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2.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226288, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO - Dentistry | ID: biblio-1366204

ABSTRACT

Aim: To describe the pattern of toothache experience in a cohort of children aged 2-5 over 21 years and to find the relationship between previous toothache experience and later reports of toothache to get finding on the most critical period of toothache as a problem in life. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS). A total of 1,927 children from IFLS-1 with complete data were included as baseline participants. They were followed up four times within 21 years (age 6-9y, age 9-12y, age 16-19y, age 23- 26y). Toothache was based on the question of self-reported toothache experience during the last four weeks. After 21 years, a total of 1,098 individuals could be traced and completed every cohort of the survey. Toothache experiences were reported for frequencies in every cohort and accumulative experiences over 21 years. Logistic regression tests were performed to analyze the association of previous toothache experience and later toothache experience. Results: Almost 40% of the respondents reported toothache at least once in their life. The age of 6-9 years is the period when a high percentage of children had teeth-related pain. The experience of toothache at this period was significantly related to every period of age in life. Conclusions: The period of early mixed dentition is important. Oral health status in this period is associated with future oral health. A comprehensive dental health prevention program targeting this population is essential to increase the quality of life


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Toothache/epidemiology , Oral Health , Socioeconomic Factors , Dental Health Surveys , Prevalence , Longitudinal Studies , Indonesia/epidemiology
3.
Psychooncology ; 31(1): 54-61, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498358

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of breast reconstruction on women's perceptions of body image over time and to assess the influence of sociodemographic variables on body image. METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal cohort study, using validated breast cancer-specific questionnaires, to compare patient-reported outcomes in women choosing immediate (n = 61), delayed (n = 16) or no (n = 23) breast reconstruction. RESULTS: One hundred women completed baseline questionnaires that included items on body image; 30 women completed all four annual follow-up sets, while 20 women completed baseline only. The three groups were well matched at baseline and similar trajectories in body image measures were identified over 48 months in all groups. At 12 months post-mastectomy, significant changes were seen in eight of the 10 subscales; this reduced to seven subscales at 24 months and four at 36 months. By 48 months, only three subscales remained significantly different to baseline scores: women remained less vulnerable and had fewer limitations (improved outcomes); the one worse outcome was persistently higher levels of arm concern. Three of the sociodemographic variables (health insurance, age and employment status) showed significant inter-group differences at some time points. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest women recover from the negative impact of mastectomy on body image within four years of surgery, whether they have immediate, delayed or no reconstruction. Our results provide some indirect evidence that having a choice of BR options is important, regardless of the choice made. Four years appears to be a suitable follow-up period for future studies in this area.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Mammaplasty , Body Image , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Mammaplasty/methods , Mastectomy , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life
4.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 474-485, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377386

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The thrombin generation test (TGT) has shown promise for investigation of hemorrhagic and thrombotic diseases. However, despite its potential, it still needs standardization. Moreover, few studies have established reference values for TGT parameters. In Brazil, these values have not yet been established. OBJECTIVE: To determine TGT performance and reference intervals for TGT parameters in healthy individuals. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted among participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto, ELSA-Brasil). METHODS: The reference sample consisted of 620 healthy individuals. The calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) method, under low and high tissue factor (TF) conditions, was used to assess thrombin generation. Test performance was analyzed using intra and interassay coefficients of variation (CV) and reference intervals were calculated using the nonparametric method proposed by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. RESULTS: The intraassay CV ranged from 1.4% to 2.2% and the interassay CV, 6.8% to 14.7%. The reference intervals for TGT parameters under low and high TF conditions were, respectively: lagtime: 3.0-10.3 and 1.4-3.7 min; endogenous thrombin potential (ETP): 1134.6-2517.9 and 1413.6-2658.0 nM.min; normalized ETP: 0.6-1.3 and 0.7-1.4; peak: 103.2-397.7 and 256.4-479.0 nM; normalized peak: 0.3-1.3 and 0.7-1.2; and time-to-peak: 5.6-16.0 and 3.4-6.7 min. These parameters were categorized relative to sex. Conclusion: TGT performance was adequate and the proposed reference intervals were similar to those of other studies. Our findings may be useful for consolidating the TGT, through contributing to its standardization and validation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thrombin , Reference Values , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Longitudinal Studies
5.
J Psychosom Res ; 159: 110945, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665613

