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1.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e237789, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978078

ABSTRACT

Aedes aegypti is a culicide that has gained relevance over the years due to its ability to transmit various viruses that cause diseases in humans that all the years cause high mortality rates in the world population. The main problem is that Ae. aegypti has managed to establish and maintain a close relationship with humans and their habitat, which is why the search for alternatives to control vector populations becomes imperative. The objective of the present work was to study the effects of two Beauveria bassiana strains on Aedes aegypti. Third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti in 250 mL plastic containers were inoculated with the GHA and NB3 strains at different concentrations (1.5 × 104, 1.5× 105, 1.5 × 106 and 1.5 × 107 conidia/mL). The NB3 strain presented highest mortality values ​​with 63% in the highest concentration i.e., 1.5 × 107, while for the GHA strain the highest mortality value was 30.7% at the same concentration. The results showed significant difference in mortality with respect to the strain and days post treatment (P = 0.0001), but not with respect to the conidial concentration (P = 0.634). The average mortality of larvae per day for the NB3 for different concentrations ranged from 20 to 25 larvae per day, while for the GHA daily mortality ranged from 5 to 12 larvae. In post-treatment mortality, the highest mortality was recorded in the third stage larvae for the NB3, while for GHA the highest percentage mortality was observed in individuals who managed to reach the adult state. The findings of the current research depicted the noteworthy role of B. bassiana for the management of an important vector of human disease.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Beauveria , Animals , Disease Vectors , Humans , Larva , Mosquito Vectors
2.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 84(1): 241-262, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934282

ABSTRACT

Biopesticides such as essential oils (EOs) are considered an improvement for integrated pest control as they appear to be less toxic to the environment than chemical acaricides. The current study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal activity of Artemisia herba-alba and Melia azedarach oil loaded nano-emulsion as alternatives for chemical acaricides against the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii, besides evaluating their toxic effect on Swiss albino mice. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used for the characterization of loaded nano-emulsions.The immersion test was used for the bioassay of both loaded nanoemulsions on tick stages (egg, nymph, larva, and adult). Mortality percentages and LC50 values of each tick stage were calculated. Reproductive performance for the survived engorged females after treatment was monitored. The toxicity of both loaded nano-emulsions was evaluated on Swiss albino mice by an oral dose of 1500 mg/kg/day for five successive days. The hematological, biochemical, and histopathological changes were evaluated. TEM characterization revealed spherical droplets for A. herba-alba and M. azedarach oil loaded nano-emulsion with droplet size ranging from 62 to 69 nm and 52-91 nm, respectively. FTIR revealed the absence of extra peaks in the loaded nano-emulsions that confirmed no chemical changes existed by ultrasonication. The LC50 values of A. herba-alba and M. azedarach oil loaded nano-emulsion on embryonated eggs, larvae, engorged nymphs, and unfed adults were 0.3 and 1.1%, 0.7 and 1.7%, 0.3 and 0.4%, 4.4 and 22.2%, respectively. The egg productive index (EPI), egg number, and hatchability percentage were lower in the treated females compared with Butox 5% (deltamethrin) and control. The hematological picture and biochemical analysis revealed insignificant changes in the treatment group compared with the negative control group. The liver of the A. herba-alba and M. azedarach oil loaded nano-emulsion treated group exhibited vacuolar degeneration and infiltration of lymphocytic cells. The kidney of mice treated with A. herba-alba and M. azedarach oil loaded nano-emulsion showed hemolysis and slight degeneration of epithelial cells of tubules. It is concluded that A. herba-alba and M. azedarach oil loaded nano-emulsion have good acaricidal activity against camel tick H. dromedarii.


Subject(s)
Acaricides , Artemisia , Ixodidae , Melia azedarach , Oils, Volatile , Acaricides/toxicity , Animals , Female , Larva , Mice , Oils, Volatile/toxicity
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809683

