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1.
Malar J ; 21(1): 143, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2014, the Burkina Faso government launched the Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) programme. Expected benefit was a 75% reduction of all malaria episodes and a 75% drop of severe malaria episodes. This study assessed SMC efficiency on malaria morbidity in the country after 2 years of implementation. METHODS: Quasi-experimental design comparing changes in outcomes during the high transmission period (August-November) between SMC and non-SMC health districts before (2013-2014) and after intervention (two rounds in 2015 and 2016). Health indicators (number of uncomplicated malaria cases (UM) and severe malaria cases (SM)) from 19 health districts (8 in intervention and 11 in comparison group) were extracted from the District Health Information System (DHIS2)-based platform including health facilities data. Effect on incidence was assessed by fitting difference-in difference mixed-effects negative binomial regression model at a log scale. RESULTS: The two rounds of SMC were associated with a reduction of UM incidence (ratio of incidence rate ratio (IRR) 69% (95% CI 55-86%); p = 0.001) and SM incidence (ratio of IRR = 73% (55-95%), p = 0.018) among under five children. CONCLUSION: The two rounds of SMC had a significant effect on the reduction of malaria cases in under five children. This additional evidence on the effectiveness of SMC, using routine data, support the need to sustain its implementation and consider expansion to eligible areas not yet covered.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Malaria , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , Chemoprevention , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Seasons
2.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 51, 2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Border malaria is one of the most intractable problems hindering malaria elimination worldwide. Movement of both the human population and anopheline mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium spp. can cause cross-border malaria transmission. The Yunnan border area was still hyperendemic for malaria in the early part of this century. The objective of this case study was to analyze the strategies, interventions and impacts of malaria control and elimination in the Yunnan border area. MAIN TEXT: A total of 10,349 malaria cases and 17.1 per 10,000 person-years of annual parasite incidence (API) were reported in the border area in 2003. Based on natural village-based stratification, integrated interventions, including mass drug administration for radical cures and preventive treatment, clinically presumptive treatment of all febrile patients for malaria and indoor residual spraying or dipping bed nets with insecticides were successfully carried out from 2003 to 2013. The overall API was reduced to 0.6 per 10,000 person-years by 2013, while effective cross-border collaboration interventions dramatically reduced the malaria burden in the neighbouring border areas of Myanmar. From 2014 forward, the comprehensive strategy, including universal coverage of surveillance to detect malaria cases, a rapid response to possible malaria cases and effective border collaboration with neighbouring areas, successfully eliminated malaria and prevented reintroduction of malaria transmission in the Yunnan border area. CONCLUSIONS: In Yunnan malaria burden has successfully reduced by dynamically accurate stratification and comprehensive interventions; and then the region achieved elimination and prevented reintroduction of malaria transmission through intensive surveillance, rapid response and border collaboration. Other border areas should perform their own intervention trials to develop their own effective strategy.


Subject(s)
Culicidae , Insecticides , Malaria , Animals , China/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 940, 2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Insecticide-treated net (ITN) is a cost-effective means to control malaria and morbidity in under-five children. This study synthesizes the factors associated with using the ITN as a malaria prevention tool in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: There was an advanced search of four electronic databases, including PubMed Central, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Google Scholar, and identified articles between 2016 to April 2021. Following the title, abstract and full-text reading, 13 articles were deemed appropriate for this review. All the researchers developed, discussed, and accepted a matrix to extract relevant information from the studies. A convergent synthesis was adopted and allowed for integrating qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method studies and transforming them into qualitative findings. RESULTS: Household and caregiver related factors that influenced utilization of the ITN were, Household heads having two or more sleeping places, a knowledge that ITN prevents malaria, the presence of hanging ITNs, high literacy, living female-headed households, birth spacing, unmarried mothers, and antenatal clinic attendance promoted utilization. Perceived malaria risk was a critical determinant of ITN ownership and utilization. Some factors that hindered the use of the ITN included hotness of the weather, absence of visible mosquitoes, cost, inadequate number, rooms designs, unaffordability, insufficient knowledge on causes of malaria, and poor attitude to use. Specific ITN factors that hindered use were color, chemicals use, odor, and shape. CONCLUSION: It is important to use integrated multi-sectoral and culturally appropriate interventions to encourage households to prioritize and utilize the ITN in under-5 children.