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Psychological trauma is a well-known risk factor for the onset of persistent somatic symptoms (PSS). In contrast, little is known on the relation between potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and the severity of PSS, and on the protective effect of social support. We aimed to: (i) determine whether childhood, adulthood and recent PTEs are associated with burden of PSS over four years of follow-up; (ii) examine associations of multiple and cumulative (in childhood and adulthood) exposure to PTEs with burden of PSS; and (iii) determine whether social support modifies these associations. METHODS: Longitudinal data of 322 patients with PSS were analyzed. PTEs (Life Events Questionnaire) and social support (Social Support Scale) were assessed at baseline. Burden of PSS was measured in terms of symptom severity (PHQ-15) and physical functioning (RAND-36 PCS) at six repeated measurements over a four-year interval. Associations were analyzed using longitudinal mixed model analysis. RESULTS: Patients with multiple childhood PTEs reported higher burden of PSS over four-year time. Adulthood PTEs were associated with burden of PSS in patients with, but not in patients without childhood PTEs. Recent PTEs were not associated with burden over time. Social support did not modify any of the associations. CONCLUSIONS: PTEs are associated with higher burden of PSS over time, in addition to the well-known association with the onset of PSS. PTEs in early life and cumulative exposure to PTEs in childhood and adulthood are associated with higher burden over time in patients with PSS. Social support did not attenuate the associations.


Subject(s)
Medically Unexplained Symptoms , Psychological Trauma , Adult , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269707, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679247

ABSTRACT

A large literature at the crossroads of biology and cognitive psychology has shown that individuals hold generally positive expectations about future events. Despite this evidence, to date it remains unclear whether optimism has positive or negative implications for entrepreneurial activities. We examine this question in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic, which provides a unique way to study the role of optimism on the (in)ability of firms to overcome exogenous shocks. Using a large-scale longitudinal survey covering 1,632 UK firms, we find that entrepreneurs who score high on optimism were more likely to innovate and make organizational changes to their firms during the Covid-19 outbreak. Moreover, optimistic entrepreneurs experienced higher revenue growth during the pandemic. Collectively, our study sheds light on one of the psychological factors explaining why some firms can prosper and some others struggle in the wake of an external shock.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Optimism/psychology , Personality
7.
Open Heart ; 9(1)2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680171

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pregnancy is associated with elevated risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but little is known regarding the association between CVD and specific types of pregnancy losses. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of pregnancy loss on the risk of subsequent CVD of any type. METHODS: This prospective longitudinal study examines medical records between 1999 and 2014 for Medicaid beneficiaries born after 1982 who lived in a state that funds all reproductive health services, including induced abortion. Unique pregnancy outcomes, history of diabetes, hyperlipidaemia or CVD (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9): 401-459) prior to their first pregnancy outcome for each woman. Cumulative incidence rates of a first CVD diagnosis following a first pregnancy were calculated for the observed period, exceeding 12 years. RESULTS: A history of pregnancy loss was associated with 38% (OR=1.38; 95% CI=1.37 to 1.40) higher risk of a CVD diagnosis in the period observed. After controlling for history of diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, age, year of first pregnancy, race, state of residence, months of eligibility, number of pregnancies, births, number of losses before and after the first live birth, exposure to any pregnancy loss was associated with an 18% (adjusted OR=1.18; 95% CI=1.15 to 1.21) increased risk of CVD. Our analyses also reveal an important temporal relationship between the CVD and pregnancy loss. Immediate and short-term increased CVD risk is more characteristic for women whose first pregnancy ended in live birth while a delayed and more prolonged increased risk of CVD is associated with a first pregnancy loss. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings corroborate previous research showing that pregnancy loss is an independent risk factor for CVD, especially for diseases more chronic in nature. Our research contributes to understanding the specific needs for cardiovascular health monitoring for pregnant women and developing a consistent, evidence-based screening tools for both short-term and long-term follow-up.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Induced , Abortion, Spontaneous , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Abortion, Induced/adverse effects , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies
8.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 101(7): 666-673, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35706119

