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Braz Dent J ; 33(2): 61-67, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508037


To assess the impact of oral conditions on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in infants in ten Latin America countries (LAC). A cross-sectional study was conducted with 930 pairs of 1-to-3-year-old children/parents from 10 LAC, as a complementary study of the Research Observatory for Dental Caries of the Latin American Region. The scale ECOHIS, previously tested and valid in ten countries, was applied to parents/caregivers of children to measure OHRQoL. Statistical analysis included descriptive data analysis and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA-One-Way) were performed to compare age groups with OHRQoL. Bootstrapping procedures (1000 re-samplings; 95%CI Bca) were performed. The mean scores of the 'Child Impact' section in the LAC was 4.0(±8.3), in the 'Family Impact' section was 2.0(±4.0), and in overall ECOHIS score was 6.0(±12.0). In the 'Child Impact' section, Argentina 10.0(+2.4) and Venezuela 17.8(±17.5) demonstrated mean scores higher than the LAC total data. In the 'Family Impact' section, the countries with higher mean scores were Argentina 4.9(±2.0), Ecuador 2.1(±3.1) and Venezuela 7.9(±7.8). In the overall ECOHIS score, Argentina 15.1 (±4.1) and Venezuela 25.7(±25.2) has higher mean scores than the values of LAC. There is an association between children's age and parents' report of impact on the OHRQoL (p<0.001). Three-year-olds had a higher mean when compared to one- and two-year-olds, both in the Impact on the Child and Impact on the Family (p<0.001) sections, as well as in the overall ECOHIS (p<0.001). In conclusion, there are differences in OHRQoL among Latin American countries, impacting older children more significantly.

Dental Caries , Oral Health , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Latin America , Parents , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires
Dis Aquat Organ ; 149: 11-23, 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510817


Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) infections are a global challenge for the Penaeid shrimp industry with a sharp rise in prevalence over the last 10 yr. EHP is known to cause sub-optimal growth, large size variation and reduced survival of shrimp. Molecular methods development has mainly focussed on 18S rRNA or spore wall protein 1 (SWP1). Due to the specificity and sensitivity issues with previously designed assays for both targets, new molecular assays are needed by the global shrimp industry and regulators to help manage the risks posed by EHP. This paper describes new real-time PCR (qPCR) methods developed for the novel EHP gene targets polar tube protein 2 (PTP2) and spore wall protein 26 (SWP26), whilst also presenting performance metrics of the new Shrimp MultiPathTM technology EHP assay. qPCR assays PTP2G and SWP26G show high amplification efficiency, a limit of detection (LOD) of between 1 and 4 copies, low assay variation and high diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and specificity (DSp) compared to imperfect reference assays. Similar performance is seen with Shrimp MultiPathTM EHP showing an LOD of 8 copies, low assay variation and high DSe and DSp. These novel molecular targets for EHP and Shrimp MultiPathTM EHP strengthen global efforts to monitor and mitigate risks of EHP infections and outbreaks. Moreover, this study presents novel data on distribution of EHP in shrimp populations from South-East Asia and Latin America, and how sequence variations need to be considered when monitoring EHP in different geographies.

Enterocytozoon , Penaeidae , Animals , Enterocytozoon/genetics , Latin America , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 42: 1-7, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503985


Lung cancer represents a considerable global health threat, leading the list in terms of cancer-related deaths worldwide. An important proportion of lung cancer cases occur within Latin America, and current projections show that over the next decade, the number of deaths due to lung cancer will double in the region, underscoring the need to implement evidence-based interventions to improve outcomes. Several challenges have limited the progress in lung cancer research in Latin America for many years, though recently the surge of multidisciplinary, transnational, and transcultural research groups have overcome many of these limitations. The increase in region-specific knowledge has improved cancer care in the area, providing clinicians with a specific demographic and molecular profile for Hispanic patients with lung cancer; as a result, the implementation of precision oncology has benefited from a profound knowledge of the patient profile. Nonetheless, there are still challenges to improve research in Latin America, including stabilizing funding sources to continue independent research, supporting mentoring programs and an early immersion in clinical research for early career fellows, and overcoming barriers for publishing.