ABSTRACT

Low temperature stress represents a major threat to the lives of both farmed and wild fish species. However, biological pathways determining the development of cold resistance in fish remain largely unknown. Zebrafish larvae at 96 hpf were exposed to lethal cold stress (10 °C) for different time periods to evaluate the adverse effects at organism, tissue and cell levels. Time series RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) experiments were performed to delineate the transcriptomic landscape of zebrafish larvae under cold stress and during the subsequent rewarming phase. The genes regulated by cold stress were characterized by progressively enhanced or decreased expression, whereas the genes associated with rewarming were characterized by rapid upregulation upon return to normal temperature (28 °C). Genes such as trib3, dusp5 and otud1 were identified as the representative molecular markers of cold-induced damages through network analysis. Biological pathways involved in cold stress responses were mined from the transcriptomic data and their functions in regulating cold resistance were validated using specific inhibitors. The autophagy, FoxO and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signaling pathways were revealed to be survival pathways for enhancing cold resistance, while apoptosis and necroptosis were the death pathways responsible for cold-induced mortality. Functional mechanisms of the survival-enhancing factors Foxo1, ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) and p38 MAPK were further characterized by inhibiting their activities upon cold stress and analyzing gene expression though RNA-seq. These factors were demonstrated to determine the cold resistance of zebrafish through regulating apoptosis and p53 signaling pathway. These findings have provided novel insights into the stress responses elicited by lethal cold and shed new light on the molecular mechanisms underlying cold resistance of fish.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological , Cold Temperature , Signal Transduction , Zebrafish/physiology , Adaptation, Physiological/genetics , Animals , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cluster Analysis , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Ontology , Larva/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics , Survival Analysis , Transcription, Genetic , Transcriptome/genetics , Zebrafish/genetics , Zebrafish Proteins/genetics , Zebrafish Proteins/metabolism
4.
Ecotoxicology ; 30(4): 733-750, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821358

ABSTRACT

Atrazine was banned by the European Union in 2004, but is still used in many countries. Agricultural research employing nanotechnology has been developed in order to reduce the impacts to the environment and nontarget organisms. Nanoatrazine was developed as a carrier system and have been considered efficient in weed control. However, its toxicity must be verified with nontarget organisms. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate ecotoxicological effects of solid lipid nanoparticles (empty and loaded with atrazine) and atrazine on Chironomus sancticaroli larvae, evaluating the endpoints: mortality, mentum deformity, development rate and biochemical biomarkers. The contaminant concentrations used were 2, 470, 950, and 1900 µg L-1 in acute (96 h) and 2 µg L-1 in subchronic (10 days) bioassays. An environmentally relevant concentration of atrazine (2 µg L-1) presented toxic and lethal effects towards the larvae. The nanoparticles loaded with atrazine showed toxic effects similar to free atrazine, causing mortality and biochemical alterations on the larvae. The nanoparticle without atrazine caused biochemical alterations and mortality, indicating a possible toxic effect of the formulation on the larvae. In the acute bioassay, most concentrations of nanoparticles loaded with atrazine were not dose dependent for the endpoint mortality. Only the atrazine concentration of 470 µg L-1 was statistically significant to endpoint mentum deformity. The atrazine and nanoparticles (with and without atrazine) did not affect larval development. The results indicate that Chironomus sancticaroli was sensitive to monitor nanoatrazine, presenting potential to be used in studies of toxicity of nanopesticides.


Subject(s)
Atrazine , Chironomidae , Herbicides , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Animals , Atrazine/toxicity , Ecotoxicology , Larva , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Weed Control
5.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 174: 104831, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838702

ABSTRACT

The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is a major lepidopteran pest of global importance in cultivation of numerous crops including cotton, maize, soybean, onion, cabbage, and ornamentals. It has evolved resistance to different insecticides. However, the current status of insecticide resistance in S. exigua has not been well examined in China. In this study, concentration-mortality responses of S. exigua to seven insecticides, including chlorantraniliprole, tetraniliprole, methoxyfenozide, indoxacarb, chlorfenapyr, emamectin benzoate and beta-cypermethrin were evaluated. The results showed that most of the tested populations had developed moderate to high resistance to chlorantraniliprole, with resistance ratios ranging from 6.3 to 2477.3-fold. Our results also showed that chlorantraniliprole have cross-resistance with tetraniliprole in S. exigua. The AY19 population collected from Anyang in Henan Province in 2019 exhibited a high resistance level to beta-cypermethrin (RR = 277.5). Methoxyfenozide and chlorfenapyr were highly effective against all of the tested populations with resistance ratios (RR) ranging from 0.1 to 2.2-fold. One of the tested populations showed moderate resistance to indoxacarb and emamectin benzoate. We detected the known ryanodine receptor target site resistance mutation, I4743M, in the field populations of S. exigua with different levels of diamide resistance.


