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1.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 179-188, May-Sep, 2024. graf, tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-232713

ABSTRACT

Los trastornos emocionales (TEs) son los trastornos más comunes entre la población joven. El desarrollo de programas preventivos de los TEs es fundamental para evitar su posible aparición. Los programas de prevención transdiagnósticos podrían presentar una ventaja sobre los existentes para mejorar las estrategias de regulación emocional. Así, el objetivo de este estudio ha sido determinar la viabilidad y eficacia preliminar de un programa breve basado en el Protocolo Unificado (PU). El proyecto consistió en un estudio piloto utilizando un diseño experimental de línea base múltiple. Nueve estudiantes universitarios recibieron un programa de 5 sesiones basado en el PU en formato grupal online. Se encontraron diferencias significativas después de la intervención en la regulación de las emociones, el apoyo social percibido y la evitación, con tamaños del efecto moderados-grandes (r de Cohen = .49 - .59). Estas mejoras mostraron aumentos en los seguimientos al mes y a los 3 meses. Esos resultados están en línea con los que muestran que los programas preventivos transdiagnósticos breves podrían ser útiles para la prevención de los TEs en población universitaria.(AU)


Emotional disorders (EDs) are the most common disorders among the young population. The development of preventive programs for EDs is essential to avoid their possible appearance. Transdiagnostic prevention programs could present an advantage over existing ones to im-prove emotional regulation strategies. Thus, the objective of this study has been to determine the preliminary feasibility and effectiveness of a brief program based on the Unified Protocol (UP). The project consisted of a pilot study using a multiple baseline experimental design. Nine university students received a 5-session program based on the UP in online-group format. Significant differences were found after the intervention for emo-tion regulation, perceived social support and avoidance, with moderate-large effect sizes (Cohen's r= .49-.59). These improvements showed in-creases at 1-month and 3-month follow-ups. Those results are in line with those showing that brief transdiagnostic preventive programs could be use-ful for the prevention of EDs in the university population.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students/psychology , Mental Health , Student Health , Affective Symptoms , Disease Prevention , Pilot Projects , Psychology , Clinical Protocols
2.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 189-198, May-Sep, 2024. tab
Article in English, Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-232714

ABSTRACT

El suicidio se ha convertido en un problema social y de salud pública a nivel mundial. En este sentido, la Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso (ACT) podría ser eficaz en su abordaje, existiendo evidencia sobre la relación entre algunos de sus componentes y la conducta suicida. Así, el presente estudio tuvo por objetivo realizar una revisión sistemática sobre la eficacia de ACT en conducta suicida. Para ello se siguió el protocolo PRISMA, empleando las siguientes bases de datos: PsycInfo, PubMed, Scopus y PsicoDoc. Inicialmente se obtuvieron 108 publicaciones potencialmente relevantes, de las cuales, finalmente, 13 fueron incluidas en la revisión. La calidad de los estudios se analizó a través de un instrumento de evaluación de riesgo de sesgos. Como resultados, a nivel general se observaron disminuciones estadísticamente significativas en ideación suicida (IS) y factores de riesgo de suicidio. Además, algunos estudios señalaron relaciones estadísticamente significativas entre un aumento de flexibilidad psicológica y la disminución de IS. Si bien los datos apuntaron a una posible eficacia de ACT en la reducción de IS, es necesario llevar a cabo mayor número de estudios experimentales que contemplen la complejidad de la conducta suicida y exploren los procesos de cambio implicados.(AU)


Suicide has emerged as a pressing global issue affecting both so-ciety and public health.In this context, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) could prove effective in its approach, supported by evi-dence of the relationship between certain components of ACT and suicidal behavior. Thus, the present study aims to conduct a systematic review on the efficacy of ACT in suicidal behavior. For this, the PRISMA protocol was followed, using thefollowing databases: PsycInfo, PubMed, Scopus and PsicoDoc. Initially, 108 potentially relevant publicationswereobtained,13ofwhichwerefinallyincludedinthereview.Weanalyzedstudy qualityus-ingariskofbiasassessmentinstrument.Asaresult,statisticallysignificantdecreases in suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide risk factors were observed. In addition, some studies indicated statistically significant relationships be-tween increased psychological flexibility and decreasedSI.WhilethedatasuggestedthepotentialeffectivenessofACTinreducingsuicidal ideation (SI), more experimental studies are needed to consider the complexity of suicidal behavior and explore the processes of changeinvolved.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Suicidal Ideation , Mental Health , Psychology, Clinical , Suicide , Public Health , Risk Factors
3.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 199-218, May-Sep, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-232715