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: After total knee arthroplasty, the ability to weight bear symmetrically during the sit-to-stand task provides important information regarding altered movement patterns. Despite this, comprehensive recovery curves and validity data for sit-to-stand weight-bearing symmetry are lacking in the total knee arthroplasty population. Our study aimed to (1) develop recovery curves with reference ranges, (2) identify the correlates of standard and constrained sit-to-stand weight-bearing symmetry, and (3) evaluate their predictive validity with gait speed. DESIGN: We performed a retrospective longitudinal study of 706 patients with primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. Monthly, for 4 mos after surgery, sit-to-stand weight-bearing symmetry, knee pain, knee range of motion, quadriceps strength, and gait speed were quantified. RESULTS: Standard and constrained sit-to-stand weight-bearing symmetry measures improved nonlinearly over time. Standard sit-to-stand weight-bearing symmetry was most strongly associated with bilateral quadriceps strength, whereas constrained sit-to-stand weight-bearing symmetry was most strongly associated with ipsilateral quadriceps strength. Knee range of motion and contralateral knee pain were additional correlates. Both standard sit-to-stand and constrained sit-to-stand weight-bearing symmetry were independently and nonlinearly associated with gait speed in multivariable models. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provided recovery curves and validity data to support routine clinical measurement of sit-to-stand weight-bearing symmetry in total knee arthroplasty. Our results also indicate that constrained sit-to-stand may promote greater use of the operated limb than standard sit-to-stand.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Biomechanical Phenomena , Humans , Knee Joint/surgery , Longitudinal Studies , Pain/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Walking Speed , Weight-Bearing
9.
Schizophr Res ; 244: 101-110, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659654

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome is a health-threatening condition suffered by approximately one third of schizophrenia patients and largely attributed to antipsychotic medication. Previous evidence reports a common genetic background of psychotic and metabolic disorders. In this study, we aimed to assess the role of polygenic risk scores (PRSs) on the progression of the metabolic profile in a first-episode psychosis (FEP) cohort. METHOD: Of the 231 FEP individuals included in the study, 192-220 participants were included in basal analysis and 118-179 in longitudinal 6-month models. Eleven psychopathologic and metabolic PRSs were constructed. Basal and longitudinal PRSs association with metabolic measurements was assessed by statistical analyses. RESULTS: No major association of psychopathological PRSs with the metabolic progression was found. However, high risk individuals for depression and cholesterol-related PRSs reported a higher increase of cholesterol levels during the follow-up (FDR ≤ 0.023 for all analyses). Their effect was comparable to other well-established pharmacological and environmental risk factors (explaining at least 1.2% of total variance). CONCLUSION: Our findings provide new evidence of the effects of metabolic genetic risk on the development of metabolic dysregulation. The future establishment of genetic profiling tools in clinical procedures could enable practitioners to better personalize antipsychotic treatment selection and dosage.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , Psychotic Disorders , Schizophrenia , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Psychotic Disorders/genetics , Psychotic Disorders/pathology , Risk Factors , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Schizophrenia/genetics
10.
Soc Sci Med ; 305: 115090, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660693

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Previous cross-sectional and unidirectional longitudinal studies have investigated the associations among perceived parental warmth, positivity, and depressive symptoms among children and adolescents without distinguishing between-person effects from within-person effects. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to examine the dynamic longitudinal associations among perceived parental warmth, positivity, and depressive symptoms, including whether positivity functioned as a mediator of the reciprocal relations between perceived maternal/paternal warmth and depressive symptoms at the within-person level encompassing middle childhood to early adolescence. METHODS: A sample of 3765 Chinese students (45.8% girls; M age = 9.92 years, SD = 0.72; range = 9-12 years at Time 1) completed self-report measures on 4 occasions across 2 years, using 6-month intervals. Random-Intercept Cross-Lagged Panel Models were employed to disentangle between- and within-person effects. RESULTS: (a) Perceived maternal/paternal warmth and depressive symptoms reciprocally and negatively predicted each other; (b) positivity and depressive symptoms reciprocally and negatively predicted each other; (c) perceived maternal/paternal warmth and positivity reciprocally and positively predicted each other; (d) depressive symptoms indirectly predicted perceived maternal/paternal warmth via positivity; (e) perceived maternal warmth displayed earlier and more stable effects on positivity and depressive symptoms than perceived paternal warmth; and (f), no childhood sex differences existed in the observed associations. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the longitudinal within-person transactions among perceived parental warmth, positivity, and depressive symptoms, and the differential roles of perceived maternal/paternal warmth. These findings may help provide a potential theoretical framework through which to precisely identify objectives for early intervention.


