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1.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 22(1): 160-174, ene.-jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - Scientific journals | ID: biblio-1155521

ABSTRACT

Há crescente interesse sobre o comportamento abusivo sofrido por trabalhadores nas cozinhas de restaurantes comerciais, uma vez que agressões físicas e verbais parecem ser comuns neste contexto laboral. Este estudo objetivou identificar a prevalência do assédio moral e descrever as características das situações em que ele ocorre entre trabalhadores da gastronomia. Participaram do estudo 160 indivíduos com graduação em gastronomia, sendo que 95 eram do sexo feminino (59,4%), com idade média de 30,81 anos (DP = 8,34). Os mesmos responderam ao Questionário Biossociodemográfico e Laboral e ao Questionário de Atos Negativos, cujos dados foram analisados descritivamente. Os resultados indicaram elevados índices de prevalência de assédio moral (63,1%) e de violência psicológica (33,8%), que alertam sobre a importância de divulgar informações sobre o assédio moral e seus prejuízos, visando a uma maneira mais saudável de gerenciar e trabalhar na cozinha.


Great interest in abusive behavior suffered by workers in commercial restaurant kitchens was observed. In this work context, verbal and physical aggression seems to be common. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of moral harassment and describe the characteristics of the situations in which it occurs among gastronomy workers. Participants were 160 individuals undergraduate in gastronomy and 95 were female (59.4%), that have an average age of 30.81 years (SD = 8.34). The participants answered the Biosociodemographic and Labor Questionnaire and the Negative Acts Questionnaire, whose data were analyzed descriptively. The results indicated high prevalence rates of moral harassment (63.1%) and psychological violence (33.8%), which warn the importance of disclosing information about bullying and its harms, aiming at a healthier way to manage and work in the kitchen.


Una creciente preocupación por el comportamiento abusivo que sufren los trabajadores en las cocinas de restaurantes comerciales ha sido observada. Esta agresión puede ser verbal o física y parece ser común en este contexto laboral. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar la prevalencia del bullying y describir las características de las situaciones en las que ocurre entre los trabajadores de la gastronomía. Los participantes fueron 160 individuos con un título en gastronomía, de los cuales 95 eran mujeres (59.4%), con una edad promedio de 30.81 años (DE = 8.34). Los participantes respondieron el Cuestionario Biosociodemográfico y Laboral y el Cuestionario de Actos Negativos, cuyos datos fueron analizados descriptivamente. Los resultados indicaron altas tasas de prevalencia de acoso moral (63.1%) y violencia psicológica (33.8%), que advierten sobre la importancia de divulgar información sobre el acoso y sus daños, con el objetivo de una forma más saludable de manejar y trabajar en la cocina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Restaurants , Work , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cooking , Aggression , Bullying , Workplace Violence , Occupational Groups
2.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 22(1): 145-159, ene.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - Scientific journals | ID: biblio-1155520

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar e analisar se os sintomas de depressão, ansiedade e estresse estão relacionados com uso de álcool, tabaco e maconha em universitários da área da saúde. Trata-se de uma pesquisa com 111 universitários matriculados em cursos da área da saúde de uma universidade da região metropolitana do Rio Grande do Sul. Os instrumentos foram Questionário de dados sociodemográficos, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). Foi realizada análise descritiva dos dados e correlação de Spearman para amostras não paramétricas. As drogas mais utilizadas foram álcool, tabaco e maconha, sendo o álcool o que mais pontuou. Houve correlações significativas entre o uso de drogas com sintomas de estresse e ansiedade. Destaca-se a necessidade de atentar para o uso de substâncias realizado por universitários da área da saúde, uma vez que esta pode acarretar danos à vida acadêmica, pessoal e profissional.


This study aimed to identify the relationship between anxiety, depression, and stress symptoms and alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco use among healthcare university students. There were 111 students from healthcare courses of a private university from the state of Rio Grande do Sul's metropolitan region, Brazil, in the present sample. The instruments were sociodemographic questionnaire; Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21); Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). Descriptive statistics and Spearman’s correlation analyses were done. The most frequently used drug was alcohol, followed by marijuana and tobacco. There were significant correlationsbetween substance use and stress and anxiety symptoms. It is evidenced that there is a need to pay attention to drug use among healthcare students, since such use can cause damage to academic, personal and professional life.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar y analizar si los síntomas de estrés, ansiedad, depresión, están relacionados con el uso de alcohol, tabaco y marihuana en estudiantes universitariosen el área de la salud. Esta es una encuesta de 111 estudiantes universitarios inscritos en cursos del area de la salud de una Universidad en la región metropolitana de Rio Grande do Sul. Instrumentos: Cuestionario de datos sociodemográficos, Escala de depresión, ansiedad y estrés (DASS-21), Prueba de detección de alcohol, tabaquismo y participación de sustancias (ASSIST). Se realizó análisis descriptivo de los datos y correlación de Spearman para muestras no paramétricas. Resultados: las drogas más utilizadas fueron alcohol, tabaco y marihuana, siendo el alcohol el que obtuvo la mayor puntuación. Hubo correlaciones significativas entre el uso de drogas con síntomas de estrés y ansiedad. Se destaca la necesidad de prestar atención al uso de substancias por parte de los estudiantes universitarios en el campo de la salud, ya que esto pueden causar daños a la vida académica, personal y profesional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Anxiety , Signs and Symptoms , Students, Health Occupations , Tobacco Use Disorder , Universities , Cannabis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Delivery of Health Care , Depression , Tobacco Use
3.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 22(1): 114-127, ene.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - Scientific journals | ID: biblio-1155518