Subject(s)
Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides , Animals , China , Diamide , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva , Pyrazoles , Pyridines , Spodoptera , Tetrazoles
6.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 174: 104802, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838703

ABSTRACT

The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is a highly polyphagous pest originated from Southeast Asia but has spread globally, attacking economically important crops and fruits. Bistrifluron insecticide is one of the highly active insect growth regulators that has been reported to inhibit development and longevity in other lepidopteran species and could be used in the control of S. exigua. In the present study, the age-stage, two-sex life table technique was applied to assess the sublethal effects of bistrifluron on biological traits and vitellogenin gene (SeVg) expression when 2nd instar larvae fed to sublethal concentrations (LC10, LC20 and LC40) of bistrifluron. Mean generation time from eggs to adults was longer at LC40 (37.79 ± 0.81 d) and LC20 (37.04 ± 0.72) compared to the LC10 (36.89 ± 0.63 d) and control groups (36.07 ± 0.38 d). Fecundity of female at LC40 (279.17 ± 42.8 eggs), LC20 (347 ± 35.4 eggs) and LC10 (411.58 ± 42.38 eggs) were significantly lower than the control treatment (532.47 ± 7.13). Furthermore, the lower intrinsic rates of increase (LC40; r = 0.1207 ± 0.009, LC20; r = 0.1329 ± 0.009 and LC10; r = 0.14398 ± 0.009 compared to the control r = 0.164 ± 0.0076), was observed along with significantly extended mean generation times (LC40; T = 34.825 ± 0.317 days, LC20; T = 33.27 ± 0.368 days and LC10; T = 31.899 ± 0.398 days compared to the control 30.927 ± 0.255 days). Furthermore, the contents of energy reserve macronutrients (carbohydrate, lipid and protein) significantly reduced in dose and time dependent manner in treated insects as compared to control. Furthermore, the expression level of SeVg mRNA significantly decreased by 43.8% in the female adults when one-day-old second instar larvae were treated with sublethal concentrations of bistrifluron in comparison with the control. Documenting these sublethal effects is a vital, and often overlooked factor, in assessing the overall efficacy of insecticides in the management of pest populations.


Subject(s)
Insecticides , Vitellogenins , Animals , Female , Hydrocarbons, Halogenated , Insecticides/toxicity , Larva , Nutrients , Phenylurea Compounds , Spodoptera/genetics , Vitellogenins/genetics
7.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 174: 104805, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838706

ABSTRACT

Hyphantria cunea is one of the most destructive invasive agricultural and forest pests worldwide. In order to better understand the adaptation mechanism of H. cunea larvae to secondary metabolites of their highly diversified host plants, the physiological function and detoxification ability of midgut, as well as the gut microbial community were investigated in H. cunea larvae fed with cinnamic acid-treated artificial diets. Our results showed that cinnamic acid treatment could not affect the growth and food utilization of H. cunea larvae, as evidenced by a non-significantly altered larval body weight and efficiency of conversion of ingested food. Evaluation of oxidative stress-related parameters (e.g. malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide) and midgut histopathology also clearly confirmed that cinnamic acid treatment caused no significant oxidative damage and pathological changes in the larval midgut. Variance analysis showed that cinnamic acid treatment significantly increased the content of non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid and glutathione), the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and peroxidase) and detoxification enzyme (carboxylate esterase), as well as the abundance of several gut microbiota at the genus level (Hydrogenophaga and Acinetobacter) involved in the organic substance degradation in larval midgut. Further Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that these strongly altered gut microbiota at the genus level appeared to be significantly correlated with the detoxification and antioxidation parameters. These findings demonstrate the high adaptability of H. cunea larvae to cinnamic acid involves in detoxification, antioxidation and gut microbiota response, and indicate the existence of an extremely effective counter-defense mechanism for H. cunea larvae against the secondary metabolites of host plants.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Moths , Animals , Antioxidants , Cinnamates , Larva
8.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 174: 104828, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838721

ABSTRACT

RNA interference (RNAi) has gained attention in recent years as a viable pest control strategy. Here, RNAi assays were performed to screen the potential functionality of genes in Chilo suppressalis, a serious pest of rice, and to determine their potential for developing a highly targeted molecular control approach. Potential homologs of NADH dehydrogenase (ND), glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) and male specific lethal 3 (MSL3) were cloned from C. suppressalis, and their spatiotemporal gene expression evaluated. The expression of all three genes was higher in the pupal and adult stages than the larval stages and largely higher in the larval head compared to other tissues. Newly hatched larvae exhibited high mortalities and suppressed growth when fed bacteria producing double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) corresponding to the three target genes. This study provides insights into the function of ND, GPDH and MSL3 during C. suppressalis larval development and suggests that all may be candidate gene targets for C. suppressalis pest management.