Subject(s)
Depression , Parent-Child Relations , Adolescent , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Fathers , Female , Humans , Infant , Longitudinal Studies , Male
11.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 87, 2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the most common hospital acquired infection in the USA, with recurrence rates > 15%. Although primary CDI has been extensively linked to gut microbial dysbiosis, less is known about the factors that promote or mitigate recurrence. Moreover, previous studies have not shown that microbial abundances in the gut measured by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing alone can accurately predict CDI recurrence. RESULTS: We conducted a prospective, longitudinal study of 53 non-immunocompromised participants with primary CDI. Stool sample collection began pre-CDI antibiotic treatment at the time of diagnosis, and continued up to 8 weeks post-antibiotic treatment, with weekly or twice weekly collections. Samples were analyzed using (1) 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, (2) liquid chromatography/mass-spectrometry metabolomics measuring 1387 annotated metabolites, and (3) short-chain fatty acid profiling. The amplicon sequencing data showed significantly delayed recovery of microbial diversity in recurrent participants, and depletion of key anaerobic taxa at multiple time-points, including Clostridium cluster XIVa and IV taxa. The metabolomic data also showed delayed recovery in recurrent participants, and moreover mapped to pathways suggesting distinct functional abnormalities in the microbiome or host, such as decreased microbial deconjugation activity, lowered levels of endocannabinoids, and elevated markers of host cell damage. Further, using predictive statistical/machine learning models, we demonstrated that the metabolomic data, but not the other data sources, can accurately predict future recurrence at 1 week (AUC 0.77 [0.71, 0.86; 95% interval]) and 2 weeks (AUC 0.77 [0.69, 0.85; 95% interval]) post-treatment for primary CDI. CONCLUSIONS: The prospective, longitudinal, and multi-omic nature of our CDI recurrence study allowed us to uncover previously unrecognized dynamics in the microbiome and host presaging recurrence, and, in particular, to elucidate changes in the understudied gut metabolome. Moreover, we demonstrated that a small set of metabolites can accurately predict future recurrence. Our findings have implications for development of diagnostic tests and treatments that could ultimately short-circuit the cycle of CDI recurrence, by providing candidate metabolic biomarkers for diagnostics development, as well as offering insights into the complex microbial and metabolic alterations that are protective or permissive for recurrence. Video Abstract.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Clostridioides , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Clostridium Infections/therapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Recurrence
12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682379

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and obesity in developing countries has been underexplored and inconsistent. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data of 10,054 adults aged ≥ 45 years from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Information on 12 ACE indicators was collected via questionnaires. General obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) of ≥28 kg/m². Central obesity was defined as a waist circumference of ≥90 cm for males and ≥85 cm for females. Logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the association of ACEs with general obesity, central obesity, BMI, and waist circumference where appropriate. RESULTS: Compared to the non-exposed group, the experience of ≥3 ACEs was significantly associated with decreased risks of general obesity (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.999), central obesity (OR = 0.88, 95% 0.77, 0.997), and smaller BMI (ß = -0.27, 95% CI: -0.50, -0.04) and waist circumference (ß = -0.89, 95% CI: -1.52, -0.26). Compared to the high socioeconomic status (SES) group, such associations were more evident in those with a low SES, except for central obesity. CONCLUSION: ACEs were shown to be inversely associated with later-life obesity in China, especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. The context-specific impacts reflect divergent roles of socioeconomic position in the obesity epidemic between developed and developing countries. Further investigations are needed to confirm whether physical activity could shift the direction of this association.