ABSTRACT

Esse estudo parte do pressuposto de que o mindfulness poderia estar relacionado com a intimidade conjugal. Investigou-se o papel discriminante da intimidade em dois grupos de indivíduos com maiores e menores níveis de mindfulness. Partiparam 281 sujeitos, maiores de 18 anos, em relacionamento estável e em coabitação. Os mesmos responderam à Escala Filadélfia de Mindfulness e à Escala de Avaliação Pessoal de Intimidade em Relacionamentos (PAIR). Os resultados indicaram que os fatores da intimidade avaliados (comunicação, validação pessoal e abertura ao exterior) discriminaram o grupo com maiores níveis de mindfulness. O estudo sugere que indivíduos com maiores níveis de mindfulness possuem maior facilidade de desenvolver intimidade em seus relacionamentos, contribuindo para o entendimento do papel considerável dessa habilidade na conjugalidade.


This study assumes that mindfulness could be related to conjugal intimacy. The discriminating role of intimacy was investigated in two groups of individuals with higher and lower levels of mindfulness. 281 subjects, over 18 years old, participated in a stable relationship and cohabitation. They responded to the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale and the Personal Relationship Intimacy Scale in Relationships (PAIR). The results indicated that the factors of intimacy evaluated (communication, personal validation and openness to the outside) discriminated against the group with the highest levels of mindfulness. The study suggests that individuals with higher levels of mindfulness have an easier time developing intimacy in their relationships, contributing to the understanding of the considerable role of this ability in conjugality.


Este estudio asume que la atención plena podría estar relacionada con la intimidad conyugal. El papel discriminador de la intimidad se investigó en dos grupos de individuos con niveles más altos y más bajos de atención plena. 281 sujetos, mayores de 18 años, participaron en una relación estable y en convivencia. Respondieron a la Escala de atención plena de Filadelfia y la Escala de intimidad en las relaciones personales (PAIR). Los resultados indicaron que los factores de intimidad evaluados (comunicación, validación personal y apertura al exterior) discriminaban al grupo con mayores niveles de mindfulness. El estudio sugiere que las personas con niveles más altos de atención plena tienen más facilidad para desarrollar la intimidad en sus relaciones, lo que contribuye a comprender el papel considerable de esta capacidad en la conyugalidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Role , Self Disclosure , Communication , Couples Therapy , Family Relations , Mindfulness
4.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 22(1): 83-97, ene.-jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - Scientific journals | ID: biblio-1155516

ABSTRACT

Partimos do trabalho em uma instituição de acolhimento para crianças e adolescentes propondo uma escuta orientada pela psicanálise. Considerando as tensões entre instituição e psicanálise, a questão que nos orienta é de que forma a transferência pode contribuir para uma instauração de escuta, que permitirá a elaboração da situação de vulnerabilidade desses sujeitos. Utilizamos como método de pesquisa a revisão bibliográfica associada à psicanálise aplicada e recorremos aos fragmentos de recordação das situações vividas no cotidiano institucional. Concluiu-se que há um lugar de escuta sob transferência a ser considerada na instituição e que o Plano Individual de Atendimento (PIA) necessita ser efetivado sob transferência, para que seja implementado como instrumento que valorize o surgimento das singularidades dos acolhidos.


We started from work at a host institution for children and adolescents, proposing a listening guided by psychoanalysis. Considering the tensions between institution and psychoanalysis, the question that guides us is how the transfer can contribute to establishing a listening that will allow the elaboration of the situation of vulnerability of these subjects. We used as a research method the bibliographic review associated with applied psychoanalysis and we also used fragments of remembrance of the situations experienced in the institutional daily life. It was concluded that there is a place of listening under the transfer to be considered in the institution and that the Individual Assistance Plan needs to be carried out under the transfer in order to be implemented as an instrument that values the emergence of the singularities of the sheltered.


Partimos desde el trabajo en una institución de acogida para niños y adolescentes proponiendo una escucha orientada por el psicoanálisis. Considerando las tensiones entre institución y psicoanálisis, la cuestión que nos orienta es de qué forma la transferencia puede contribuir al establecimiento de un escuchar que permitirá la elaboración de la situación de vulnerabilidad de esos sujetos. Utilizamos como método de investigación la revisión bibliográfica asociada al psicoanálisis aplicado y recurrimos a los fragmentos de recuerdos de las situaciones de la vida cotidiana institucional. Concluimos que hay un lugar de escucha bajo transferencia a ser considerado en la institución y que el Plan Individual de Atención necesita ser efectivado bajo transferencia para que sea implementado como un instrumento que valore el surgimiento de las singularidades de los acogidos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Psychoanalysis , Attention , Orphanages , Disaster Vulnerability , Lodged , User Embracement , Child, Foster , Health Services Needs and Demand
5.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 22(1): 54-66, ene.-jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - Scientific journals | ID: biblio-1155514

ABSTRACT

A presente pesquisa teve por objetivo compreender o envolvimento paterno no contexto do divórcio/separação conjugal na perspectiva do pai separado. Realizou-se um Grupo Focal com seis pais (homens) separados e os dados foram analisados através da análise categorial temática, utilizando-se do software Atlas.ti 5.0 para organização dos dados. A perspectiva sistêmica contribuiu com a compreensão do fenômeno como um processo de transformações contínuas e recursivas, contingentes com a história de interações dos participantes. Emergiram da análise dos dados três categorias: Percepções do pai sobre o seu envolvimento com a criança; Características do envolvimento paterno do pai separado e Construção da paternidade no pós-divórcio. Os resultados demonstraram relações de interdependência entre fatores individuais, relacionais e contextuais.