Subject(s)
Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Insecticides , Malaria , Africa South of the Sahara , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Malaria/prevention & control , Mosquito Control/methods , Ownership , Pregnancy
4.
Rev Med Suisse ; 18(780): 890-893, 2022 May 04.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510280

ABSTRACT

While no vaccine is on the horizon to prevent traveler's diarrhea, progress has been made in the field of malaria and dengue fever. In both cases, the objective is not primarily the prevention among travelers but rather the reduction of morbidity and mortality in populations living in endemic areas. The immune mechanisms protecting against parasitosis are not well understood, which further complicates vaccine development. The fact that veterinary vaccines against the parasites causing cysticercosis and echinococcosis are available for animals, justifies a certain optimism that vaccines against parasitosis will also be available for humans in the future. We report on recent developments in dengue, malaria, schistosomiasis, and hookworm vaccines.


Si aucun vaccin ne pointe à l'horizon pour prévenir la diarrhée des voyageurs, des progrès ont été faits dans le domaine de la malaria et de la dengue. Dans les deux cas, l'objectif n'est pas prioritairement la prévention chez les voyageurs mais plutôt la diminution de la morbidité et mortalité dans les populations vivant en zone d'endémie. Les mécanismes immunitaires protégeant contre les parasitoses ne sont pas bien connus, ce qui complique encore le développement vaccinal. Le fait que des vaccins vétérinaires contre les parasites causant la cysticercose et l'échinococcose soient disponibles pour les animaux justifie un certain optimisme de voir à l'avenir aussi chez l'humain des vaccins contre des parasitoses. Nous faisons le point sur les développements récents des vaccins contre la dengue, la malaria, la schistosomiase et l'ankylostomiase.


Subject(s)
Malaria , Vaccines , Diarrhea , Humans , Malaria/prevention & control , Travel , Vaccines/therapeutic use
5.
Trials ; 23(1): 374, 2022 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526046

ABSTRACT

There is stark global inequity in health research in terms of where studies happen, who leads the research and the ultimate beneficiaries of the results generated. Despite significant efforts made, limited research ideas are conceptualised and implemented in low-resource settings to tackle diseases of poverty, and this is especially true in sub-Saharan Africa. There is strong evidence to show that the barriers to locally led research do not vary largely between disease, study type and location and can be largely solved by addressing these common gaps. The European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) was established in 2003 as a European response to the global health crisis caused by the three main poverty-related diseases HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. EDCTP has established a model of long-term sustainable capacity development integrated into clinical trials which addresses this lack of locally led research in sub-Saharan Africa, supporting the development of individual and institutional capacity and research outputs that change the management, prevention and treatment of poverty-related and neglected infectious diseases across Africa. In recognition of emergent data on what the barriers and enablers are to long-term, sustainable capabilities to run studies, EDCTP formed a new collaboration with The Global Health Network (TGHN) in September 2017, with the aim to make a set of cross-cutting tools and resources to support the planning, writing and delivery of high-quality clinical trials available to research staff wherever they are in the world, especially those in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) via TGHN platform. These new resources developed on the 'EDCTP Knowledge Hub' are those identified in the mixed method study described in this commentary as being key to addressing the gaps that the research community report as the most limiting elements in their ability to design and implement studies. The Knowledge Hub aims to make these tools freely available to any potential health research team in need of support and guidance in designing and running their own studies, particularly in low-resource settings. The purpose is to provide open access to the specific guidance, information and tools these teams cannot otherwise access freely. Ultimately, this will enable them to design and lead their own high-quality studies addressing local priorities with global alignment, generating new data that can change health outcomes in their communities.