Lung Neoplasms , Mentoring , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Policy , Precision Medicine
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 40: e2021101, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544904


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess interpersonal nonsexual violence against children and adolescents in a tertiary university hospital. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 240 patients under nonsexual violence situation for 15 consecutive years. Data analyses included demographic data, hospital referral site, type and author of nonsexual violence, legal referral, laboratorial and imaging examinations, and outcomes. RESULTS: Nonsexual violence situation was diagnosed in 240 (0.1%) of 295,993 patients for 15 years: 148 (61.7%) in children and 92 (38.3%) in adolescents. Out of 240, the most frequent types of violence were negligence in 156 (65.0%), physical 62 (25.8%), psychological/emotional aggression 52 (21.7%), Munchausen by proxy syndrome 4 (1.7%), and bullying/cyberbullying in 3 (1.3%). Out of 123, the most common pediatric chronic conditions were chronic kidney disease 24 (19.5%), human immunodeficiency virus 14 (11.4%), prematurity 9 (7.3%), cerebral palsy 8 (6.5%), and asthma 8 (6.5%). Further comparison between children versus adolescent under nonsexual violence situation revealed significant difference between the hospital referral sites. The frequency of patients under violence referred from outpatient clinics was significantly reduced in children versus adolescents (27.7 vs. 62%), whereas emergency department was higher in the former group (57.4 vs. 25.0%; p<0.001). All types of violence situations and pediatric chronic conditions were similar in both groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Nonsexual violence against our pediatric population was rarely diagnosed in a tertiary hospital, mainly negligence, physical, and psychological/emotional aggression. Approximately two-thirds of violence diagnosis occurred in children, referred mainly by the emergency department. In contrast, approximately one-third of violence diagnosis occurred in adolescents, referred mostly by outpatient clinics.

Violence , Adolescent , Child , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, University , Humans , Latin America
Radiol Clin North Am ; 60(3): 429-443, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534129


Infectious diseases, including parasitic diseases, which are commonly associated with poverty and poor sanitation, continue to cause significant morbidity, disability, and mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean region. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and cardiothoracic imaging manifestation of several communicable diseases endemic to this region.

Parasitic Diseases , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology
Public Underst Sci ; 31(3): 323-330, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491924


In this essay, I present a brief panorama of the field of science communication in Latin America based on some studies carried out within RedPOP, the Latin American network for science communication, and the Brazil's Institute of Public Communication of Science and Technology, looking at Policies for science communication, Diplomas, Masters and PhD programmes, and Research in science communication. I will then highlight some of the challenges and trends in the region.

Communication , Technology , Latin America
Article in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56017


[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To estimate inequalities in demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods among women in Latin America and the Caribbean, with an emphasis on Brazil and Mexico, and to calculate the scenario for recovery of modern contraceptive coverage by expanding access to long-acting contraceptives (LARC) after the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. National health surveys from 2006 to 2018 were used to estimate the demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods and how it was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The scenario included three variables: coverage, health outcomes, and costs. Considering coverage, United Nations Population Fund data were used to estimate the impact of COVID-19 on access to contraception in Latin America and the Caribbean. Health outcomes were assessed with the Impact 2 tool. Direct investment was used to evaluate cost-effectiveness. Results. Substantial inequalities were found in the use of modern contraceptive methods before the pandemic. We showed the potential cost-effectiveness of avoiding maternal deaths by introducing LARCs. Conclusions. In the scenario predicted for Brazil and Mexico, the costs of modern family planning and averted disability-adjusted life years are modest. Governments in Latin America and the Caribbean should consider promoting LARCs as a highly efficient and cost-effective intervention.

[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Estimar las desigualdades en la demanda de planificación familiar satisfecha con métodos anticonceptivos modernos entre las mujeres de América Latina y el Caribe, especialmente en Brasil y México, y analizar el escenario de recuperación de la cobertura de los anticonceptivos modernos mediante la ampliación del acceso a los anticonceptivos de acción prolongada tras la pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos. Se emplearon encuestas nacionales de salud desde el año 2006 hasta el año 2018 para estimar la demanda de planificación familiar satisfecha con métodos modernos y el impacto de la pandemia de COVID-19. El escenario comprendía tres variables: cobertura, resultados en materia de salud y costos. En lo respectivo a la cobertura, se emplearon datos del Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas para evaluar la repercusión de la COVID-19 en el acceso a los anticonceptivos en América Latina y el Caribe. Los resultados en materia de salud se examinaron con la herramienta Impact 2. Se empleó la inversión directa para evaluar la costo-efectividad. Resultados. Se encontraron desigualdades sustanciales en el uso de métodos anticonceptivos modernos antes de la pandemia. Se demostró la posible costo-efectividad de evitar muertes maternas mediante la introducción de anticonceptivos de acción prolongada. Conclusiones. De acuerdo con el escenario previsto para Brasil y México, los costos de la planificación familiar moderna y los años de vida ajustados en función de la discapacidad evitados son moderados. Los gobiernos de América Latina y el Caribe deberían considerar la posibilidad de p