The present research aimed to understand paternal involvement in the context of divorce/separation from the perspective of the separated father. A Focal Group with six separated fathers (men) was carried out and the data were analyzed through the thematic categorical analysis using Atlas.ti 5.0 software for data organization. The systemic perspective contributed to the understanding of the phenomenon as a process of continuous and recursive transformations, contingent on the history of interactions of the participants. Three categories emerged from the data analysis: Perceptions of the father about his involvement with the child; Characteristics of parental involvement of the separated father and Post-Divorce Construction of Paternity. The results showed relationships of interdependence between individual, relational and contextual factors.


La presente investigación tuvo por objetivo compreender la participación paterno en el contexto del divorcio/separación conyugal en la perspectiva del padre separado. Se realizo un Grupo Focal con seis padres (hombres) separados y los datos fueron analizados a través del análisis categorial temático, utilizando el software Atlas.ti 5.0 para la organización de los datos. La perspectiva sistémica contribuyó com la comprensión del fenómeno como um proceso de transformaciones continuas y recursivas, contingentes con la historia de interacciones de los participantes. Se emergieron del análisis de los datos três categorías: Percepciones del padre sobre su implicación com el niño; Características de la participación paterno del padre separado y Construcción de la paternidade en el pos-divorcio. Los resultados demostraron relaciones de interdependencia entre factores individuales, relacionales y contextuales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Paternity , Divorce , Family Characteristics , Father-Child Relations , Data Analysis
6.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 22(1): 22-38, ene.-jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - Scientific journals | ID: biblio-1155512

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se compreender os procedimentos de recebimento e encaminhamento de notificações de casos de violência sexual realizados por conselheiros tutelares. Para isso, foram realizadas 10 entrevistas semiestruturadas com conselheiros/as tutelares de duas cidades do norte do Rio Grande do Sul. Os resultados indicaram pouca clareza na definição de violência sexual e de notificação. Foram consideradas notificações exitosas aquelas em que há informações de identificação de prováveis vítimas e agressores/as, enquanto as notificações não exitosas possuem poucas informações desses. Referente aos encaminhamentos, observou-se que há êxito quando os serviços da rede dialogam e se articulam e não êxito quando aspectos burocráticos predominam. Buscando uma melhoria no recebimento e nos encaminhamentos das notificações sobre violência sexual faz-se necessária a formação continuada por meio de capacitações, bem como a construção de fluxogramas para o efetivo trabalho.


We aim to understand the procedures of receiving and forwarding notifications of cases involving sexual violence against children performed by Child Protective Services (CPS). We carried out 10 semi-structured interviews with counselors from two cities of Rio Grande do Sul (a southernmost state in Brazil). The main results indicated little accuracy in defining sexual violence and notification. Successful notifications were those in which there is information that could identify victims and perpetrators. Unsuccessful notifications usually contain little information. Counselors observed successful outcomes in forwarding notifications when the services of the system dialogue and articulate, and unsuccessful ones when bureaucratic aspects predominate. We conclude it is necessary to invest in continuing education through capacitation, as well as constructing flowcharts for effective work in CPS.


El objetivo fue comprender los procedimientos para recibir y reenviar notificaciones de casos de violencia sexual realizados por Consejos Tutelares (CT). Fueron hechas 10 entrevistas semiestructuradas con 10 consejeros tutelares de dos ciudades de Rio Grande do Sul. Los resultados indicaron poca claridad en la definición de violencia sexual y notificación. Las notificaciones exitosas son las que incluyen informaciones que permiten identificar posibles víctimas y agresores. Las notificaciones no exitosas contienen pocas informaciones. Se observó que hay éxito en las derivaciones cuando los servicios de la red dialogan y se articulan y no éxito cuando prevalecen los aspectos burocráticos. La formación continua a través de capacitaciones es necesaria, así como la construcción de diagramas de flujo para el trabajo efectivo del CT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Referral and Consultation , Sex Offenses , Counseling , Notification , Education, Continuing , Child Protective Services , Counselors , Child Advocacy
7.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(4): 266-71, 2021 Apr 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931989