ABSTRACT

La comorbilidad es más la regla que la excepción en salud mental y, sobre todo, en el caso de la ansiedad y la depresión. Los modelos transdiagnósticos estudian los procesos subyacentes para mejorar el tratamiento y la comprensión de la salud mental. Objetivo: Esta revisión sistemática busca evidencias sobre los factores de riesgo transdiagnósticos para la ansiedad y la depresión en la población clínica diagnosticada de estas condiciones psicopatológicas, analizando los diferentes tipos o categorías de factores identificados. Método: Se registró una revisión sistemática en PROSPERO (número de registro CRD42022370327) y se diseñó de acuerdo con las guías PRISMA-P. La calidad del estudio fue evaluada por dos revisores independientes con conocimiento del campo para reducir el posible sesgo. Resultados: Cincuenta y tres artículos fueron examinados y las variables transdiagnósticas fueron agrupadas en tres categorías: psicológicas, biológicas y socioculturales. Conclusiones: La categoría más estudiada fue la de variables psicológicas, en especial los procesos cognitivos, afecto negativo y neuroticismo, intolerancia a la incertidumbre, sensibilidad a la ansiedad. Los factores biológicos y socioculturales requieren más estudio para sustentar su enfoque transdiagnóstico.(AU)


Comorbidity is more the rule than the exception in mental health, specifically in the case of anxiety and depression. Transdiagnostic models studied the underlying processes to improve mental health treat-ment and understating. Objective:This systematic review searchs for evi-dence on transdiagnostic risk factors for anxiety and depression in the clin-ical population diagnosed with these psychopathological conditions, by an-alysing the different types or categories of factors identified.Methods:A sys-tematic review was registered in PROSPERO (registration number CRD42022370327) and was designed according to PRISMA-P guidelines. Two independent reviewers with field knowledge assessed the study quality to reduce bias.Results: Fifty-three articles were examined, and the transdi-agnostic variables were grouped into three categories: psychological, bio-logical, and sociocultural.Conclusions:The most studied category was that of psychological variables, especially cognitive processes, negative affect, and neuroticism, intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety sensitivity. Biological and sociocultural factors require more study to support their transdiagnos-tic approach.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Mental Health , Risk Factors , Anxiety , Depression , Psychopathology , Mental Disorders
4.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 290-299, May-Sep, 2024. tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-232723

ABSTRACT

Existe un debate considerable en la literatura sobre cómo el narcisismo predice diversos comportamientos asociados con la utilidad de los sitios de redes sociales, pero los investigadores han prestado menos atención a explorar los mediadores potenciales de esta relación. Con base en la literatura existente, anticipamos que el narcisismo predice comportamientos de autopromoción en los sitios de redes sociales. El estudio actual también investigó el papel mediador del perfeccionismo multidimensional entre el narcisismo y el comportamiento de autopromoción. Se recopiló un total de 605 cuestionarios completos de estudiantes de universidades de Rawalpindi e Islamabad, Pakistán, mediante un muestreo conveniente. El estudio utilizó el Inventario de Personalidad Narcisista (Ames et al., 2006), un cuestionario de desarrollo propio sobre comportamiento de autopromoción en sitios de redes sociales y la Escala de Perfeccionismo Multidimensional (Hewitt et al., 1991). Los hallazgos indicaron que las mujeres en comparación con los hombres y las solteras en comparación con las casadas obtuvieron puntuaciones más altas en narcisismo. Los niveles educativos más altos se asociaron con tasas más altas de narcisismo. Los resultados también sugieren que el narcisismo se correlaciona con el perfeccionismo orientado a uno mismo y, más significativamente, con el narcisismo orientado a los demás. El perfeccionismo orientado a uno mismo y a los demás medió significativamente la relación entre el narcisismo y el comportamiento de autopromoción en los sitios de redes sociales.(AU)