Subject(s)
Malaria , Tuberculosis , Africa South of the Sahara , Developing Countries , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/prevention & control , Poverty , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/therapy
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 160, 2022 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Different trapping devices and attractants are used in the mosquito surveillance programs currently running in Europe. Most of these devices target vector species belonging to the genera Culex or Aedes, and no studies have yet evaluated the effectiveness of different trapping devices for the specific targeting of Anopheles mosquito species, which are potential vectors of malaria in Europe. This study aims to fill this gap in knowledge by comparing the performance of trapping methods that are commonly used in European mosquito surveillance programs for Culex and Aedes for the specific collection of adults of species of the Anopheles maculipennis complex. METHODS: The following combinations of traps and attractants were used: (i) BG-Sentinel 2 (BG trap) baited with a BG-Lure cartridge (BG + lure), (ii) BG trap baited with a BG-Lure cartridge and CO2 (BG + lure + CO2), (iii) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-like trap (CDC trap) baited with CO2 (CDC + CO2), (iv) CDC trap used with light and baited with BG-Lure and CO2 (CDC light + lure + CO2). These combinations were compared in the field using a 4 × 4 Latin square study design. The trial was conducted in two sites in northeastern Italy in 2019. Anopheles species were identified morphologically and a sub-sample of An. maculipennis complex specimens were identified to species level by molecular analysis. RESULTS: Forty-eight collections were performed on 12 different trapping days at each site, and a total of 1721 An. maculipennis complex specimens were captured. The molecular analysis of a sub-sample comprising 254 specimens identified both Anopheles messeae/Anopheles daciae (n = 103) and Anopheles maculipennis sensu stricto (n = 8) at site 1, while at site 2 only An. messeae/An. daciae (n = 143) was found. The four trapping devices differed with respect to the number of An. messeae/An. daciae captured. More mosquitoes were caught by the BG trap when it was used with additional lures (i.e. BG + lure + CO2) than without the attractant, CO2 [ratioBG+lure vs BG+lure+CO2 = 0.206, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.101-0.420, P < 0.0001], while no significant differences were observed between CDC + CO2 and CDC light + lure + CO2 (P = 0.321). The addition of CO2 to BG + lure increased the ability of this combination to capture An. messeae/An. daciae by a factor of 4.85, and it also trapped more mosquitoes of other, non-target species (Culex pipiens, ratioBG+lure vs BG+lure+CO2 = 0.119, 95% CI 0.056-0.250, P < 0.0001; Ochlerotatus caspius, ratioBG+lure vs BG+lure+CO2 = 0.035, 95% CI 0.015-0.080, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that both the BG-Sentinel and CDC trap can be used to effectively sample An. messeae/An. daciae, but that the combination of the BG-Sentinel trap with the BG-Lure and CO2 was the most effective means of achieving this. BG + lure + CO2 is considered the best combination for the routine monitoring of host-seeking An. maculipennis complex species such as An. messeae/An. daciae. The BG-Sentinel and CDC traps have value as alternative methods to human landing catches and manual aspiration for the standardized monitoring of Anopheles species in Europe.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Anopheles , Culex , Malaria , Animals , Carbon Dioxide , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Europe , Humans , Malaria/prevention & control , Mosquito Control/methods , Mosquito Vectors , United States
7.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268185, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although Nigeria has made some progress in malaria control, there are variations across States. We investigated the factors associated with utilisation of long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN) and parasitaemia among under-five children in 13 States with high malaria burden. METHOD: Data from the 2015 Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey and 2018 Demographic and Health Survey were obtained and analysed. The 2015 and 2018 data were compared to identify States with increase or reduction in parasitaemia. Analysis was done for all the 13 study States; four States with increased parasitaemia and nine States with reduction. Random-effects logit models were fitted to identify independent predictors of LLIN utilisation and parasitaemia. RESULTS: LLIN was used by 53.4% of 2844 children, while parasitaemia prevalence was 26.4% in 2018. Grandchildren (AOR = 5.35, CI: 1.09-26.19) were more likely to use LLIN while other relatives (AOR = 0.33, CI: 0.11-0.94) were less likely compared to children of household-heads. LLIN use was more common in children whose mother opined that only weak children could die from malaria (AOR = 1.83, CI: 1.10-3.10). Children whose mothers obtained net from antenatal or immunisation clinics (AOR = 5.30, CI: 2.32-12.14) and campaigns (AOR = 1.77, CI: 1.03-3.04) were also more likely to use LLIN. In contrast, LLIN utilisation was less likely among children in female-headed households (AOR = 0.51, CI: 0.27-0.99) and those in poor-quality houses (AOR = 0.25, CI: 0.09-0.72). Children aged 24-59 months compared to 0-11 months (AOR = 1.78, CI: 1.28-2.48), those in whom fever was reported (AOR = 1.31, CI: 1.06-1.63) and children of uneducated women (AOR = 1.89, CI: 1.32-2.70) were more likely to have parasitaemia. The likelihood of parasitaemia was higher among children from poor households compared to the rich (AOR = 2.06, CI: 1.24-3.42). The odds of parasitaemia were 98% higher among rural children (AOR = 1.98, CI: 1.37-2.87). CONCLUSION: The key drivers of LLIN utilisation were source of net and socioeconomic characteristics. The latter was also a key factor associated with parasitaemia. These should be targeted as part of integrated malaria elimination efforts.