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at "Zusanli" (ST36) and "Feishu" (BL13) on the expression of autophagy related proteins in the lung tissue of rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), so as to explore the mechanism of EA underlying improvement of COPD. METHODS: Thirty male SD rats were randomly divided into normal, model and EA groups (n=10 in each group). The COPD model was established by intratracheal infusion of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/kg) and exposure in cigarette smoke. EA was applied to bilateral ST36 and BL13 for 30 min, once every other day for 2 weeks. The pulmonary function (forced vital capacity ï¼»FVCï¼½, forced expiratory volume in 0.1 s and 0.3 s ï¼»FEV0.1, FEV0.3ï¼½, FEV0.1/FVC and FEV0.3/FVC) was detected by animal pulmonary function analysis system. Histopathological changes of the airway and lung were displayed by H.E. staining. Autophagosomes in the airway and lung tissues were observed by electron microscope. The expression of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), Unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1(ULK1), autophagy related protein ATG6(Beclin1)mRNAs in lung tissue were examined by quantitative real-time PCR. The expression of AMPK, mTOR, ULK1, Beclin1 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)proteins in lung tissue were examined by Western blot. The contents of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the broncho alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were assayed by ELISA. RESULTS: Following modeling, the FVC, FEV0.1, FEV0.3, FEV0.1/FVC and FEV0.3/FVC levels were significantly decreased (P<0.01), the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the increase of autophagosomes were obvious in airway and lung tissue, the mRNA and protein expression of AMPK, ULK1, Beclin1 and the ratio of LC3Ⅱ/LC3Ⅰ were increased (P<0.01), while the mRNA and protein expression of mTOR were decreased (P<0.01), the contents of TNF-α and IL-6 in the BALF were increased in the model group compared with the normal group (P<0.01). After EA intervention, all the indexes mentioned above were completely reversed in the EA group relevant to the model group (P<0.01, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: EA at ST36 and BL13 can improve the lung function of COPD rats, which may be related to its effects in inhibiting the autophagy level and reducing the inflammation response in the lung.


Subject(s)
Electroacupuncture , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Animals , Autophagy-Related Proteins , Lung , Male , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
8.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(4): 272-7, 2021 Apr 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931990

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of moxa-cone moxibustion at "Feishu" (BL13) and "Zhongfu" (LU1) on the contents of related inflammatory factors in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and the expression of phosphatidy-linositol-3-kinase (PI3K), retinoic acid related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) and fork/wing helix transcription factor 3 (Foxp3) in lung tissue in asthma mice. METHODS: Sixty male Balb/c mice were divided into normal, model, LY294002 (an inhibitor of PI3K, LY), electroacupuncture (EA) and moxa-cone moxibustion (moxibustion) groups (n=12 in each group). The asthma model was established by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin sensitization. The mice in the LY group were injected with LY 294002 (7.5 mg/kg) via the tail vein. EA or moxa-cone moxibustion was applied at BL13 and LU1 in the EA or moxibustion group once daily for 2 weeks. The levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in serum and BALF were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expressions of PI3K, RORγt and Foxp3 in lung tissue were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QRT PCR) and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Compared with the normal group, the levels of IgE and IL-4 in serum and BALF, the expressions of PI3K and RORγt mRNA and protein in lung tissue were significantly increased (P<0.01), while the levels of IFN-γ, and the expressions of Foxp3 mRNA and protein were significantly reduced (P<0.01) in the model group. Compared with the model group, the levels of IgE and IL-4 in serum and BALF, the expressions of PI3K and RORγt mRNA and protein in lung tissue were significantly decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05), and the levels of IFN-γ in serum and BALF, the expressions of Foxp3 mRNA and protein in lung tissue were significantly increased (P<0.01) in the LY, EA and moxibustion groups. CONCLUSION: Moxa cone moxibustion at Shu- and Mu-acupoints of the lung meridian can reduce airway inflammatory reaction and control asthma attacks in asthma mice, which is closely related to its effects in regulating the expressions of RORγt and Foxp3 through PI3K signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Moxibustion , Acupuncture Points , Animals , Asthma/genetics , Asthma/therapy , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Male , Mice , Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 3/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Signal Transduction
9.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(4): 278-83, 2021 Apr 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931991

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the expression of Pirt (a regulator of TRPV1) in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1, a molecular sensor of noxious heat and capsaicin) in the colonic mucosa in rats suffering from diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), so as to explore its mechanisms underlying alleviation of visceral hypersensitivity of IBS-D. METHODS: Forty SD rats (half male and half female) were randomly assigned to control, model, EA, and medication groups by lottery, with 10 rats in each group. The IBS-D model was established by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and gavage of senna soaking fluid. Rats in the EA group received EA (2 Hz/15 Hz,0.1-1 mA) stimulation of unilateral "Tianshu"(ST25), "Zusanli" (ST36), "Sanyinjiao"(SP6) and "Taichong"(LR3) for 15 min once a day for 14 days, and rats of the medication group received intragastric administration of pinave-rium bromide (10 mL/kg, 2.7 mg/mL) once daily for 14 days. The visceral pain threshold (VPT) was measured by using abdominal wall withdrawal reflex (AWR) test. The diarrhea index (loose stool rate [total number of loose stool/total number of defecation] X mean loose degree [0-4 grades according to the filter paper stain diameter] in 6 h/d) was used to assess the severity of diarrhea. The expression of Pirt in the DRG and TRPV1 in the colonic mucosa tissue was detected using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: After modeling, the VPT was obviously reduced (P<0.01), while the diarrhea index, mean optical density of Pirt and TRPV1 were remarkably increased in the model group relevant to the control group (P<0.01). After the interventions, the VPT was obviously increased while the diarrhea index, and the mean optical density of Pirt and TRPV1 was noticeably decreased in both EA and the medicine groups in contrast to the model group (P<0.01). No significant differences were found between the EA and medicine groups in up-regulating VPT and down-regulating the diarrhea index, and Pirt and TRPV1 expression (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: EA can effectively alleviate visceral hypersensitivity in IBS-D rats, which may be related to its effect in down-regulating the expression level of DRG Pirt and colonic TRPV1.