[RESUMO]. Objetivos. Estimar as desigualdades na demanda por planejamento familiar atendida por métodos contraceptivos modernos em mulheres da América Latina e do Caribe, com ênfase no Brasil e no México, e calcular o cenário de recuperação da cobertura por métodos contraceptivos modernos por meio da ampliação do acesso a métodos contraceptivos reversíveis de longa duração (LARC) após a pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos. Foram usadas pesquisas nacionais de saúde de 2006 a 2018 para estimar a demanda por planejamento familiar atendida por métodos contraceptivos modernos e como ela foi afetada pela pandemia de COVID-19. O cenário incluiu três variáveis: cobertura, desfechos de saúde e custos. Para cobertura, os dados do Fundo de População das Nações Unidas foram usados para estimar o impacto da COVID-19 no acesso à contracepção na América Latina e no Caribe. Desfechos de saúde foram avaliados com a ferramenta Impact 2. O investimento direto foi usado para avaliar a relação custo-benefício. Resultados. Foram constatadas desigualdades importantes no uso de métodos contraceptivos modernos antes da pandemia. Demonstramos a potencial relação custo-benefício de evitar mortes maternas mediante a introdução de LARC. Conclusões. No cenário previsto para o Brasil e o México, os custos do planejamento familiar moderno e dos anos de vida ajustados por incapacidade por ele evitados são modestos. Os governos da América Latina e do Caribe devem considerar a promoção dos LARC como uma intervenção altamente eficiente e custo-efetiva.

Long-Acting Reversible Contraception , Health Services Accessibility , COVID-19 , Latin America , Caribbean Region , Brazil , Mexico , Long-Acting Reversible Contraception , Health Services Accessibility , Latin America , Caribbean Region , Brazil , Mexico , Long-Acting Reversible Contraception , Health Services Accessibility , Caribbean Region
Article in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56004


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Identificar las encuestas que incluyeron preguntas sobre discapacidad durante la pandemia por la COVID-19, en el periodo 2020-2021; y a partir de esto, estudiar qué acciones han implementado los países de América Latina y el Caribe en aspectos educativos, de salud y protección social que han incluido explícitamente a la población con discapacidad. Métodos. Se revisaron los documentos de los Institutos Nacionales de Estadística de los países de la región, al igual que la plataforma de Socioeconomic Impact Assessment y páginas de instituciones internacionales como el Banco Mundial, el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo y la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe, buscando identificar las encuestas nacionales o regionales implementadas durante el 2020 y primer semestre de 2021. Adicionalmente, se realizó un análisis documental de las normas que implementaron medidas en los sectores de salud, educación y protección social como respuesta a la pandemia por la COVID-19. En estos documentos se buscó identificar si de manera explícita se mencionaba a la población con discapacidad. Resultados. De los países de América Latina y el Caribe, 23 recolectaron información estadística tipo encuesta durante el 2020 -2021. De estos, tan solo cuatro (Colombia, Costa Rica, Perú y México) incluyeron preguntas de discapacidad dentro de las encuestas nacionales y aunque se realizaron algunas encuestas específicas para la población con discapacidad, en general, en la región existe una falta de datos asociados de esta población durante la pandemia. Solo diez incluyeron explícitamente a la población con discapacidad en las medidas de salud, doce en educación y trece en protección social Conclusiones. La falta de datos sobre la población con discapacidad en los países de América Latina y el Caribe durante la pandemia por la COVID-19, muestra que esta población está invisibilizada dentro de los procesos de recolección de información, lo cual se asocia con el bajo número de países que implementaron políticas para mitigar el impacto de la pandemia que explícitamente incluyeron a la población con discapacidad.

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To identify surveys that included questions about disability during the COVID-19 pandemic, in the period 2020–2021; and based on this, to determine what actions the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean implemented in the areas of education, health, and social protection that explicitly included the population with disabilities. Methods. Documents from the national statistics institutes of the countries of the region were reviewed, as well as the Socioeconomic Impact Assessment platform and webpages of international institutions such as the World Bank, the United Nations Development Program, and the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, seeking to identify national or regional surveys implemented during 2020 and the first half of 2021. Additionally, a documentary analysis was conducted of the measures implemented in the health, education, and social protection sectors in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. These documents were studied to determine whether the population with disabilities was explicitly mentioned. Results. Twenty-three countries in Latin America and the Caribbean collected information from statistical surveys during 2020–2021. Of these, only four (Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru) included questions on disability in their national surveys and although some specific surveys were conducted for the population with disabilities, in the region there is a general lack of associated data on this population during the pandemic. Only 10 countries explicitly included the population with disabilities in health measures, 12 in education, and 13 in social protection. Conclusions. The lack of data on the population with disabilities in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean during the COVID-19 pandemic shows that this population remains invisible in information collection processes. This is associated with the low number of countries that explicitly included the population with disabilities in policies implemented to mitigate the impact of the pandemic.