Subject(s)
Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Malaria , Parasitemia , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Mosquito Control , Nigeria/epidemiology , Parasitemia/epidemiology , Parasitemia/prevention & control , Pregnancy
8.
Malar J ; 21(1): 145, 2022 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35527264

ABSTRACT

"Receptivity" to malaria is a construct developed during the Global Malaria Eradication Programme (GMEP) era. It has been defined in varied ways and no consistent, quantitative definition has emerged over the intervening decades. Despite the lack of consistency in defining this construct, the idea that some areas are more likely to sustain malaria transmission than others has remained important in decision-making in malaria control, planning for malaria elimination and guiding activities during the prevention of re-establishment (POR) period. This manuscript examines current advances in methods of measurement. In the context of a decades long decline in global malaria transmission and an increasing number of countries seeking to eliminate malaria, understanding and measuring malaria receptivity has acquired new relevance.


Subject(s)
Disease Eradication , Malaria , Disease Eradication/methods , Humans , Malaria/prevention & control
9.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(2): 109-111, 2022 Apr 21.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537828

ABSTRACT

On June 2021, China was certified malaria-free by WHO. However, the global number and death of malaria cases have recently increased, and the malaria vectors will continue to inhabit in China, resulting in a high difficulty in consolidation of malaria elimination achievements. Hereby, we analyze the current challenges and propose the future priority of the national malaria control program in China, in order to provide insights into prevention of re-establishment of imported malaria in the country.


Subject(s)
Malaria , China/epidemiology , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control
10.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(2): 112-114, 2022 Apr 21.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537829

ABSTRACT

China was certified malaria-free by the WHO on June, 2021. Nevertheless, there are thousands of overseas imported malaria cases annually in China, and there are deaths of imported malaria cases reported every year in the country. In addition, there are secondary cases of imported malaria, and malaria vectors remain in regions where malaria were formerly endemic, resulting in a high risk of local transmission of imported malaria in eliminated regions in China. This article analyzes the risk of malaria control and the challenges of malaria surveillance and response during the post-elimination stage in China, and proposes some suggestions for future priorities.


