants was 34.9(± 11.8) years old, 51% were female, and 38.1% had higher education. The mean(± SD) health literacy score was 68.3(± 15.2), and 29.8% of the respondents reported some mental health problems. Logistic regression analysis showed that limited health literacy was associated with poor mental health status (OR 2.560, 95% CI 2.396-2.735, P = 0.001). The path analysis showed that an increase in health literacy could reduce psychological and social dysfunction (the effect of health literacy on reducing psychological distress is more profound). It is recommended to carry out interventions that strengthen adult's cognitive and communication skills to improve their ability to access and use health information to make healthy choices.


Subject(s)
Health Literacy , Mental Health , Humans , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Female , Male , Adult , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Middle Aged , Iran/epidemiology , Adolescent , Young Adult , Surveys and Questionnaires , Aged , Logistic Models
19.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 250, 2024 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38867144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Refractive errors, amblyopia, strabismus, and low vision are more common among children with hearing impairments in comparison with their hearing peers. Neglecting visual disorders can pose educational and social problems for these children. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of refractive errors, amblyopia, strabismus, and low vision among hearing-impaired and deaf students in Kermanshah. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 79 deaf and hearing impaired students within the age range of 7-20 years (mean age of 15.01 ± 2.72) underwent optometric examinations, including autorefractometry, retinoscopy, ophthalmoscopy, slit lamp, visual acuity measurement, and cover-uncover test. Those who needed further evaluation were referred to the Ophthalmology Clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital. RESULTS: Regarding the prevalence of refractive errors, 32 (40.5%) subjects had one or a combination of refractive errors, the most common of which was astigmatism (36.7%), followed by amblyopia (15.1%). The most common type of strabismus was latent strabismus (heterophoria) (88.6%), followed by exophoria (81%). Moreover, 3 (3.7%) cases had nystagmus. A significant difference was observed between the prevalence of amblyopia and the degree of hearing loss (P = 0.026), and no significant difference was detected in other cases. CONCLUSION: As evidenced by the obtained results, refractive errors, amblyopia, strabismus, and low vision are more prevalent among deaf and hearing-impaired children compared to normal children because deaf and hearing-impaired children are not able to convey their vision problems and need to compensate for their poor hearing with an enhanced sense of sight, inattention to these disorders can present these children with serious educational and social problems. Therefore, eye screening examinations are of paramount importance in deaf and hearing-impaired children.


Subject(s)
Amblyopia , Refractive Errors , Strabismus , Vision, Low , Visual Acuity , Humans , Strabismus/epidemiology , Strabismus/physiopathology , Child , Adolescent , Male , Female , Refractive Errors/epidemiology , Refractive Errors/physiopathology , Refractive Errors/complications , Vision, Low/epidemiology , Amblyopia/epidemiology , Amblyopia/physiopathology , Amblyopia/diagnosis , Prevalence , Young Adult , Visual Acuity/physiology , Iran/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Persons With Hearing Impairments , Deafness/epidemiology , Students
20.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 249, 2024 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38867149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical findings of patients with SOP who underwent surgery. METHODS: This historical cohort study was performed on 1057 SOP patients managed with surgery in Farabi Hospital, Iran, from 2011 to 2022. RESULTS: There were 990 (93.7%) patients with unilateral SOP with the mean age of 21.8 ± 14.8 years. Of these, 715 patients (72.2%) were diagnosed with congenital SOP, and 275 patients (27.8%) had acquired SOP (P < 0.001). In contrast, 67 (6.3%) patients were diagnosed with bilateral SOP, with the mean age of 19.4 ± 15.6 years. Among these, 18 cases exhibited the masked type. The mean angle of vertical deviation in primary position at far in unilateral and bilateral cases was 15.6 ± 8.3 and 13.3 ± 9.1 △, respectively (P < 0.001). In unilateral cases, abnormal head posture (AHP) was detected in 847 (85.5%) patients and 12 (1.2%) had paradoxical AHP. Amblyopia was found in 89 (9.9%) unilateral and 7 (10.3%) bilateral cases. Solitary inferior oblique myectomy, was the most common surgery in both unilateral (n = 756, 77.1%) and bilateral (n = 35, 52.2%) patients. The second surgery was performed for 84 (8.6%) unilateral and 33 (49.3%) bilateral cases (P < 0.001). The prevalence of amblyopia and the mean angle of horizontal deviation were significantly higher in patients who needed more than one surgery (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Congenital SOP was more than twice as frequent as acquired SOP and about 90% of unilateral and 50% of bilateral cases were managed with one surgery. Amblyopia and significant horizontal deviation were the most important factors for reoperation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Institutional Review Board approval was obtained from the Tehran University of Medical Sciences (IR.TUMS.FNM.REC.1400.012) and this study adhered to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki and HIPAA.


Subject(s)
Oculomotor Muscles , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures , Humans , Male , Female , Retrospective Studies , Adult , Oculomotor Muscles/surgery , Oculomotor Muscles/physiopathology , Young Adult , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Child , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Child, Preschool , Trochlear Nerve Diseases/surgery , Trochlear Nerve Diseases/physiopathology , Trochlear Nerve Diseases/congenital , Iran/epidemiology , Aged , Strabismus/surgery , Strabismus/physiopathology , Vision, Binocular/physiology , Treatment Outcome , Infant
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