Subject(s)
Electroacupuncture , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Acupuncture Points , Animals , Diarrhea/genetics , Diarrhea/therapy , Female , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/genetics , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/therapy , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , TRPV Cation Channels/genetics
10.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(4): 284-8, 2021 Apr 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931992

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of moxibustion and acupuncture on apoptosis in gastric mucosal cell and expression of NF-κB, Bcl-2 in chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) rats, so as to explore its mechanisms underlying improvement of CAG. METHODS: Forty-eight male SD rats were randomly divided into normal, model, moxibustion and acupuncture groups, with 12 rats in each group. The CAG model was established by gavage of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine (MNNG) solution and irregular diet for 12 weeks. Moxibustion or acupuncture was applied to "Zusanli" (ST36) and "Zhongwan" (CV12) for 15 min, once daily for two weeks in the moxibustion or acupuncture group. The histopathological changes of the gastric mucosa were observed by HE staining. The apoptosis index of gastric mucosa was measured by TUNEL method. The gene expression levels of NF-κB and Bcl-2 were detected by real-time PCR. RESULTS: After modeling, the color of gastric mucosa was pale and dark, with low folds and significant bleeding points. The glands in lamina propria were atrophied, arranged disorderly, and the numbers were significantly reduced, with inflammatory cells infiltrated. Those histopathological changes were evidently milder in the moxibustion and acupuncture groups. Compared with the normal group, the apoptosis index, NF-κB and Bcl-2 gene expression of the model group were significantly increased (P<0.01). After the treatment, the apoptosis index, NF-κB and Bcl-2 gene expression were significantly reduced in the moxibustion and acupuncture groups (P<0.05,P<0.01). The NF-κB expression was lower in the acupuncture group than that of moxibustion group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Moxibustion and acupuncture therapy can improve the injury of gastric mucosa in CAG rats, which may be associated with its function in down-regulating the expression of NF-κB and Bcl-2 genes in the gastric mucosa.


Subject(s)
Gastritis, Atrophic , Moxibustion , Acupuncture Points , Animals , Apoptosis , Gastric Mucosa , Gastritis, Atrophic/genetics , Gastritis, Atrophic/therapy , Male , NF-kappa B/genetics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
11.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(4): 295-300, 2021 Apr 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931994

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on Cathepsin-B in the synovium of the knee joint of acute gouty arthritis(AGA) rats, so as to explore the mechanism of EA in the treatment of AGA. METHODS: A total of 60 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control,model, medication and EA groups, with 15 rats in each group. Rat model of AGA was established by injection of 0.2 mL sodium urate crystal suspension into the left knee joint cavity. The rats in the medication group were treated with colchicine by gavage(0.3 mg·kg-1·d-1), and the rats in the EA group were treated with EA at the left "Sanyinjiao" (SP6) and "Zusanli"(ST36) for 10 min each time, once a day for a week. The Coderre gait grading standard was used to score the gait of rats. The pathological morphology of synovial tissue of the left knee joint was observed by H.E. staining. The expression levels of Cathepsin-B protein and Nod-like receptor pyrin domain 3(NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC),Caspase-1, interleukin-1ß(IL-1ß) and IL-18 mRNAs were detected by Western blot and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with the normal control group, the degree of synovitis infiltration in the model group was more serious. And the gait score,the protein expression level of Cathepsin-B and the mRNA expression levels of NLRP3,ASC,Caspase-1, IL-1ß,IL-18 were significantly increased (P<0.01).After the interventions, the degree of inflammatory infiltration was mild, The gait score, the protein expression level of Cathepsin-B and the mRNA expression levels of NLRP3 and ASC,Caspase-1,IL-1ß,IL-18 were significantly decreased in both medication and EA groups in contrast to the model group (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with medication group, the mRNA expression levels of Caspase-1 and IL-18 in the EA group were increased (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: EA may inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome by reducing the activity of Cathepsin-B in the synovium of the knee joint, so as to treat AGA.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Gouty , Electroacupuncture , Animals , Arthritis, Gouty/genetics , Arthritis, Gouty/therapy , Cathepsin B/genetics , Inflammasomes/genetics , Male , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Rats , Rats, Wistar
12.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(4): 301-5, 2021 Apr 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931995

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of blood-letting puncture at "Well-points" of the twelve meridians on hippocampal mitophagy of hypobaric hypoxia-induced brain injury (HHIBI) rats, so as to explore its biological mechanisms underlying improvement of high altitude hypoxia-induced brain injury. METHODS: Male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group (n=9), and model and blood-letting groups which were further divided into 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h subgroups (n=9 in each subgroup). The HHIBI model was established by putting the rats into a hypobaric hypoxia chamber (equivalent to 5 000 m above sea level).The blood-letting groups were given blood-letting therapy at "Shaoshang"(LU11), "Shangyang"(LI1), "Zhongchong"(PC9), "Guanchong"(SJ1), "Shaochong"(HT9), "Shaoze"(SI9), once a day for 7 days. H.E. staining was used to observe the histopatholo-gical changes of hippocampus tissue. Serum hypoxia inducible factor(HIF)-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) contents were assayed using ELISA, and the expression levels of hippocampal Beclin-1 and LC3-Ⅱ proteins detected using Western blot. RESULTS: Compared with the normal control group, the levels of serum HIF-1α and VEGF at each time point, and the expressions of hippocampal Beclin-1 at 12 and 24 h, LC3-Ⅱat each time point were significantly increased in the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01); while in comparison with the model group, the levels of serum HIF-1α and VEGF contents, and the expressions of Beclin-1 at 12 h, LC3-Ⅱ at 24, 48 and 72 h were further significantly up-regulated in the blood-letting group (P<0.01, P<0.05). H.E. staining revealed that the pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 region had a disordered arrangement, and some of them presented swelling with loose and pale cytoplasm or vacuolation at 6, 12 and 24 h, and showed indistinct nucleolus, irregular shape, pyknosis and deep staining and an obvious edema at 48 and 72 h, which was relatively milder in the blood-letting group. CONCLUSION: Blood-letting of "Well-points" can up-regulate serum HIF-1α and VEGF contents and hippocampal Beclin-1 and LC3-Ⅱ (mitophagy related proteins) expressions in HHIBI rats, which may contribute to its effect in reducing hypoxic brain injury.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Animals , Hippocampus/metabolism , Hypoxia/genetics , Hypoxia/therapy , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Male , Mitophagy , Punctures , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
13.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(4): 306-11, 2021 Apr 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931996