Subject(s)
Malaria , China/epidemiology , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control
11.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(2): 115-116, 2022 Apr 19.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537830

ABSTRACT

China was certificated malaria-free by WHO in 2021 and has continued to maintain malaria elimination. However, there are still huge challenges in malaria control in the border regions between Yunnan Province, China and Myanmar due to lack of geographic barriers and frequent cross-border travel. Hereby, we review the direction contributions of the Global Fund Malaria Program implemented by Health Poverty Action (HPA), an international non-governmental organization (NGO), to malaria elimination in China, and analyze the challenges of malaria control caused by external environmental factors, such as COVID-19, in regions where the Global Fund Malaria Program is implemented. In addition, some suggestions are proposed for cross-border collaboration on malaria control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Organizations , Travel
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(2): 117-119, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537831

ABSTRACT

Malaria caused a heavy disease, economic and social burdens in China. Following 70-year concerted efforts, China has been awarded a malaria-free certification by the WHO on June 2021. This paper summarizes the control strategies of Anopheles vectors from malaria control to post-elimination stages in China, emphasizes the risk of imported malaria cases caused re-transmission and the challenges of Anopheles control after malaria elimination in China. Sustainable and precise vector control is still required in China during the post-elimination stage to consolidate malaria elimination achievements in the country. In addition, China's innovative vector control strategies, technologies and experiences will contribute to global malaria control and elimination programs.


Subject(s)
Anopheles , Malaria , Animals , China/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Mosquito Vectors
13.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(2): 120-121, 2022 Apr 21.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537832

ABSTRACT

As the first country that has been certified malaria-free in the WHO Western Pacific Region for more than 3 decades, China should share its successful experiences of malaria control and provide globally recognized anti-malaria products by making full uses of its advantages in provision and production capacity of artemisinin raw materials, to fill the gaps of international demands for mosquito nets, rapid diagnostic reagents and antimalarial compounds. Increasing the investment of research and development of antimalarial products, building overseas bases for artemisinin raw material production, establishing international regulatory authority and promoting the local production of antimalarial products are needed to further promote the internationalization of Chinese antimalarial products, so as to achieve the equity and accessibility of Chinese antimalarial products in highburden regions for malaria.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Artemisinins , Malaria , Plasmodium , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Artemisinins/therapeutic use , China , Drug Resistance , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/prevention & control , Sustainable Development
14.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(2): 163-171, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537838

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To create a risk assessment indicator system for re-establishment of imported malaria. METHODS: The risk assessment indicator system for re-establishment of imported malaria was preliminarily constructed through literature review and thematic discussions. A total of 26 malaria control experts were selected to carry out a two-round Delphi consultation of the indicator system. The active coefficient, authority coefficient and coordination coefficient of the experts and the coefficient of variation on each indicator were calculated for indicator screening and the weight of each indicator was calculated. The reliability of the indicator system was evaluated using Cronbach's coefficient α, and the content validity of the indicator system was evaluated using the authority coefficient of the expert, while the structural validity of the indicator system was evaluated using Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test and factor analysis. RESULTS: Two rounds of Delphi expert consultations were completed by 23 malaria control experts, and a risk assessment indicator system for re-establishment of imported malaria was constructed, including 3 primary indicators, 7 secondary indicators, and 21 tertiary indicators. The active coefficient (100.00% vs. 88.46%; P < 0.01) and coordination coefficient of the expert (0.372 vs. 0.286; P < 0.01) were significantly greater in the second round of the Delphi expert consultation than in the first round. After the second round of the Delphi expert consultation, the authority coefficient of the experts ranged from 0.757 to 0.930 on each indicator, and the coefficients of variation were 0.098 to 0.136, 0.112 to 0.276 and 0.139 to 0.335 for the primary, secondary and tertiary indicators, respectively. The overall Cronbach's coefficient α of the indicator system was 0.941, and there were significant differences in the KMO values for primary (KMO value = 0.523; χ2 = 18.192, P < 0.05), secondary (KMO value = 0.694, χ2 = 51.499, P < 0.01) and tertiary indicators (KMO value = 0.519; χ2 = 477.638, P < 0.01), while the cumulative contribution rate of six principal components in the tertiary indicators was 84.23%. The normalized weights of three primary indicators of the source of infection, transmission condition and control capability were 0.337, 0.333 and 0.329, and the three secondary indicators with the greatest normalized weights included the number of imported cases and malaria parasite species (0.160), introduction of imported cases in China and medical care seeking (0.152), vector species and density (0.152), while the five tertiary indicators with the greatest normalized weights included the malaria parasite species of imported cases (0.065), vector populations (0.064), and the time interval from onset to medical care seeking (0.059), number of imported cases (0.056), and the time interval from medical care seeking to definitive diagnosis (0.055). CONCLUSIONS: A risk assessment indicator system for re-establishment of imported malaria is successfully created, which provides insights into the assessment of the risk of re-establishment of imported malaria and management of key high-risk factors in malaria-eliminated areas.