Subject(s)
Adverse Childhood Experiences , Obesity, Abdominal , Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Developing Countries , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity, Abdominal/epidemiology , Waist Circumference
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10653, 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739222

ABSTRACT

1 in 20 live births in the United States is affected by prenatal alcohol exposure annually, creating a major public health crisis. The teratogenic impact of alcohol on physical growth, neurodevelopment, and behavior is extensive, together resulting in clinical disorders which fall under the umbrella term of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). FASD-related impairments to executive function and perceptual learning are prevalent among affected youth and are linked to disruptions to corpus callosum growth and myelination in adolescence. Targeted interventions that support neurodevelopment in FASD-affected youth are nonexistent. We evaluated the capacity of an adolescent exercise intervention, a stimulator of myelinogenesis, to upregulate corpus callosum myelination in a rat model of FASD (third trimester-equivalent alcohol exposure). This study employs in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scanning to investigate the effects of: (1) neonatal alcohol exposure and (2) an adolescent exercise intervention on corpus callosum myelination in a rodent model of FASD. DTI scans were acquired twice longitudinally (pre- and post-intervention) in male and female rats using a 9.4 Tesla Bruker Biospec scanner to assess alterations to corpus callosum myelination noninvasively. Fractional anisotropy values as well as radial/axial diffusivity values were compared within-animal in a longitudinal study design. Analyses using mixed repeated measures ANOVA's confirm that neonatal alcohol exposure in a rodent model of FASD delays the trajectory of corpus callosum growth and myelination across adolescence, with a heightened vulnerability in the male brain. Alterations to corpus callosum volume are correlated with reductions to forebrain volume which mediates an indirect relationship between body weight gain and corpus callosum growth. While we did not observe any significant effects of voluntary aerobic exercise on corpus callosum myelination immediately after completion of the 12-day intervention, we did observe a beneficial effect of exercise intervention on corpus callosum volume growth in all rats. In line with clinical findings, we have shown that prenatal alcohol exposure leads to hypomyelination of the corpus callosum in adolescence and that the severity of damage is sexually dimorphic. Further, exercise intervention improves corpus callosum growth in alcohol-exposed and control rats in adolescence.


Subject(s)
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Adolescent , Animals , Corpus Callosum/diagnostic imaging , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Disease Models, Animal , Ethanol/toxicity , Female , Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders/therapy , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pregnancy , Rats
14.
Metabolomics ; 18(7): 42, 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739279

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma vivax (T. vivax, subgenus Duttonella) is a burden disease in bovines that induces losses of billions of dollars in livestock activity worldwide. To control the disease, the first step is identifying the infected animals at early stages. However, convention tools for animal infection detection by T. vivax present some challenges, facilitating the spread of the pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES: This work aims to develop a new procedure to identify infected bovines by T. vivax using cerumen (earwax) in a volatilomic approach, here named cerumenolomic, which is performed in an easy, quick, accurate, and non-invasive manner. METHODS: Seventy-eight earwax samples from Brazilian Curraleiro Pé-Duro calves were collected in a longitudinal study protocol during health and inoculated stages. The samples were analyzed using Headspace/Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry followed by multivariate analysis approaches. RESULTS: The cerumen analyses lead to the identification of a broad spectrum of volatile organic metabolites (VOMs), of which 20 VOMs can discriminate between healthy and infected calves (AUC = 0.991, sensitivity = 0.967, specificity = 1.000). Furthermore, 13 VOMs can indicate a pattern of discrimination between the acute and chronic phases of the T. vivax infection in the animals (AUC = 0.989, sensitivity = 0.944, specificity = 1.000). CONCLUSION: The cerumen volatile metabolites present alterations in their occurrence during the T.vivax infection, which may lead to identifying the infection in the first weeks of inoculation and discriminating between the acute and chronic phases of the illness. These results may be a breakthrough to avoid the T. vivax outbreak and provide a faster clinical approach to the animal.