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes of the skeletal muscle fibrosis and changes of transforming growth factor-ß1(TGF-ß1)/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) / connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)pathway in rats after long-term eccentric exercise and acupuncture intervention, so as to explore the mechanism of acupuncture in regulating exercise-induced skeletal muscle fibrosis. METHODS: A total of 30 male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control, exercise and acupuncture group, with 10 rats in each group. The rat model of skeletal muscle fibrosis was established by eccentric exercise for 3 weeks. After exercise trained every time, the rats of the acupuncture group received acupuncture stimulation by holding the acupuncture needle to obliquely and longitudinally penetrate the ventral part of triceps of the lower leg along its lateral side, followed by retaining the needle for 2 min. Changes of the collagen fibers in each group was observed by scanning electron microscope. The expressions of Collagen Ⅰ, TGF-ß1, phosphated (p)-ERK/ERK and CTGF proteins were detected by Western blot. RESULTS: After 3 weeks of eccentric exercise and acupuncture, the fibrosis and deposition of collagen fibers in the exercise group were significantly higher than that in the normal control group,the degree of fibrosis in the acupuncture group was significantly lower than that in the exercise group. Compared with the normal control group, the expression levels of Collagen Ⅰ, TGF-ß1, CTGF and p-ERK/ERK in the exercise group was significantly higher (P<0.01,P<0.05). After EA interventions, the increased levels of the above indicators were significantly reversed (P<0.05,P<0.01) apart from p-ERK/ERK which had a downward trend, but the difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The accumulation of chronic sports injury can lead to the deposition of collagen fibers in skeletal muscle, which leads to the fibrosis of skeletal muscle. Acupuncture can inhibit skeletal muscle fibrosis via down-regulating TGF-ß1/ERK/CTGF signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Connective Tissue Growth Factor , Animals , Connective Tissue Growth Factor/genetics , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Fibrosis , Male , Muscle, Skeletal , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/genetics
14.
Endocr Pract ; 27(5): 408-412, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934751

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the added value of 1/3 radius (1/3R) for the diagnosis of osteoporosis by spine and hip sites and its correlation with prevalent fractures and predicted fracture risk. METHODS: Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) scores for hip and major osteoporotic fractures (MOF) with/without trabecular bone score were considered proxy for fracture risk. The contribution of 1/3R to risk prediction was depicted via linear regression models with FRAX score as the dependent variable-first only with central and then with radius T-score as an additional covariate. Significance of change in the explained variance was compared by F-test. RESULTS: The study included 1453 patients, 86% women, aged 66 ± 10 years. A total of 32% (n = 471) were osteoporotic by spine/hip and 8% (n = 115) by radius only, constituting a 24.4% increase in the number of subjects defined as osteoporotic (n = 586, 40%). Prior fracture prevalence was similar among patients with osteoporosis by spine/hip (17.4%) and radius only (19.1%) (P = .77). FRAX prediction by a regression model using spine/hip T-score yielded explained variance of 51.8% and 49.9% for MOF and 39.8% and 36.4% for hip (with/without trabecular bone score adjustment, respectively). The contribution of 1/3R was statistically significant (P < .001) and slightly increased the explained variance to 52.3% and 50.4% for MOF and 40.9% and 37.4% for hip, respectively. CONCLUSION: Reclassification of BMD results according to radius measurements results in higher diagnostic output. Prior fractures were equally prevalent among patients with radius-only and classic-site osteoporosis. FRAX tool performance slightly improved by incorporating radius BMD. Whether this approach may lead to a better fracture prediction warrants further prospective evaluation.


Subject(s)
Hip Fractures , Osteoporosis , Osteoporotic Fractures , Absorptiometry, Photon , Aged , Bone Density , Female , Hip Fractures/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Osteoporosis/diagnostic imaging , Osteoporosis/epidemiology , Osteoporotic Fractures/epidemiology , Radius/diagnostic imaging , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
15.
Endocr Pract ; 27(5): 419-425, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934752