Subject(s)
Malaria , China/epidemiology , Delphi Technique , Humans , Malaria/prevention & control , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
15.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(2): 191-193, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537843

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare the epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria in Jiaozuo City before and after malaria elimination, so as to provide insights into the malaria surveillance during the post-elimination stage and prevention of re-establishment of imported malaria. METHODS: Data pertaining to the epidemic situation and individual investigation of malaria in Jiaozuo City before (from 2010 to 2016) and after malaria elimination (from 2017 to November, 2020) were captured from the National Notifiable Disease Reporting System and the Information System for Parasitic Diseases Control and Prevention of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: A total of 74 imported malaria cases were reported in Jiaozuo City from 2010 to 2021. Imported cases were predominantly Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases in Jiaozuo City before and after malaria elimination, and there was no significant difference in the proportion of malaria parasite species (χ2 = 0.234, P > 0.05). The imported malaria cases was predominantly reported in Wuzhi County, and was identified in overseas male farmers and businessmen at ages of 20 to 59 years, while the greatest number of imported malaria cases was reported in June and December before and after malaria elimination. The imported malaria cases predominantly acquired malaria parasite infections in sub-Saharan African countries; however, the proportion of imported malaria cases returning from Southeast Asian counties increased after malaria elimination than before malaria elimination (χ2 = 5.989, P < 0.05). The longest duration from onset to definitive diagnosis of malaria reduced from 27 days before malaria elimination to 18 days after malaria elimination, and the median duration reduced from 3 days to 2 days, while the proportion of definitive diagnosis of malaria increased from 60.47% before malaria elimination to 83.87% after malaria elimination (χ2 = 4.724, P < 0.05). In addition, the proportion of malaria cases definitively diagnosed and reported by medical institutions increased after malaria elimination than before malaria elimination (χ2 = 5.406, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The imported malaria patients were predominantly P. falciparum malaria cases in Jiaozuo City during 2010 to 2021, and the patient's medical care-seeking awareness and medical staff's diagnosis and treatment ability have improved after malaria elimination. It is necessary to strengthen and improve malaria surveillance and response system and prevent the re-establishment of overseas imported malaria.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Imported , Epidemics , Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cities , Communicable Diseases, Imported/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Imported/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/parasitology , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
16.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 208, 2022 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35577816

ABSTRACT

Malaria epidemics can be triggered by fluctuations in temperature and precipitation that influence vector mosquitoes and the malaria parasite. Identifying and monitoring environmental risk factors can thus provide early warning of future outbreaks. Satellite Earth observations provide relevant measurements, but obtaining these data requires substantial expertise, computational resources, and internet bandwidth. To support malaria forecasting in Ethiopia, we developed software for Retrieving Environmental Analytics for Climate and Health (REACH). REACH is a cloud-based application for accessing data on land surface temperature, spectral indices, and precipitation using the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform. REACH can be implemented using the GEE code editor and JavaScript API, as a standalone web app, or as package with the Python API. Users provide a date range and data for 852 districts in Ethiopia are automatically summarized and downloaded as tables. REACH was successfully used in Ethiopia to support a pilot malaria early warning project in the Amhara region. The software can be extended to new locations and modified to access other environmental datasets through GEE.