There is considerable debate in the literature about how narcis-sism predicts various behaviors associated with the utility of social net-working sites, but researchers have paid less attention to exploring the po-tential mediators of this relationship.Based on the existing literature, we anticipated that narcissism predicts self-promoting behaviors on social networking sites. The current study also investigated the mediating role of multidimensional perfectionismbetween narcissism and self-promoting behavior. A total of 605 complete questionnaires weregathered fromstu-dents from universities from Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan using convenient sampling. The study used Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Ames et al., 2006), self-developed Self-promoting Behavior on social net-working sites questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Hewitt et al., 1991). Findings indicated that females as compared to males and single as comparedto married individuals scored higher on narcissism. Higher educational levels were associated with higher rates of narcissism. The results also suggestthat narcissism correlated with self-oriented per-fectionism, and more significantlywith others-oriented narcissism. Self-oriented and others-oriented perfectionism significantly mediated the rela-tionship between narcissism and self-promoting behavior on social net-working sites.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Mental Health , Perfectionism , Narcissism , Behavior , Students/psychology , Pakistan
5.
Multimedia | Multimedia Resources | ID: multimedia-13173

ABSTRACT

Para comenzar tienes que estar en un lugar tranquilo e íntimo libre de distracciones


Subject(s)
Psychological Well-Being , Mental Health , Empathy
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10534, 2024 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720009

ABSTRACT

Health care workers have been exposed to COVID-19 more than people in other professions, which may have led to stigmatization, discrimination, and violence toward them, possibly impacting their mental health. We investigated (1) factors associated with stigma, discrimination, and violence, (2) the association of stigma, discrimination, and violence with mental health, (3) everyday experiences of stigmatization, discrimination, and violence. We chose a combination of a quantitative approach and qualitative content analysis to analyze data collected at three time points: in 2020, 2021 and 2022. A higher age was associated with lower odds of experiencing stigma, discrimination, and violence, whereas female gender was related to more negative experiences. The intensity of exposure to COVID-19 was associated with greater experience with stigmatization, discrimination, and violence across all three years (for example in 2022: odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.74, 1.18-2.55 for mild exposure; 2.82, 1.95-4.09 for moderate exposure; and 5.74, 3.55-9.26 for severe exposure, when compared to no exposure). Stigma, discrimination, and violence were most strongly associated with psychological distress in 2020 (odds ratio = 2.97, 95% confidence interval 2.27-3.88) and with depressive symptoms in 2021 (odds ratio = 2.78, 95% confidence interval 2.12-3.64). Attention should be given to the destigmatization of contagious diseases and the prevention of discrimination, violence, and mental health problems, both within workplaces and among the public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Mental Health , Pandemics , Social Stigma , Humans , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Male , Health Personnel/psychology , Adult , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Violence/psychology , Social Discrimination/psychology
7.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1262, 2024 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The international education sector is important not only to Australian society, but also to the national economy. There are growing concerns about the potential wellbeing challenges facing international students in their host country, owing to acculturative stress; including loneliness, isolation and experiences of racism. Risks include poor mental health and decreased likelihood to access support due to stigma, language and cultural barriers, not knowing where to seek help, and poor mental health knowledge. METHODS: This study explored students' perceptions of their accommodation, subjective wellbeing (through the Personal Wellbeing Index, ['PWI']), mental health help-seeking and individual engagement with evidence-based everyday health promotion actions (informed by the '5 Ways to Wellbeing' model) through an online survey (N = 375) and three online focus groups (N = 19). A mixed-methods approach using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, regression analysis and thematic analysis, were used. RESULTS: The PWI of international students in the survey was observed to be substantially lower (M = 60.7) than that reported for the Australian population (M = 77.5). Accommodation impacted on wellbeing (loneliness, belonging, connectedness) in a number of different ways including through location, safety, and shared accommodation. In terms of help-seeking, international students noted a number of barriers to accessing support for mental health: cost of accessing support, language and cultural barriers, lack of information on where to find support and stigma. CONCLUSIONS: In the discussion, implications of the findings are considered, including that more could be done to shape policy and practice in service and facility provision around wellbeing, connectedness, and help-seeking for mental health support of international students.