Subject(s)
Metabolomics , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine , Animals , Brazil/epidemiology , Cattle , Longitudinal Studies , Trypanosoma vivax , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/diagnosis
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10674, 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739290

ABSTRACT

The implementation of lockdowns and the Covid-19 pandemic situation have negatively impacted mental health (anxiety, depression). However, little is known about individual differences in the longitudinal reactions to lockdown. We designed a longitudinal study (a) to identify the various trajectories of symptoms of depression and anxiety in the general population during and after lockdown; (b) to determine which positive psychological resources prevent individuals from falling into groups with the most severe trajectories; (c) to test the mediating role of psychological flexibility. We collected and analysed longitudinal data on a sample of French participants (N = 1399, Mage = 43.4; SDage = 12; 87.8% women) during the end of the first lockdown. Participants were asked to report their psychological resources and (in)flexibility at baseline and symptoms of anxiety and depression at each measurment occasion (five weekly observations from 17 March to 11 May 2020, including baseline). Using growth mixture modelling, seven dynamic profiles of symptoms were identified: four for depression and three for anxiety. Resilience emerged as the most frequent trajectory. Wisdom, optimism, hope, self-efficacy and peaceful disengagement significantly prevented individuals from belonging to the symptomatic groups. Moreover, psychological flexibility emerged as a significant mediator of these effects. This study highlights the importance of cultivating protective factors and psychological flexibility to prevent mental health damage during potentially traumatic events (PTE) and to favour resilience trajectories.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics
16.
Biomolecules ; 12(6)2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35740951

ABSTRACT

Since no definitive cure for COVID-19 is available so far, one of the challenges against the disease is understanding the clinical features and the laboratory inflammatory markers that can differentiate among different severity grades of the disease. The aim of the present study is a comprehensive and longitudinal evaluation of SCD14-ST and other new inflammatory markers, as well as cytokine storm molecules and current inflammatory parameters, in order to define a panel of biomarkers that could be useful for a better prognostic prediction of COVID-19 mortality. SCD14-ST, as well as the inflammatory markers IL-6, IL-10, SuPAR and sRAGE, were measured in plasma-EDTA of ICU COVID-19 positive patients. In this longitudinal study, SCD14-ST resulted significantly higher in patients who eventually died compared to those who were discharged from the ICU. The results suggest that the new infection biomarker SCD14-ST, in addition to new generation inflammatory biomarkers, such as SuPAR, sRAGE and the cytokines IL-6 and IL-10, can be a useful prognostic tool associated with canonical inflammatory parameters, such as CRP, to predict SARS-CoV-2 outcome in ICU patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Longitudinal Studies , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator , SARS-CoV-2
17.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 22(1): 177, 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751025

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accurate measurement of trajectories in longitudinal studies, considered the gold standard method for tracking functional growth during adolescence, decline in aging, and change after head injury, is subject to confounding by testing experience. METHODS: We measured change in cognitive and motor abilities over four test sessions (baseline and three annual assessments) in 154 male and 165 female participants (baseline age 12-21 years) from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) study. At each of the four test sessions, these participants were given a test battery using computerized administration and traditional pencil and paper tests that yielded accuracy and speed measures for multiple component cognitive (Abstraction, Attention, Emotion, Episodic memory, Working memory, and General Ability) and motor (Ataxia and Speed) functions. The analysis aim was to dissociate neurodevelopment from testing experience by using an adaptation of the twice-minus-once tested method, which calculated the difference between longitudinal change (comprising developmental plus practice effects) and practice-free initial cross-sectional performance for each consecutive pairs of test sessions. Accordingly, the first set of analyses quantified the effects of learning (i.e., prior test experience) on accuracy and after speed domain scores. Then developmental effects were  determined for each domain for accuracy and speed having removed the measured learning effects. RESULTS: The greatest gains in performance occurred between the first and second sessions, especially in younger participants, regardless of sex, but practice gains continued to accrue thereafter for several functions. For all 8 accuracy composite scores, the developmental effect after accounting for learning was significant across age and was adequately described by linear fits. The learning-adjusted developmental effects for speed were adequately described by linear fits for Abstraction, Emotion, Episodic Memory, General Ability, and Motor scores, although a nonlinear fit was better for Attention, Working Memory, and Average Speed scores. CONCLUSION: Thus, what appeared as accelerated cognitive and motor development was, in most cases, attributable to learning. Recognition of the substantial influence of prior testing experience is critical for accurate characterization of normal development and for developing norms for clinical neuropsychological investigations of conditions affecting the brain.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Emotions , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Neuropsychological Tests , Young Adult
18.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 277, 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751055