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Identificar pesquisas que incluíram perguntas sobre deficiência realizadas no período de 2020- 2021 da pandemia de COVID-19 e, a partir dessa informação, determinar as ações em saúde, educação e assistência social empreendidas nos países da América Latina e do Caribe e que incluíram explicitamente pessoas com deficiência. Métodos. Documentação obtida dos institutos nacionais de estatística dos países da Região, da plataforma Socioeconomic Impact Assessment (avaliação do impacto socioeconômico) e de sites de organismos internacionais (como Banco Mundial, Programa das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento e Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe) foi analisada com o objetivo de identificar as pesquisas nacionais ou regionais realizadas em 2020 e no primeiro semestre de 2021. Também foi realizada uma pesquisa documental da regulamentação para ações em saúde, educação e assistência social destinadas a enfrentar a pandemia de COVID-19, com vistas a identificar a menção explícita de pessoas com deficiência. Resultados. Vinte e três países da América Latina e do Caribe fizeram a coleta de dados estatísticos em pesquisas realizadas no período 2020-2021. Apenas quatro países incluíram perguntas sobre deficiência em pesquisas nacionais: Colômbia, Costa Rica, México e Peru. Apesar de ter havido pesquisas direcionadas para pessoas com deficiência, a Região em geral carece de dados relativos à situação dessa população na pandemia. Somente 10 países empreenderam ações em saúde com a inclusão explícita de pessoas com deficiência, 12 em educação e 13 em assistência social. Conclusões. A falta de dados sobre a situação das pessoas com deficiência nos países da América Latina e do Caribe durante a pandemia de COVID-19 demonstra a invisibilidade deste segmento populacional nos processos de coleta de dados. Como resultado, um número reduzido de países incluiu explicitamente as pessoas com deficiência nas políticas implementadas para o enfrentamento da pandemia.

Disabled Persons , Coronavirus Infections , Information Systems , Latin America , Disabled Persons , Coronavirus Infections , Information Systems , Disabled Persons , Coronavirus Infections , Information Systems
Article in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55935


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To estimate the point prevalence and likely ranges of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, low birth weight and preterm delivery in Latin America and the Caribbean, and evaluate the heterogeneity of the estimates. Methods. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies reporting the prevalence of maternal and perinatal adverse outcomes in populations in Latin American and the Caribbean published between 2000 and 2019 in English, Spanish, or Portuguese. We searched PubMed, Embase, and LILACS. We estimated the point prevalence and evaluated overall heterogeneity and, in sub-group analyses, heterogeneity by study design and level of bias. Results. Of 1087 records retrieved, 50 articles were included in the review: two on hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, 14 on pre-eclampsia, six on gestational diabetes, nine on low birth weight and 19 on preterm birth. No meta-analysis for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy could be done because of the small number of studies. Point prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, low birth weight, and preterm birth were: 6.6% (95% CI: 4.9%, 8.6%), 8.5% (95% CI: 3.9%, 14.7%), 8.5% (95% CI: 7.2%, 9.8%), and 10.0% (95% CI: 8.0%, 12.0%), respectively. We observed substantial heterogeneity overall and by study design. No major differences in estimates were observed by level of bias. Conclusions. The results of this study provide updated estimates of some of the most prevalent adverse pregnancy and perinatal outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean. They highlight that important heterogeneity exists in prevalence estimates, which may reflect the diversity of populations in the region.

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia puntual y los rangos probables de hipertensión provocada por embarazo, preeclampsia, diabetes gestacional, peso bajo al nacer y parto prematuro en América Latina y el Caribe, y evaluar la heterogeneidad de las estimaciones. Métodos. Se llevó a cabo una revisión sistemática y metanálisis de los estudios de observación que notificaron la prevalencia de resultados adversos perinatales y maternos en poblaciones de América Latina y el Caribe, publicados entre los años 2000 y 2019 en inglés, español o portugués. Se realizaron búsquedas en PubMed, Embase y LILACS. Se estimó la prevalencia puntual y se evaluó la heterogeneidad general y, en los análisis de subgrupos, la heterogeneidad según el diseño del estudio y nivel de sesgo. Resultados. De 1 087 registros recuperados, se incluyeron 50 artículos en la revisión: 2 sobre los trastornos hipertensivos en el embarazo, 14 sobre preeclampsia, 6 sobre la diabetes gestacional, 9 sobre peso bajo al nacer y 19 sobre parto prematuro. No se pudo realizar ningún metanálisis de los trastornos hipertensivos del embarazo debido al número reducido de estudios. Las estimaciones de prevalencia puntual y los intervalos de confianza (IC) del 95% para la preeclampsia, la diabetes gestacional, el peso bajo al nacer y el parto prematuro fueron: 6,6% (IC de 95%: 4,9%, 8,6%), 8,5% (IC de 95%: 3,9%, 14,7%), 8,5% (IC de 95%: 7,2%, 9,8%) y 10,0% (IC de 95%: 8,0%, 12,0%), respectivamente. Se observó una heterogeneidad significativa en general, así como según el diseño del estudio. No se advirtieron grandes diferencias en las estimaciones según el nivel del sesgo. Conclusiones. Los resultados de este estudio ofrecen cálculos actualizados de algunos de los resultados adversos perinatales y del embarazo con mayor prevalencia en América Latina y el Caribe. Estos resultados ponen de manifiesto que existe una gran heterogeneidad en las estimaciones de prevalencia, que podría reflejar la diversidad de la población de la región.