Subject(s)
Students , Humans , Female , Male , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Australia , Young Adult , Adult , Surveys and Questionnaires , Focus Groups , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Help-Seeking Behavior , Mental Health , Loneliness/psychology , Mental Health Services , Social Isolation/psychology , Acculturation
8.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 74(3): 242-250, 2024 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental ill health has a high economic impact on society and employers. National and international policy advocates line manager (LM) training in mental health as a key intervention, but little is known about employer training provisions. AIMS: To explore the prevalence and characteristics of organizations that offer LM training in mental health. METHODS: Secondary analysis of existing longitudinal anonymised organizational-level survey data derived from computer-assisted telephone interview surveys collected in four waves (2020:1900 firms, 2021:1551, 2022:1904, 2023:1902) in England, before, during and after a global pandemic. RESULTS: The proportion of organizations offering LM training in mental health increased pre- to post-pandemic (2020:50%, 2023:59%) but 41% do not currently provide it. Logistic regression confirmed that LM training is more likely to be offered by large-sized enterprises, organizations with a larger proportion of employees who are younger (aged 25-49), female, disabled and from ethnic minority communities. Sector patterns were inconsistent, but in 2023, organizations from the 'Hospitality' and 'Business Services' sectors were more likely to provide LM training than other sectors. CONCLUSIONS: Continued efforts are needed to increase the proportion of employers offering LM training in mental health, particularly small- to medium-sized enterprises, and organizations with predominantly male, White and/or older workforces.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Humans , Female , Adult , Male , Middle Aged , England , COVID-19/epidemiology , Occupational Health , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1383399, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726230

ABSTRACT

Background: Various psychological theories suggest that a supportive family environment protects the mental health of young adults during stressful life events. However, evidence is limited regarding the protective role of family support during a major public health crisis. Objective: To examine the role of family functioning on mental health among Chinese college students during first stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Between January-March 2020, 1,555 college students (44% female, on average 19 years old) from five Chinese universities participated. Participants rated their family functioning on the Family APGAR Index and their mental health on the Psychological Questionnaires for Emergent Events of Public Health, measuring depression, neurasthenia, fear, obsessive-anxiety and hypochondriasis. Results: Better family functioning was associated with having fewer psychological symptoms. In addition, we identified three mental health profiles related to the severity across the psychological symptoms: Low-level, medium-level and high-level symptom clusters. Latent profile analysis showed that as family function improved, students were, respectively, 16 to 24% more likely to be in the low-level symptom group, compared to being in the medium symptom group or the high-level symptom group. Conclusion: These results support the notion that family support may act as a psychological buffer for young adults during a large-scale public health crisis like the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Students , Humans , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Male , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult , Universities , China/epidemiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Family/psychology , Adolescent , Pandemics , Family Relations/psychology
10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301988, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722926

ABSTRACT

Adolescents with HIV (AWH) face the double burden of dealing with challenges presented by their developmental phase while coping with stigma related to HIV, affecting their mental health. Poor mental health complicates adherence to daily treatment regimens, requiring innovative psychosocial support strategies for use with adolescents. We assessed the effectiveness of a mindfulness and acceptance-based intervention on the mental health of AWH in Uganda. One hundred and twenty-two AWH, mean age 17 ±1.59 (range 15 to 19 years), 57% female, receiving care at a public health facility in Kampala were enrolled in an open-label randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT05010317) with assessments at pre-and post-intervention. The mindfulness and acceptance-based intervention involved weekly 90-minute group sessions for four consecutive weeks facilitated by two experienced trainers. Sessions involved clarifying values, skillfully relating to thoughts, allowing and becoming aware of experiences non-judgmentally, and exploring life through trial and error. The control group received the current standard of care. Three mental health domains (depression, anxiety, and internalized stigma) were compared between the intervention and control groups. A linear mixed effects regression was used to analyze the effect of the intervention across the two time points. Results showed that the intervention was associated with a statistically significant reduction in symptoms of depression (ß = -10.72, 95%CI: 6.25, -15.20; p < .0001), anxiety (ß = -7.55, 95%CI: 2.66, -12.43; p = .0003) and stigma (ß = -1.40, 95%CI: 0.66 to -2.15; p = .0004) over time. Results suggest that mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions have the potential to improve the mental health of AWH.