Subject(s)
Lepidoptera , Moths , Oryza , Animals , Cloning, Molecular , Genes, Lethal , Larva/genetics , Lepidoptera/genetics , Male , Moths/genetics , Oryza/genetics , RNA Interference
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807342

ABSTRACT

Beetle hyperactive antifreeze protein (AFP) has a unique ability to maintain a supercooling state of its body fluids, however, less is known about its origination. Here, we found that a popular stag beetle Dorcus hopei binodulosus (Dhb) synthesizes at least 6 isoforms of hyperactive AFP (DhbAFP). Cold-acclimated Dhb larvae tolerated -5 °C chilled storage for 24 h and fully recovered after warming, suggesting that DhbAFP facilitates overwintering of this beetle. A DhbAFP isoform (~10 kDa) appeared to consist of 6-8 tandem repeats of a 12-residue consensus sequence (TCTxSxNCxxAx), which exhibited 3 °C of high freezing point depression and the ability of binding to an entire surface of a single ice crystal. Significantly, these properties as well as DNA sequences including the untranslated region, signal peptide region, and an AFP-encoding region of Dhb are highly similar to those identified for a known hyperactive AFP (TmAFP) from the beetle Tenebrio molitor (Tm). Progenitor of Dhb and Tm was branched off approximately 300 million years ago, so no known evolution mechanism hardly explains the retainment of the DNA sequence for such a lo-ng divergence period. Existence of unrevealed gene transfer mechanism will be hypothesized between these two phylogenetically distant beetles to acquire this type of hyperactive AFP.


Subject(s)
Antifreeze Proteins/genetics , Coleoptera/enzymology , Coleoptera/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antifreeze Proteins/chemistry , Antifreeze Proteins/metabolism , Base Sequence , Biological Evolution , Evolution, Molecular , Freezing , Hemolymph/chemistry , Hemolymph/metabolism , Insect Proteins/genetics , Larva , Phylogeny , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Tenebrio/genetics
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2412, 2021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893303

ABSTRACT

The development of a widely adopted cryopreservation method remains a major challenge in Drosophila research. Here we report a robust and easily implemented cryopreservation protocol of Drosophila melanogaster embryos. We present innovations for embryo permeabilization, cryoprotectant agent loading, and rewarming. We show that the protocol is broadly applicable, successfully implemented in 25 distinct strains from different sources. We demonstrate that for most strains, >50% embryos hatch and >25% of the resulting larvae develop into adults after cryopreservation. We determine that survival can be significantly improved by outcrossing to mitigate the effect of genetic background for strains with low survival after cryopreservation. We show that flies retain normal sex ratio, fertility, and original mutation after successive cryopreservation of 5 generations and 6-month storage in liquid nitrogen. Lastly, we find that non-specialists are able to use this protocol to obtain consistent results, demonstrating potential for wide adoption.


Subject(s)
Cryopreservation/methods , Drosophila melanogaster/embryology , Embryo, Nonmammalian/embryology , Rewarming/methods , Vitrification , Animals , Cryoprotective Agents/pharmacology , Drosophila melanogaster/genetics , Embryo, Nonmammalian/drug effects , Embryo, Nonmammalian/ultrastructure , Female , Fertility/genetics , Larva/genetics , Larva/metabolism , Microscopy, Electron , Permeability/drug effects , Temperature , Time Factors
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2408, 2021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893307

ABSTRACT

Lipid shuttling between neurons and glia contributes to the development, function, and stress responses of the nervous system. To understand how a neuron acquires its lipid supply from specific lipoproteins and their receptors, we perform combined genetic, transcriptome, and biochemical analyses in the developing Drosophila larval brain. Here we report, the astrocyte-derived secreted lipocalin Glial Lazarillo (GLaz), a homolog of human Apolipoprotein D (APOD), and its neuronal receptor, the brain-specific short isoforms of Drosophila lipophorin receptor 1 (LpR1-short), cooperatively mediate neuron-glia lipid shuttling and support dendrite morphogenesis. The isoform specificity of LpR1 defines its distribution, binding partners, and ability to support proper dendrite growth and synaptic connectivity. By demonstrating physical and functional interactions between GLaz/APOD and LpR1, we elucidate molecular pathways mediating lipid trafficking in the fly brain, and provide in vivo evidence indicating isoform-specific expression of lipoprotein receptors as a key mechanism for regulating cell-type specific lipid recruitment.