Subject(s)
Malaria , Software , Animals , Climate , Cloud Computing , Earth, Planet , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control
17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 930, 2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The combined application of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are commonly used malaria interventions that target indoor Anopheles vectors. Recent studies on the effects of house screening (HS) and LLINs have demonstrated a reduction in indoor vector densities and malaria when the interventions are combined. In addition, complementary interventions are needed to curb co-occurring pest populations which pose menace to agricultural crop productivity and food security. However, interventions that impact malaria mainly centre on public health strategies, overlooking subtle but important component of agricultural measures. Addressing the coexisting risks of malaria and crop pests could contribute to improved livelihood of communities. METHODS: A four-armed household, cluster-randomized, controlled study will be conducted to assess the combined impact of HS, LLINs and push-pull agricultural technology (PPT) against clinical malaria in children in Ethiopia. The unit of randomization will be the household, which includes a house and its occupants. A total of 838 households will be enrolled in this study. In this trial 246 households will receive LLINs and HS, 250 will receive LLINs, HS and PPT, 175 households will receive LLINs and PPT. The remaining 167 houses which receive LLINs only will be used as control. One child aged ≤14 years will be enrolled per household in each treatment and followed for clinical malaria using active case detection to estimate malaria incidence for two malaria transmission seasons. DISCUSSION: Episodes of clinical malaria, density of indoor biting malaria vectors, sporozoite infection rate, improved crop infestation rate, crop yield gain, livestock productivity and cost effectiveness analysis will be the end points of this study. Socio-economic, social demographic, cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted using qualitative and participatory methods to explore the acceptability of HS and PPT. Documenting the combined impact of LLINs, HS and PPT on the prevalence of clinical malaria and crop pest damage will be the first of its kind. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan African Clinical Trials Registry, PACTR202006878245287. 24/06/2020. https://pactr.samrc.ac.za/TrialDisplay.aspx?TrialID=11101 .


Subject(s)
Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Insecticides , Malaria , Animals , Child , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans , Insecticides/therapeutic use , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Mosquito Control/methods , Mosquito Vectors , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Research Design , Technology
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 155, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505366

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myanmar is one of the six countries in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) of Southeast Asia. Malaria vectors comprise many Anopheles species, which vary in abundance and importance in malaria transmission among different geographical locations in the GMS. Information about the species composition, abundance, and insecticide resistance status of vectorial systems in Myanmar is scarce, hindering our efforts to effectively control malaria vectors in this region. METHODS: During October and November 2019, larvae and adult females of Anopheles mosquitoes were collected in three sentinel villages of Banmauk township in northern Myanmar. Adult female mosquitoes collected by cow-baited tent collection (CBTC) and adults reared from field-collected larvae (RFCL) were used to determine mortality rates and knockdown resistance (kdr) against deltamethrin using the standard WHO susceptibility test. Molecular species identification was performed by multiplex PCR and ITS2 PCR, followed by DNA sequencing. The kdr mutation at position 1014 of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene was genotyped by DNA sequencing for all Anopheles species tested. RESULTS: A total of 1596 Anopheles mosquitoes from seven morphologically identified species groups were bioassayed. Confirmed resistance to deltamethrin was detected in the populations of An. barbirostris (s.l.), An. hyrcanus (s.l.), and An. vagus, while possible resistance was detected in An. annularis (s.l.), An. minimus, and An. tessellatus. Anopheles kochi was found susceptible to deltamethrin. Compared to adults collected by CBTC, female adults from RFCL had significantly lower mortality rates in the four species complexes. A total of 1638 individuals from 22 Anopheles species were molecularly identified, with the four most common species being An. dissidens (20.5%) of the Barbirostris group, An. peditaeniatus (19.4%) of the Hyrcanus group, An. aconitus (13.4%) of the Funestus group, and An. nivipes (11.5%) of the Annularis group. The kdr mutation L1014F was only detected in the homozygous state in two An. subpictus (s.l.) specimens and in a heterozygous state in one An. culicifacies (s.l.) specimen. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides updated information about malaria vector species composition and insecticide resistance status in northern Myanmar. The confirmed deltamethrin resistance in multiple species groups constitutes a significant threat to malaria vector control. The lack or low frequency of target-site resistance mutations suggests that other mechanisms are involved in resistance. Continual monitoring of the insecticide resistance of malaria vectors is required for effective vector control and insecticide resistance management.