Hypertension , Pre-Eclampsia , Diabetes, Gestational , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Premature Birth , Latin America , Caribbean Region , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Pre-Eclampsia , Diabetes, Gestational , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Premature Birth , Latin America , Caribbean Region , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Pre-Eclampsia , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Premature Birth , Caribbean Region
Article in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55934


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Mapear protocolos de investigación, publicaciones y colaboraciones sobre la enfermedad por el coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19, por su sigla en inglés) desarrollados en América Latina y el Caribe (ALC). Métodos. Se incluyeron protocolos registrados en plataformas internacionales y publicaciones de investigaciones que consideraron población, datos y autores de ALC. La fuente de información para los protocolos fue principalmente la Plataforma Internacional de Registro de Ensayos Clínicos (ICTRP, por su sigla en inglés) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud; para las publicaciones se utilizaron bases electrónicas y repositorios específicos sobre la COVID-19. Se realizaron búsquedas de las publicaciones hasta el 11 de noviembre y de los protocolos hasta el día 30 de noviembre de 2020, inclusive. La información de los protocolos se extrajo según variables estandarizadas de la plataforma ICTRP y la de las publicaciones, según criterios preestablecidos. Resultados. De los protocolos, 63,0% fueron estudios sobre terapias, 10% de prevención y 45% fueron colaborativos. Con respecto al financiamiento, 64% de los protocolos no provino de la industria. En cuanto a las publicaciones, 23% fueron sin revisión de pares y 23% fueron colaborativas. Los diseños más frecuentes fueron las revisiones sistemáticas y estudios de corte transversal; 47,1% fueron realizados en servicios de salud y 22% en el ámbito comunitario; 38,0% se enfocaron en el diagnóstico y 27,9% en el pronóstico. Se realizó una síntesis cualitativa según la línea de cuidado y las estrategias de abordaje. Conclusiones. Se observó un aumento del número de investigaciones colaborativas en comparación con estudios anteriores y de protocolos no financiados por la industria. La agenda de investigación propuesta se cubrió en gran parte conforme al avance de la pandemia.

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To map research protocols, publications, and collaborations on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID- 19) developed in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Methods. Included were research protocols registered in international platforms and research publications containing populations, data, or authors from LAC. The source of information for protocols was primarily the International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP) of the World Health Organization; for publications, specific electronic databases and repositories pertaining to COVID-19 were used. The search for publications was conducted up to 11 November; the search for protocols, up to 30 November 2020 (both dates inclusive). Data was extracted from protocols using standardized variables from the ICTRP, and from publications following pre-established criteria. Results. Among the protocols, 63.0% were therapeutic studies, 10% focused on prevention, and 45% were collaborative; 64% of the protocols received no funding from industry; 23% of the publications were not peerreviewed and 23% were collaborative in nature. The most frequent study designs were systematic reviews and cross-sectional studies; 47.1% of studies were conducted in health facilities and 22% in community settings; 38.0% focused on diagnosis and 27.9% on prognosis. A qualitative synthesis was performed by line of care and approach strategies. Conclusions. There was an increase in the number of collaborative research studies relative to earlier studies and in protocols not funded by industry. The proposed research agenda was covered in large part as the pandemic unfolded.

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Mapear protocolos de pesquisa, publicações e colaborações sobre a doença causada pelo coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19, na sigla em inglês) desenvolvidos na América Latina e no Caribe (ALC). Métodos. Foram incluídos protocolos registrados em plataformas internacionais e publicações de pesquisas que consideraram população, dados e autores da ALC. A fonte de informação para os protocolos foi principalmente a Plataforma Internacional de Registros de Ensaios Clínicos (ICTRP, na sigla em inglês) da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Para as publicações, foram utilizadas bases de dados eletrônicas e repositórios específicos sobre COVID-19. As publicações foram pesquisadas até 11 de novembro, e os protocolos, até 30 de novembro de 2020 (inclusive). As informações dos protocolos foram extraídas de acordo com variáveis padronizadas da plataforma ICTRP e das publicações, segundo critérios pré-estabelecidos. Resultados. Dos protocolos, 63% eram estudos sobre terapias, 10% sobre prevenção e 45% eram colaborativos. Em relação ao financiamento, 64% dos protocolos não vieram da indústria. Em relação às publicações, 23% eram sem revisão por pares e 23% eram colaborativas. Os delineamentos mais frequentes foram revisões sistemáticas e estudos transversais; 47,1% foram realizados em serviços de saúde e 22% no âmbito comunitário; 38,0% focaram no diagnóstico e 27,9% no prognóstico. Realizou-se uma síntese qualitativa segundo a linha de cuidado e as estratégias de abordagem. Conclusões. Observou-se um aumento no número de pesquisas colaborativas (em comparação com estudos anteriores) e de protocolos não financiados pela indústria. A agenda de pesquisa proposta foi coberta, em grande parte, à medida que a pandemia progredia.