Subject(s)
Apolipoproteins/metabolism , Astrocytes/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , Drosophila Proteins/metabolism , Neuroglia/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/metabolism , Animals , Animals, Genetically Modified , Apolipoproteins/genetics , Biological Transport , Brain/cytology , Drosophila/genetics , Drosophila/metabolism , Drosophila Proteins/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Larva/genetics , Larva/metabolism , Lipocalins/genetics , Lipocalins/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/genetics
12.
Zootaxa ; 4952(1): zootaxa.4952.1.4, 2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903379

ABSTRACT

The external larval morphology of three species of the microhylid genus Kaloula (K. indochinensis, K. mediolineata, and K. pulchra) inhabiting the southern and central regions of Vietnam is studied. The similarities and the distinctive features of their morphometric characters, the structure of their mouthparts and spiracle, and their coloration are analysed with consideration of the geographic variability. A description of the tadpole of K. indochinensis is provided for the first time. The interspecific comparison revealed the shape of the mouthparts and the spiracle as the most reliable diagnostic characters for the field identification of the coexistent Kaloula tadpoles. The first description of the larval chondrocranium and hyobranchial apparatus of K. indochinensis demonstrates a set of morphological traits characteristic of suspension-feeding microhylids. Some developmental parameters (egg number and size, duration of embryonic and larval development, larvae size and stage at hatching) are provided for K. indochinensis and K. pulchra.


Subject(s)
Anura , Animals , Anura/anatomy & histology , Anura/classification , Color , Larva , Vietnam
13.
Zootaxa ; 4951(1): zootaxa.4951.1.8, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903419

ABSTRACT

Doryctobracon maculatus Marinho, a new species of Braconidae (Opiinae) collected in the municipalities of Piracicaba and São Roque, state of São Paulo, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This new species is placed in group of species with areolate propodeum, but is easily distinguished from other species of this group, and other members of the genus by the noticeable black to dark-brown spots on the head, mesosoma and metasoma. This new species was reared in larvae of Anastrepha pseudoparallela (Diptera, Tephritidae) in passion fruits, Passiflora alata Curtis (Passifloraceae). An illustrated key to species of Doryctobracon recorded in Brazil is presented.


Subject(s)
Hymenoptera , Tephritidae , Animals , Brazil , Fruit , Hymenoptera/classification , Hymenoptera/physiology , Larva , Tephritidae/classification , Tephritidae/physiology
14.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916795

ABSTRACT

In terms of the domestication process in murtilla, studies have found changes in the concentration of phenolic compounds, with reduction of chemical defense of plants, depending on the change in the feeding behavior of insects. Thus, we hypothesized that the domestication of Ugni molinae decreases the content of phenolic compounds and modifies the feeding preference of Chilesia rudis larvae. Leaves of three parental ecotypes and four cultivated ecotypes were used in preference experiments to evaluate the mass gain and leaves consumption of larvae. Phenolic extracts from leaves of U. molinae were analyzed by HPLC. Identified compounds were incorporated in an artificial diet to assess their effect on mass gain, consumption, and survival of the larvae. The presence of phenolic compounds in bodies and feces was also evaluated. In terms of choice assays, larvae preferred parental ecotypes. Regarding compounds, vanillin was the most varied between the ecotypes in leaves. However, plant domestication did not show a reduction in phenolic compound concentration of the ecotypes studied. Furthermore, there was no clear relation between phenolic compounds and the performance of C. rudis larvae. Whether this was because of sequestration of some compounds by larvae is unknown. Finally, results of this study could also suggest that studied phenolic compounds have no role in the C. rudis larvae resistance in this stage of murtilla domestication process.