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over recent decades an increasing number of adults will retain their driver's licenses well into their later years. The aim of this study was to understand and explore the experience of driving and driving cessation in very old Australian women with self-reported eye disease. METHODS: An interpretative qualitative study. Participants were from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (cohort born in 1921-26), a sample broadly representative of similarly aged Australian women. Responses to open-ended questions were analysed using an inductive thematic approach, employing a process of constant comparison. RESULTS: Qualitative data were from 216 older women with eye disease who made 2199 comments about driving, aged between 70 and 90 years depending on the timing of their comments. Themes included: (1) Access to treatment for eye disease promotes driving independence and quality of life; (2) Driving with restrictions for eye disease enables community engagement and (3) Driving cessation due to poor vision leads to significant lifestyle changes. CONCLUSIONS: Key findings highlighted driving cessation, or reduction, is often attributed to deterioration in vision. The consequence is dependence on others for transport, typically children and friends. Access to successful treatment for eye disease allowed older women to continue driving. We posit that occupational therapists can play an essential role in promote driving confidence and ability as women age. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , Eye Diseases , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Australia/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Quality of Life
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 246, 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have affected the welfare and health of dogs due to surges in adoptions and purchases, changes in the physical and mental health and financial status of dog owners, changes in dogs' lifestyle and routines and limited access to veterinary care. The aims of this study were to investigate whether COVID-19 restrictions were associated with differences in Labrador retrievers' lifestyle, routine care, insurance status, illness incidence or veterinary attendance with an illness, who were living in England and enrolled in Dogslife, an owner-based cohort study. Longitudinal questionnaire data from Dogslife that was relevant to the dates between the 23rd of March and the 4th of July 2020, during COVID-19 restrictions in England, were compared to data between the same dates in previous years from 2011 to 2019 using mixed regression models and adjusted chi-squared tests. RESULTS: Compared with previous years (March 23rd to July 4th, 2010 to 2019), the COVID-19 restrictions study period (March 23rd to July 4th 2020) was associated with owners reporting increases in their dogs' exercise and worming and decreases in insurance, titbit-feeding and vaccination. Odds of owners reporting that their dogs had an episode of coughing (0.20, 95% CI: 0.04-0.92) and that they took their dogs to a veterinarian with an episode of any illness (0.58, 95% CI: 0.45-0.76) were lower during the COVID-19 restrictions compared to before. During the restrictions period, owners were less likely to report that they took their dogs to a veterinarian with certain other illnesses, compared to before this period. CONCLUSIONS: Dogslife provided a unique opportunity to study prospective questionnaire data from owners already enrolled on a longitudinal cohort study. This approach minimised bias associated with recalling events prior to the pandemic and allowed a wider population of dogs to be studied than is available from primary care data. Distinctive insights into owners' decision making about their dogs' healthcare were offered. There are clear implications of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions for the lifestyle, care and health of dogs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cohort Studies , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , England/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
20.
N Z Med J ; 135(1554): 9-19, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35728213

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To examine reported levels of violence and aggression within a tertiary level emergency department in New Zealand, and to compare incident reporting within a dedicated yearly audit period to standard organisational reporting procedures. METHOD: A prospective, longitudinal cohort study involving repeated yearly audits of violence and aggression reported by emergency department staff from 2014-2020. RESULTS: Episodes of violence and aggression were reported at high levels during audit months compared to standard reporting, suggesting current systems do not accurately reflect the presence of violence and aggression. Levels of reported violence and aggression remained relatively static over a seven-year period, despite increasing emergency department attendances. Most events reported involved verbal abuse from patients, and occurred on weekend and night shifts. A number of potentially contributing factors were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Persistently higher levels of violence and aggression were reported during the targeted audit months, while reporting via the organisation's formal system during the intervening months remained at low levels. Further research is essential to monitor trends, assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve reporting, modify factors contributing to violence and aggression, and to address the impact on staff and bystanders affected in emergency departments.


Subject(s)
Aggression , Violence , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , New Zealand , Prospective Studies
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