Subject(s)
Depression , HIV Infections , Mental Health , Mindfulness , Humans , Adolescent , Female , Male , Uganda , Mindfulness/methods , HIV Infections/psychology , HIV Infections/therapy , Young Adult , Depression/therapy , Depression/psychology , Anxiety/therapy , Anxiety/psychology , Social Stigma , Adaptation, Psychological
11.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303246, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Art therapy allows people to express feelings about any subject through creative work. It is beneficial for people who feel out of touch with their emotions. In Ghana, little is known about art therapy as a therapeutic tool. Herbal treatment, biomedical and faith healing practices are the most common treatment options for mental health. This research aimed to provide new insights into clinical psychologists on their knowledge and use of art therapy in treating clients and identified the enablers and barriers in this therapeutic intervention. METHOD: Twenty-one clinical psychologists were sampled using the snowball sampling method. They were interviewed over the phone using a semi-structured interview guide which was developed based on the predefined study objectives. Thematic analysis was employed to analyze the data resulting in three central thematic areas. RESULTS: Twelve of the clinical psychologists were females and eight were male, with an age range between twenty-five to fifty years. The major themes identified were knowledge of art therapy, the use of art therapy and enablers and barriers in using art therapy. The study revealed that clinical psychologists had limited knowledge of art therapy mainly due to lack of training. With the use of art therapy, the participants revealed that they had used some form of art therapy before and they perceived art therapy to be effective on their clients however, they demonstrated low confidence in using it. Practitioner training and the availability of art therapy-related resources were identified as both facilitators and hindrances to the use of art therapy. CONCLUSION: Clinical Psychologists are cognizant of art therapy albeit they have limited knowledge. Therefore, training in how to use art therapy and the availability of resources to facilitate art therapy can be provided for Clinical Psychologists by the Ghana Mental Health Authority.


Subject(s)
Art Therapy , Mental Health , Humans , Art Therapy/methods , Female , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Psychology, Clinical , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Ghana , Mental Disorders/therapy
12.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e082910, 2024 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724055

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To conduct an overview of systematic reviews that explore the effectiveness of interventions to enhance medical student well-being. DESIGN: Overview of systematic reviews. DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, APA PsychInfo, CINAHL and Scopus were searched from database inception until 31 May 2023 to identify systematic reviews of interventions to enhance medical student well-being. Ancestry searching and citation chasing were also conducted. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: The Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews V.2 tool was used to appraise the quality of the included reviews. A narrative synthesis was conducted, and the evidence of effectiveness for each intervention was rated. RESULTS: 13 reviews (with 94 independent studies and 17 616 students) were included. The reviews covered individual-level and curriculum-level interventions. Individual interventions included mindfulness (n=12), hypnosis (n=6), mental health programmes (n=7), yoga (n=4), cognitive and behavioural interventions (n=1), mind-sound technology (n=1), music-based interventions (n=1), omega-3 supplementation (n=1), electroacupuncture (n=1) and osteopathic manipulative treatment (n=1). The curriculum-level interventions included pass/fail grading (n=4), problem-based curriculum (n=2) and multicomponent curriculum reform (n=2). Most interventions were not supported by sufficient evidence to establish effectiveness. Eleven reviews were rated as having 'critically low' quality, and two reviews were rated as having 'low' quality. CONCLUSIONS: Individual-level interventions (mindfulness and mental health programmes) and curriculum-level interventions (pass/fail grading) can improve medical student well-being. These conclusions should be tempered by the low quality of the evidence. Further high-quality research is required to explore additional effective interventions to enhance medical student well-being and the most efficient ways to implement and combine these for maximum benefit.


Subject(s)
Students, Medical , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Humans , Students, Medical/psychology , Mental Health , Curriculum , Mindfulness
14.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0299352, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728238

ABSTRACT

We developed a self-report measure of psychological well-being for teens and adults, the Healthy Minds Index, based on a novel theory that four trainable pillars underlie well-being: awareness, connection, insight, and purpose. Ninety-seven items were developed and revised by experts and guided by qualitative testing with teens (n = 32; average age = 16.0 years). After assessing the internal validity and factor structure in teens (n = 1607; average age = 16.7 years) and adults (n = 420; average age = 45.6 years), we reduced the survey to 17 items. We then validated the factor structure, internal and convergent and divergent validity, and retest reliability of the 17-item Healthy Minds Index in two new teen samples (study 1: n = 1492, average age = 15.7 years; study 2: n = 295, average age = 16.1 years), and one adult sample (n = 285; average age = 45.3 years). The Healthy Minds Index demonstrated adequate validity and provided a comprehensive measure of a novel theory of psychological well-being that includes two domains not found in other conceptualizations of this construct-awareness and insight. This measure will be invaluable for primary research on well-being and as a translational tool to assess the impact and efficacy of widely used behavioral training programs on these core dimensions of wellbeing.