Subject(s)
Domestication , Lepidoptera/physiology , Myrtaceae/physiology , Animals , Biological Assay , Diet , Ecotype , Feces/chemistry , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Larva/physiology , Phenols/isolation & purification , Plant Leaves/physiology , Regression Analysis
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924375

ABSTRACT

Zebrafish have become a popular animal model for studying various biological processes and human diseases. The metabolic pathways and players conserved among zebrafish and mammals facilitate the use of zebrafish to understand the pathological mechanisms underlying various metabolic disorders in humans. Adipocytes play an important role in metabolic homeostasis, and zebrafish adipocytes have been characterized. However, a versatile and reliable zebrafish model for long-term monitoring of adipose tissues has not been reported. In this study, we generated stable transgenic zebrafish expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in adipocytes. The transgenic zebrafish harbored adipose tissues that could be detected using GFP fluorescence and the morphology of single adipocyte could be investigated in vivo. In addition, we demonstrated the applicability of this model to the long-term in vivo imaging of adipose tissue development and regulation based on nutrition. The transgenic zebrafish established in this study may serve as an excellent tool to advance the characterization of white adipose tissue in zebrafish, thereby aiding the development of therapeutic interventions to treat metabolic diseases in humans.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes/cytology , Adipocytes/metabolism , Zebrafish/genetics , Zebrafish/metabolism , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Animals , Animals, Genetically Modified , Cell Shape , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , Larva/genetics , Larva/metabolism , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Transgenes , Zebrafish Proteins/genetics , Zebrafish Proteins/metabolism
16.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805599

ABSTRACT

Marine feed ingredients derived from cephalopods (e.g., squid) and crustaceans (e.g., krill) are commercially used to improve the palatability of shrimp diets. Increase in global demand for shrimps has resulted in overfishing of these marine organisms and is a matter of concern. Insect protein hydrolysate could be a sustainable alternative for the possible replacement of these marine feed ingredients. During this study, four formulations: diet A (control: not containing any palatability enhancer), diet B (containing squid meal and krill oil), diet C (containing 1% insect protein hydrolysate), and diet D (containing 2% insect protein hydrolysate) were tested for (1) time required by first subject to begin feeding (time to strike) and (2) palatability in Litopenaeus vannamei. Additionally, the chemical composition of all four diet formulations was also analyzed. Results indicate that all diets had similar crude composition. The major essential amino acids in all diets were leucine and lysine, whereas eicosapentaenoic acid was the major omega-3 fatty acid in all diets. There were no significant differences between the mean time to strike for all the tested formulations. Palatability of tested formulations was found in the following order: diet D > diet C > diet B = diet A (p < 0.05), indicating that addition of squid meal and krill oil has no effect on palatability in comparison to control, whereas inclusion of insect protein hydrolysates significantly improves the palatability of formulations. Palatability enhancement potential of insect protein hydrolysate could be attributed to the high free amino acid content and water solubility in comparison to squid meal.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed/analysis , Diptera/chemistry , Insect Proteins/chemistry , Penaeidae/physiology , Amino Acids, Essential/analysis , Animals , Aquaculture/methods , Arthropod Proteins/chemistry , Conservation of Natural Resources , Decapodiformes/chemistry , Diet , Dietary Proteins/chemistry , Euphausiacea/chemistry , Food Preferences , Humans , Larva/chemistry , Penaeidae/growth & development , Protein Hydrolysates/chemistry , Solubility
17.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806970

ABSTRACT

Most insecticides commonly used in storage facilities are synthetic, an issue that generates concerns about food safety and public health. Therefore, the development of eco-friendly pest management tools is urgently needed. In the present study, a 6% (w/w) Hazomalania voyronii essential oil-based nanoemulsion (HvNE) was developed and evaluated for managing Tribolium confusum, T. castaneum, and Tenebrio molitor, as an eco-friendly wheat protectant. Larval and adult mortality was evaluated after 4, 8, and 16 h, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days, testing two HvNE concentrations (500 ppm and 1000 ppm). T. confusum and T. castaneum adults and T. molitor larvae were tolerant to both concentrations of the HvNE, reaching 13.0%, 18.7%, and 10.3% mortality, respectively, at 1000 ppm after 7 days of exposure. However, testing HvNE at 1000 ppm, the mortality of T. confusum and T. castaneum larvae and T. molitor adults 7 days post-exposure reached 92.1%, 97.4%, and 100.0%, respectively. Overall, the HvNE can be considered as an effective adulticide or larvicide, depending on the target species. Our results highlight the potential of H. voyronii essential oil for developing green nanoinsecticides to be used in real-world conditions against key stored-product pests.