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the body composition of pediatric patients referred for endocrine evaluation. METHODS: This real-life observational study conducted between January 2018 and January 2020 included 10 001 clinic visits of 3500 children and adolescents; first visits of 5 to 18-year-old patients were included. Anthropometric data, blood pressure levels, pubertal status, and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA, Tanita MC-780 MA) were extracted from medical files. Excluded from the analysis were patients participating in other studies. RESULTS: A total of 1001 patients (48% boys, mean age 11.3 ± 3.4 years, 33.5% prepubertal) were included. Mean anthropometric z-scores were normal and similar for boys and girls. Sex differences in body composition were as follows: boys had lower fat percentage, lower truncal fat percentage, higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass, and a higher muscle-to-fat ratio (MFR) than girls (P < .001 for all). MFR correlated with body mass index-standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) in overweight/obese patients (r = -0.558, P < .001), although not in underweight patients. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) correlated with BMI-SDS in overweight/obese patients (r = 0.262, P < .001), although not in underweight patients. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) did not correlate with BMI-SDS in either group of extreme weight status. MFR correlated with SBP and DBP in overweight/obese patients (r = -0.230, P < .001 and r = -0.141, P = .018, respectively) as well as in underweight patients (r = 0.331, P < .001 and r = 0.264, P = .005, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support BIA for a more refined characterization of patients referred for endocrine evaluation than BMI-SDS. MFR may be a better surrogate marker of blood pressure levels than BMI-SDS in both underweight and overweight/obese pediatric patients.


Subject(s)
Body Composition , Obesity , Adolescent , Anthropometry , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Child , Child, Preschool , Electric Impedance , Female , Humans , Male , Obesity/epidemiology
16.
Croat Med J ; 62(2): 120-129, 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938651

ABSTRACT

AIM: To assess the differences in the way how Slovenian and Croatian health care professionals (HCPs) confront ethical dilemmas and perceive the role of hospital ethics committees (HECs). METHODS: This cross-sectional, survey-based study involved HCPs from three Slovenian and five Croatian university medical centers (UMC). The final sample sizes were 308 (244 or 79.2% women) for Slovenia and 485 (398 or 82.1% women) for Croatia. RESULTS: Compared with Croatian physicians, Slovenian physicians reported a higher share of ethical dilemmas regarding waiting periods for diagnostics or treatment, suboptimal working conditions due to interpersonal relationships in the ward, and end-of-life treatment withdrawal, and a lower share regarding access to palliative care and patient information protection. Compared with Croatian nurses, Slovenian nurses reported a lower share of ethical dilemmas regarding the distribution of limited resources, recognizing the patient's best interests, and access to palliative care. Compared with Croatian other HCPs, Slovenian other HCPs reported a lower burden of ethical dilemmas regarding waiting periods for diagnostics or treatment, distribution of limited resources, and access to palliative care. When encountering an ethical dilemma, all HCPs in both countries would first consult their colleagues. Slovenian and Croatian HCPs recognized the importance of the HECs to a similar extent, but viewed their role differently. CONCLUSION: Croatian and Slovenian HCPs are confronted with different ethical dilemmas and perceive the role of HECs differently.


Subject(s)
Health Personnel , Physicians , Croatia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Slovenia
17.
Croat Med J ; 62(2): 154-164, 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938655

ABSTRACT

AIM: To assess the correlations of B regulatory cells (Bregs) and monocyte subsets in peripheral blood with the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-consensus-defined clinical manifestations of chronic graft-vs-host disease (cGvHD), in an attempt to establish their role as cellular biomarkers. METHODS: This multidisciplinary prospective study enrolled adult cGVHD patients treated in the University Hospital Center Zagreb and University of Zagreb School of Medicine. Immunophenotypic subpopulations of CD24highCD38high Bregs (CD27-, CD27+, and total) and monocyte (classical, intermediate, and non-classical) counts were correlated with demographic, transplant, and cGVHD-related data. Bivariate correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the correlations between Bregs and monocytes subsets and cGVHD organ involvement, as well as cGVHD severity and immunosuppression intensity. RESULTS: Twenty-two adult patients (54.5% female) with cGVHD were enrolled. The median (range) age was 44.5 years (24-65). All patients were transplanted for hematologic malignancies and 40.9% had severe NIH cGVHD global score. The median time from cGVHD diagnosis to the analysis was 16.6 months (0-176). The organ most frequently affected with cGVHD were the eyes (68.2%), skin (45.5%), lungs (45.5%), and liver (40.9%). Lower total and CD27-Bregs counts were correlated with worse cGVHD severity, higher immunosuppression intensity, and lung cGVHD, in terms of cell count, but also with skin cGVHD, in terms of percentages. Patients with liver and joint/fascia cGVHD had a lower percentage of non-classical monocytes and patients with more severe global NIH score had a higher classical monocytes count. CONCLUSION: Different organs affected by cGVHD are differently associated with different subpopulations of Bregs and monocytes.


Subject(s)
Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Adult , Aged , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes , Prospective Studies , United States , Young Adult
18.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 74(3-4): 135-138, 2021 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938664

ABSTRACT

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is an autosomal inherited metabolic disorder in which the ß-oxidation of the long chain fatty acids is defective. The clinical presentation may be in various forms; it presents itself in the severe form during neonatal and infantile periods and as the less severe myopathic form in the school age and adolescence. While the severity of the rhabdomyolysis attacks varies, occasionally the clinical course may be complicated with acute renal failure. Acylcarnitine analysis may help in the diagnosis of CPT II, but its normality does not indicate the absence of the disease. If there is strong suspicion, genetic analysis should be performed on the cases. In this article, we present a 15-year-old male patient who had two rhabdomyolysis attacks triggered by infection and starvation. Acylcarnitine analysis of the case was normal, CPT II deficiency was considered when the history was evaluated, and CPT II gene c.137A>G (p.Gln46Arg) homozygous novel pathogenic mutation was detected. CPT II deficiency is one of the most common causes of metabolic rhabdomyolysis in patients with recurrent episodes of rhabdomyolysis.