COVID-19 , Health Research Agenda , Latin America , Caribbean Region , Health Research Agenda , Latin America , Caribbean Region , Health Research Agenda , Latin America , Caribbean Region
Internet resource in Portuguese | LIS -Health Information Locator | ID: lis-48750


O término da licença maternidade é sempre uma questão trazida pelas mulheres que tem que retornar ao trabalho e gostariam de manter o aleitamento materno, e este foi o tema da publicação “Association Between Maternal Work and Exclusive Breastfeeding in Countries of Latin America and Caribbean” produzida por Marília Neves Santos, coordenadora do Banco de Leite Humano do Hospital das Clínicas de Uberlândia e que concluiu o seu mestrado em Ciência da Saúde pela Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia.

Breast Feeding , Return to Work , Latin America , Legislation, Labor , Health Promotion , Workplace
J Glob Health ; 12: 04031, 2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35486804


Background: Little is known about place of death in Latin America, although this data are crucial for health system planning. This study aims to describe place of death and associated factors in Latin America and to identify factors that contribute to inter-country differences in place of death. Methods: We conducted a total population observational study using death certificates of the total annual decedent populations in 12 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay) for the most recent available year (2016, 2017, or 2018). Data were analysed regarding place of death and multivariable logistic regression with place of death as the dependent variable was used to examine associated clinical and sociodemographic factors (independent variables) in each of the countries. Results: The total study sample was 2 994 685 deaths; 31.3% of deaths occurred at home, and 57.6% in hospitals. A strong variation was found among the countries with home deaths ranging from 20% (Brazil) to 67.9% (Guatemala) and hospital deaths from 22.3% (Guatemala) to 69.5% (Argentina). These differences between countries remained largely unchanged after controlling for sociodemographic factors and causes of death. The likelihood of dying at home was consistently higher with increasing age, for those living in a rural area, and for those with a lower educational level (except in Argentina). Conclusions: Most deaths in Latin America occur in hospitals, with a strong variation between countries. As clinical and sociodemographic factors included in this study did not explain country differences, other factors such as policy and health care system seem to have a crucial impact on where people die in Latin America.

Death Certificates , Research Design , Brazil , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Mexico
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 29(1): 195-214, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442286


As of the nineteenth century, the number of world fairs and hygiene exhibitions grew significantly. This phenomenon was linked to the experience of modernity and the emergence of bacteriology, when different cities were sanitized with the aim of combating urban diseases and epidemics. For the purpose of sanitary education and hygiene propaganda, many objects and pictures were displayed in hygiene exhibitions and museums, such as the International Hygiene Exhibition of 1911 and the German Hygiene Museum, both in Dresden. The goal of this article is to analyze a chapter of the international history of health through images that portray the connections between the German Hygiene Museum and Latin American countries between 1911 and 1933.

Bacteriology , Museums , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Hygiene/history , Latin America , Museums/history , Propaganda
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 843, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477376


BACKGROUND: Restaurants, particularly independently-owned ones that serve immigrant communities, are important community institutions in the promotion of dietary health. Yet, these restaurants remain under-researched, preventing meaningful collaborations with the public health sector for healthier community food environments. This research aimed to examine levels of acceptability of healthy eating promotion strategies (HEPS) in independently-owned Latin American restaurants (LARs) and identify resource needs for implementing HEPS in LARs. METHODS: We completed semi-structured, online discussions with LAR owners and staff (n = 20), predominantly from New York City (NYC), to examine current engagement, acceptability, potential barriers, and resource needs for the implementation of HEPS. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed independently by two coders using Dedoose, applying sentiment weighting to denote levels of acceptability for identified HEPS (1 = low, 2 = medium/neutral, 3 = high). Content analysis was used to examine factors associated with HEPS levels of acceptability and resource needs, including the influence of the Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). RESULTS: The most acceptable HEPS was menu highlights of healthier items (mean rating = 2.8), followed by promotion of healthier items (mean rating = 2.7), increasing healthy offerings (mean rating = 2.6), nutrition information on the menu (mean rating = 2.3), and reduced portions (mean rating = 1.7). Acceptability was associated with factors related to perceived demand, revenue, and logistical constraints. COVID-19 had a mixed influence on HEPS engagement and acceptability. Identified resource needs to engage in HEPS included nutrition knowledge, additional expertise (e.g., design, social media, culinary skills), and assistance with food suppliers and other restaurant operational logistics. Respondents also identified potential policy incentives. CONCLUSIONS: LARs can positively influence eating behaviors but doing so requires balancing public health goals and business profitability. LARs also faced various constraints that require different levels of assistance and resources, underscoring the need for innovative engagement approaches, including incentives, to promote these changes.