Subject(s)
Insecticides , Laurales/chemistry , Oils, Volatile , Tribolium/growth & development , Triticum/parasitology , Animals , Emulsions , Insecticides/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/growth & development , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807173

ABSTRACT

Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larva) are an edible insect and a protein-rich food; however, research on mealworms as a substitute protein is insufficient. In this study, mealworm fermentation extract (TMP) was assessed as a replacement for soy protein (SP) in a control diet (CON) or a high-fat diet (HFD) of mice for 12 weeks. TMP substitution reduced body weight, body weight gain, body fat mass (perirenal and mesenteric), fat size, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance compared to the HFD-SP group. TMP alleviated hepatic steatosis (lipid contents and lipid droplets) in high-fat-fed mice and down-regulated the PPARγ, CD36, and DGAT2 gene levels. Proteomic analysis showed that a HFD for 12 weeks up-regulated 20 proteins and down-regulated 17 proteins in mice fed SP. On the other hand, TMP reversed the protein profiles. TMP significantly down-regulated KHK, GLO1, ATP5H, SOD, and DDAH1 and up-regulated DLD, Mup1, CPS1, Ces3b, PDI, and HYOU1 compared to the HFD-SP group. These proteins are involved in the glucose, lipid, and amino acid metabolism, as well as in oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Thus, substituting SP for TMP helped improve HFD-induced obesity, steatosis, and insulin resistance in mice. These results suggest that TMP is a potential substitute for commonly used protein sources.


Subject(s)
Edible Insects/metabolism , Obesity/diet therapy , Tenebrio/metabolism , Animals , Body Weight/drug effects , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/drug effects , Fatty Liver/metabolism , Fermentation , Glucose Intolerance/metabolism , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Larva/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Obesity/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Proteins/metabolism , Weight Gain/drug effects
19.
Zootaxa ; 4949(3): zootaxa.4949.3.10, 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903338

ABSTRACT

Heliothrips (Parthenothrips) octarcticulatus was originally described by Schmutz (1913) from Sri Lanka. Subsequently, Hood (1954) described from Taiwan a new genus and species Copidothrips formosus, and then Stannard and Mitri (1962) described a further new genus and species, Mesostenothrips kraussi, from Kiribati and Gibert Islands. Bhatti (1967, 1990), recognized that only a single genus and species was involved amongst these names, established the resultant synonymies, and recorded the species octarcticulatus from various localities between the Seychelles and five different Pacific Island groups. It has also been recorded from Northern Australia, and Thailand (ThripsWiki 2021) as well as Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean (Mound 2019). Despite these records, there is little reliable information about host plants and biology apart from Piper myristicum on Pohnpei island (Micronesia), and also damage caused to the leaves of Aglaonema and Spathoglottis at Darwin in Australia (Mound Tree 2020). In this note, we add a further interesting host record and describe the previously unknown male as well as the larvae of this species.


Subject(s)
Thysanoptera , Animals , Larva , Male , Polynesia , Thysanoptera/classification , Thysanoptera/physiology
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803957

ABSTRACT

Using rotors to expose animals to different levels of hypergravity is an efficient means of understanding how altered gravity affects physiological functions, interactions between physiological systems and animal development. Furthermore, rotors can be used to prepare space experiments, e.g., conducting hypergravity experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of a study before its implementation and to complement inflight experiments by comparing the effects of micro- and hypergravity. In this paper, we present a new platform called the Gravitational Experimental Platform for Animal Models (GEPAM), which has been part of European Space Agency (ESA)'s portfolio of ground-based facilities since 2020, to study the effects of altered gravity on aquatic animal models (amphibian embryos/tadpoles) and mice. This platform comprises rotors for hypergravity exposure (three aquatic rotors and one rodent rotor) and models to simulate microgravity (cages for mouse hindlimb unloading and a random positioning machine (RPM)). Four species of amphibians can be used at present. All murine strains can be used and are maintained in a specific pathogen-free area. This platform is surrounded by numerous facilities for sample preparation and analysis using state-of-the-art techniques. Finally, we illustrate how GEPAM can contribute to the understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms and the identification of countermeasures.


Subject(s)
Hypergravity/adverse effects , Rodentia/physiology , Space Flight , Weightlessness/adverse effects , Animals , Humans , Larva/pathogenicity , Larva/radiation effects , Mice , Models, Animal , Xenopus laevis/physiology
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