Subject(s)
Anopheles , Malaria , Animals , Anopheles/genetics , Cattle , Female , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Malaria/prevention & control , Mosquito Vectors/genetics , Myanmar
19.
Internet resource in English, Spanish, French, Portuguese | LIS -Health Information Locator | ID: lis-48766

ABSTRACT

No Dia Mundial de Luta Contra a Malária, celebrado nesta segunda-feira (25), a Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) pede aos países que intensifiquem os esforços para combater a malária na região das Américas e por intervenções de prevenção, diagnóstico e tratamento baseadas em dados e adaptadas aos contextos locais.


Subject(s)
Malaria/prevention & control , Americas
20.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267229, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35436317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) using a capsule suspension formulation of the organophosphate insecticide, pirimiphos-methyl, has provided substantial malaria control in many communities in Africa. However, only one brand of this product has been recommended by the World Health Organisation for IRS. To help increase the diversity of the portfolio of IRS insecticides and offer suitable options to procurers and malaria vector control programmes, additional product brands of this highly effective and long-lasting insecticide formulation for IRS will be needed. METHODS: We evaluated the efficacy of Pirikool® 300CS, a new capsule suspension formulation of pirimiphos-methyl developed by Tianjin Yorkool, International Trading, Co., Ltd in standard WHO laboratory bioassays and experimental hut studies. The efficacy of the insecticide applied at 1000mg/m2 was assessed in laboratory bioassays for 6 months on cement, plywood and mud block substrates and for 12 months in cement and mud-walled experimental huts against wild free-flying pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae sensu lato in Covè, Benin. Actellic® 300CS, a WHO-recommended capsule suspension formulation of pirimiphos-methyl was also tested. WHO cylinder tests were performed to determine the frequency of insecticide resistance in the wild vector population during the hut trial. RESULTS: The vector population at the hut station was resistant to pyrethroids but susceptible to pirimiphos-methyl. Overall mortality rates of wild free-flying pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae (s.l.) entering Pirikool®300CS treated experimental huts during the 12-month trial were 86.7% in cement-walled huts and 88% in mud-walled huts. Mortality of susceptible An. gambiae (Kisumu) and pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.l. (Covè) mosquitoes in monthly wall cone bioassays on Pirikool® 300CS treated hut walls remained over 80% for 10-12 months. The laboratory bioassays corroborated the hut findings with Pirikool® 300CS on mud and wood block substrates but not on cement block substrates. CONCLUSION: Indoor residual spraying with Pirikool® 300CS induced high and prolonged mortality of wild pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors for 10-12 months. Addition of Pirikool®300CS to the current portfolio of IRS insecticides will provide an extra choice of microencapsulated pirimiphos-methyl for IRS.


Subject(s)
Anopheles , Insecticides , Malaria , Pyrethrins , Animals , Benin , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides/pharmacology , Malaria/prevention & control , Mosquito Control , Mosquito Vectors , Organophosphates/pharmacology , Organothiophosphorus Compounds , Pyrethrins/pharmacology
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