COVID-19 , Restaurants , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet, Healthy , Humans , Latin America , Surveys and Questionnaires
Rev Neurol ; 74(9): 298-302, 2022 05 01.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35484701


INTRODUCTION: Studies have demonstrated a higher motor and non-motor burden in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with old age at onset compared to those with middle age at onset. We decided to test these findings in a Latin American PD population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 24 PD patients with age at onset > 65 years, and each patient was matched to 1 control patient with disease onset at ages between 48 and 60 years, matched for gender and disease duration (±2 years). Clinical test batteries that assessed motor (MDS-UPDRS), non-motor (NMSS), cognitive (MoCA), and quality of life (PDQ-8) were recorded. Groups were compared with conditional logistic regression analysis. A comparative post-hoc analysis was also conducted, considering only patients with age at onset > 70 years (n = 11) and their matched controls. RESULTS: Mean age at onset was 70.53 ± 3.28 and 53.79 ± 4.96 for the old-age and middle-age group, respectively. No significant differences were observed in most clinical batteries when comparing PD patients based on age at onset, with worse scores in MDS-UPDRS Part III and Tremor subscore in the middle-age onset group. The post-hoc analysis showed similar results, with non-significantly worse scores in the middle-age onset group. CONCLUSION: This is the first study reporting a more benign motor phenotype in old-age onset PD patients. Despite the lower cut-off value used for old age onset PD, vascular, epidemiological, ethnic and treatment adherence features must be also considered as potential explicative factors, with further multicenter studies in larger populations needed.

TITLE: Fenotipo de la enfermedad de Parkinson basado en la edad de inicio en pacientes latinoamericanos: un análisis emparejado.Introducción. Diversos estudios han demostrado una mayor gravedad de sintomatología motora y no motora en pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson (EP) con edad de inicio tardía comparados con los de inicio intermedio. Decidimos probar estos resultados en una población con EP en Latinoamérica. Pacientes y métodos. Reclutamos a 24 pacientes con EP con una edad de inicio > 65 años (inicio tardío), y cada paciente se emparejó con un control con inicio de la enfermedad entre los 48 y los 60 años (inicio intermedio), emparejados por sexo y duración de la enfermedad (±2 años). Se registraron baterías de pruebas clínicas que evaluaron los síntomas motores ­escala unificada de la enfermedad de Parkinson modificada por la Sociedad de Trastornos del Movimiento (MDS-UPDRS)­, los no motores (escala de síntomas no motores), los cognitivos (escala de evaluación cognitiva de Montreal) y la calidad de vida (cuestionario de enfermedad de Parkinson 8). Los grupos se compararon con análisis de regresión logística condicional. Resultados. La edad media de inicio fue de 70,53 ± 3,28 y 53,79 ± 4,96 para los grupos de inicio tardío y de inicio intermedio, respectivamente. No se observaron diferencias significativas en la mayoría de las baterías clínicas cuando se compararon los pacientes con EP según la edad de inicio, con peores puntuaciones significativamente en la MDS-UPDRS, parte III, y en su subdominio de temblor en el grupo de inicio intermedio. Conclusiones. Éste es el primer estudio que informa sobre un fenotipo motor más benigno en pacientes con EP de inicio tardío. A pesar de utilizar una edad de corte más baja para definir el inicio tardío, las características vasculares, epidemiológicas, étnicas y de adhesión al tratamiento también deben considerarse como posibles factores explicativos.

Parkinson Disease , Age of Onset , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Phenotype , Quality of Life/psychology , Severity of Illness Index
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-04-25.
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr3-55922


From a pathophysiological perspective, death is the end result of a wide spectrum of complications leading to multi-organ dysfunction. However, there is a group of women who survive despite the seriousness of their condition, and is an outcome that depends primarily on the quality of health care services provided by a country or institution. This publication proposes an epidemiological surveillance system for the maternal near-miss (MNM) indicator, which refers to extremely severe maternal morbidity, i.e., cases that bring women very close to the death event, thus making it possible to estimate morbidity associated with diseases and complications that occur during pregnancy, childbirth, or the puerperium. After adjusting the definition to a specific population and time, MNM is defined as a case in which a woman nearly died, but survived a complication that occurred during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy. This indicator has the logistical advantage that MNM always occurs in a health institution, since if the event occurs in the community or far from a health service, it will inevitably become a maternal death (and therefore no longer a MNM).It also provides more complete information on cases of preventable maternal death, incorporates patient safety issues, and helps detect deficiencies in health care systems. This work falls within the broader objective of the Pan American Health Organization to reduce maternal mortality and strengthen the epidemiological surveillance of maternal health at the national level. The tool provides national health authorities with a system to actively identify, collect, process, and analyze information related to MNM, and may also be useful to local and regional health care service providers and managers.