Subject(s)
Metabolism, Inborn Errors , Rhabdomyolysis , Adolescent , Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase/deficiency , Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase/genetics , Humans , Male , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/complications , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics , Mutation , Rhabdomyolysis/genetics
19.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 21(1): 198-198, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-194909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to elucidate the underlying mechanism through which basic personality dimensions predict indicators of psychological functioning during the COVID-19 pandemic, including subjective well-being and perceived stress. As a personality characteristic highly contextualized in stressful circumstances, resilience was expected to have a mediating role in this relationship. METHOD: A sample of 2,722 Slovene adults, aged from 18 to 82 years filled in the Big Five Inventory, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Mental Health Continuum. A path analysis with the Bootstrap estimation procedure was performed to evaluate the mediating effect of resilience in the relationship between personality and psychological functioning. RESULTS: Resilience fully or partially mediated the relationships between all the Big Five but extraversion with subjective well-being and stress experienced at the beginning of the COVID-19 outburst. Neuroticism was the strongest predictor of less adaptive psychological functioning both directly and through diminished resilience. CONCLUSIONS: Resilience may be a major protective factor required for an adaptive response of an individual in stressful situations such as pandemic and the associated lockdown


ANTECEDENTES/OBJETIVO: El objetivo fue dilucidar el mecanismo subyacente a través del cual las dimensiones básicas de la personalidad predicen indicadores del funcionamiento psicológico durante la pandemia de COVID-19, incluido el bienestar subjetivo y el estrés percibido. Como característica de la personalidad altamente contextualizada en circunstancias estresantes, se esperaba que la resiliencia tuviera un papel mediador en esta relación. MÉTODO: Una muestra de 2.722 adultos eslovenos (18-82 años), completó el Big Five Inventory, la Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, la Perceived Stress Scale y el Mental Health Continuum. Se realizó un análisis de ruta con el procedimiento de estimación Bootstrap para evaluar el efecto mediador de la resiliencia en la relación entre la personalidad y el funcionamiento psicológico. RESULTADOS: La resiliencia medió total o parcialmente las relaciones entre los Cinco Grandes, y la extraversión con bienestar subjetivo y el estrés experimentado, al comienzo del estallido de COVID-19. El neuroticismo fue el predictor más fuerte de un funcionamiento psicológico menos adaptativo, tanto directamente como a través de la disminución de la capacidad de resiliencia. CONCLUSIONES: La resiliencia puede ser un factor de protección importante y requerido para una respuesta adaptativa de un individuo en situaciones estresantes como la pandemia y el confinamiento asociado


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Resilience, Psychological , Personality/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pandemics , Personality Inventory/standards , Psychometrics/methods , Neuroticism/physiology
20.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 21(1): 185-185, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET6-1881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (Mini-MAC) in a large sample of patients with non-metastatic, resected cancer. METHODS: Prospective, observational, multicenter study for which 914 patients were recruited from 15 Spanish hospitals. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, validity and reliability analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Factor-analytic results indicated a 4-factor structure of the Spanish version of the Mini-MAC. Three subscales have psychometric properties similar to those of Helplessness, Anxious preoccupation, and Cognitive avoidance of the original the Mini-MAC. The Fighting spirit and the Fatalism subscales were combined on the Positive attitude scale. The four factor-derived scale scores exhibited acceptable accuracy for individual measurement purposes, as well as stability over time in test-retest assessments at 6 months. Validity assessments found meaningful relations between the derived scale scores, and Brief Symptom Inventory depression and anxiety scores and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy spiritual well-being scores. CONCLUSIONS: The Spanish version of the Mini-MAC provides reliable and valid measures for patients with non-metastatic, resected cancer, and results corroborate the instrument's cross-cultural validity


ANTECEDENTES/OBJETIVO: El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión Española del Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (Mini-MAC) en pacientes con cáncer resecado, no metastásico. MÉTODO: Estudio multicéntrico, prospectivo y observacional con 914 pacientes reclutados en 15 hospitales de España. Se llevaron a cabo análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio, así como análisis de la validez y fiabilidad de las puntuaciones de la escala. RESULTADOS: Los resultados de los análisis factoriales sugieren que la estructura más apropiada para la versión española del Mini-MAC es la de cuatro factores. Tres subescalas derivadas de esta estructura tienen propiedades psicométricas similares a la escala original: Desesperanza, Preocupación ansiosa y Evitación cognitiva. Las subescalas Espíritu de lucha y Fatalismo se combinaron en la escala Actitud positiva. Las puntuaciones en las cuatro escalas mostraron una fiabilidad aceptable para su utilización en la evaluación individual, así como estabilidad a lo largo del tiempo en evaluaciones test-retest a los seis meses. Se obtuvieron evidencias de validez en forma de relaciones significativas con las escalas de ansiedad y depresión del BSI, y de bienestar espiritual del FACIT. CONCLUSIONES: La versión Española del Mini-MAC proporciona puntuaciones fiables y válidas para evaluar las estrategias de afrontamiento en pacientes con cáncer y los resultados añaden evidencia a favor de la validez transcultural del instrumento


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Neoplasms/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Adaptation, Psychological , Prospective Studies , Psychometrics , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Spain , Attitude to Health
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