Maternal Mortality , Epidemiological Monitoring , Maternal Health Services , Latin America , Caribbean Region
Washington, D.C.; Organisation panaméricaine de la Santé; 2022-04-25.
in French | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr3-55921


D’un point de vue physiopathologique, la mort est le résultat final d’un large éventail de complications qui mènent à une dysfonction multi-organique. Cependant il existe un groupe de femmes qui survivent en dépit de la gravité de leur tableau clinique, et ce résultat dépend principalement de la qualité des services de soins de santé prodigués par un pays ou un établissement. La présente publication propose un système de surveillance épidémiologique de l’indicateur de morbidité maternelle extrêmement grave (MMEG) qui permet d’estimer la morbidité liée aux maladies et complications apparues au cours de la grossesse, de l’accouchement ou du post-partum. Elle fournit aussi des informations plus complètes sur les cas de mort maternelle évitable, prend compte certains aspects de la sécurité de la patiente et aide à mieux détecter les lacunes des systèmes de soins. Cet ouvrage s’inscrit dans l’objectif plus large de l’Organisation panaméricaine de la Santé qui est de réduire la mortalité maternelle et de renforcer la surveillance épidémiologique de la santé maternelle à l’échelon national. Pour les autorités de santé des pays, cet outil représente un système d’identification, de collecte, de traitement et d’analyse active des informations liées à la MMEG, et il peut également être utile aux prestataires et gestionnaires des services de santé locaux et régionaux.

Maternal Mortality , Epidemiological Monitoring , Maternal Health Services , Latin America , Caribbean Region
Brasilia, D.F.; OPAS; 2022-04-25. (OPAS/BRA/NMH/21-0077).
in Portuguese | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-55920


Em 2016, por meio da Resolução 70/259, a Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU) endossou os resultados da II Conferência Internacional de Nutrição, proclamou a Década de Ação das Nações Unidas para Nutrição (2016-2025) e solicitou que a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) e a Organização das Nações Unidas para a Alimentação e Agricultura (FAO) liderassem a implementação da Década1. O objetivo da Década é coordenar esforços de diversos setores para o efetivo enfrentamento a todas as formas de má nutrição, partindo de uma perspectiva ampliada que reconhece as principais causas e fatores que contribuem para os diferentes desfechos. O Brasil foi o primeiro país a formalizar compromissos no âmbito da Década de Ação das Nações Unidas para Nutrição. Em 2017, o Ministério da Saúde se comprometeu a deter o crescimento da obesidade e a melhorar o perfl alimentar por meio do aumento do consumo de frutas e hortaliças e da redução do consumo de bebidas adoçadas na população adulta. Nesse mesmo ano, durante a 44ª Sessão do Comitê de Segurança Alimentar da FAO, o Brasil divulgou o documento intitulado “Compromissos do Brasil para a Década de Ação das Nações Unidas para a Nutrição (2016-2025)”, que consolidou todos os compromissos do país para a Década de Ação.

Food Guide , Nutritional Sciences , Diet, Healthy , Food-Processing Industry , Food Security , Latin America , Caribbean Region
Front Public Health ; 10: 838417, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35462804


In the present study, we describe the job demands and job resources (JD-R) experienced by agricultural workers in three Latin American countries and their relationship to proactive health behaviors at work and overall health. Following previous research on the JD-R model, we hypothesized that job demands (H1) would be negatively related to agricultural workers' self-reported overall health. On the other hand, we hypothesized that job resources (H2) would be positively related to agricultural workers' overall health. Furthermore, we hypothesized (H3) that workers' engagement in jobsite health promotion practices via their proactive health behaviors at work would partially mediate the relationship between workers' job resources and job demands and overall health. We also had a research question (R1) about whether there were differences by type of job held. The sample of workers who participated in this study (N = 1,861) worked in Mexico, Guatemala, and Nicaragua for one large agribusiness that produces sugar cane. They worked in two distinct areas: company administration and agricultural operations. We administered employee health and safety culture surveys using survey methods tailored to meet the needs of both types of workers. Stratified path analysis models were used to test study hypotheses. In general, we found support for hypotheses 1 and 2. For example, operations workers reported more physically demanding jobs and administrative workers reported more work-related stress. Regardless, the existence of high job demands was associated with poorer overall health amongst both types of workers. We found that workers in more health-supportive work environments perform more proactive health behaviors at work, regardless of their role within the organization. However, hypothesis 3 was not supported as proactive health behaviors at work was not associated with overall health. We discuss future research needs in terms of evaluating these hypotheses amongst workers employed by small- and medium-sized agribusinesses as well as those in the informal economy in Latin America. We also discuss important implications for agribusinesses seeking to develop health promotion programs that meet the needs of all workers.

Farmers , Occupational Health , Health Behavior , Humans , Latin America , Workplace