Subject(s)
Self Report , Humans , Adolescent , Female , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Mental Health , Reproducibility of Results , Young Adult , Psychometrics/methods
15.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0297675, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) declines with age despite the knowledge that physical inactivity is a leading cause of disease, death, and disability worldwide. To better tailor PA interventions to older adults, researchers are turning to the collaborative principles of co-design. The purpose of this systematic review was to compare the effectiveness of co-designed PA interventions and standard care for increasing PA and other health outcomes (i.e., physical function, quality of life, mental health, functional independence, attendance and attrition rates) in older adults. METHODS: A search was conducted in MEDLINE, AgeLine, CINAHL, Embase, and SPORTDiscus. Records were screened by independent pairs of reviewers. Primary research studies conducted among community-dwelling older adults (age 60+) comparing co-designed PA interventions to standard care were considered for inclusion. Controls included wait-list control, usual care, sham interventions, PA interventions without the use of co-design, and no intervention. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted, and the standardized mean difference (SMD) was used to report effect estimates. Quality of evidence was rated using GRADE. RESULTS: Of 16,191 studies screened, eight (N = 16,733) were included in this review. Most studies reported results favouring the effect of co-design on physical activity; however, only two studies (N = 433) could be pooled for meta-analysis resulting in a SMD of 0.28, (95% CI = -0.13 to 0.69; p = 0.19; I2 = 56%) immediately post-intervention. The GRADE quality of evidence was very low. The quantitative analysis of three studies reported improved physical function. CONCLUSION: This review did not demonstrate that co-designed PA interventions are more effective than standard care for increasing PA in older adults; however, evidence was limited and of very low quality. Further well-designed trials are warranted to better understand the impacts of co-designed PA interventions and how to best implement them into practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42022314217.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Quality of Life , Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Middle Aged , Mental Health
16.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1351568, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38689767

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Physical and mental health problems among pilots affect their working state and impact flight safety. Although pilots' physical and mental health problems have become increasingly prominent, their health has not been taken seriously. This study aimed to clarify challenges and support needs related to psychological and physical health among pilots to inform development of a more scientific and comprehensive physical and mental health system for civil aviation pilots. Methods: This qualitative study recruited pilots from nine civil aviation companies. Focus group interviews via an online conference platform were conducted in August 2022. Colaizzi analysis was used to derive themes from the data and explore pilots' experiences, challenges, and support needs. Results: The main sub-themes capturing pilots' psychological and physical health challenges were: (1) imbalance between family life and work; (2) pressure from assessment and physical examination eligibility requirements; (3) pressure from worries about being infected with COVID-19; (4) nutrition deficiency during working hours; (5) changes in eating habits because of the COVID-19 pandemic; (6) sleep deprivation; (7) occupational diseases; (8) lack of support from the company in coping with stress; (9) pilots' yearly examination standards; (10) support with sports equipment; (11) respecting planned rest time; and (12) isolation periods. Discussion: The interviewed pilots experienced major psychological pressure from various sources, and their physical health condition was concerning. We offer several suggestions that could be addressed to improve pilots' physical and mental health. However, more research is needed to compare standard health measures for pilots around the world in order to improve their physical and mental health and contribute to overall aviation safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Focus Groups , Pilots , Qualitative Research , Humans , Male , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pilots/psychology , Middle Aged , Female , Mental Health , Health Status , Adaptation, Psychological , SARS-CoV-2 , Occupational Health
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10764, 2024 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730014

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has seen a rise in anxiety and depression among adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the longitudinal associations between sleep and mental health among a large sample of Australian adolescents and examine whether healthy sleep patterns were protective of mental health in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. We used three waves of longitudinal control group data from the Health4Life cluster-randomized trial (N = 2781, baseline Mage = 12.6, SD = 0.51; 47% boys and 1.4% 'prefer not to say'). Latent class growth analyses across the 2 years period identified four trajectories of depressive symptoms: low-stable (64.3%), average-increasing (19.2%), high-decreasing (7.1%), moderate-increasing (9.4%), and three anxiety symptom trajectories: low-stable (74.8%), average-increasing (11.6%), high-decreasing (13.6%). We compared the trajectories on sociodemographic and sleep characteristics. Adolescents in low-risk trajectories were more likely to be boys and to report shorter sleep latency and wake after sleep onset, longer sleep duration, less sleepiness, and earlier chronotype. Where mental health improved or worsened, sleep patterns changed in the same direction. The subgroups analyses uncovered two important findings: (1) the majority of adolescents in the sample maintained good mental health and sleep habits (low-stable trajectories), (2) adolescents with worsening mental health also reported worsening sleep patterns and vice versa in the improving mental health trajectories. These distinct patterns of sleep and mental health would not be seen using mean-centred statistical approaches.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Depression , Sleep , Humans , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Male , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Anxiety/epidemiology , Sleep/physiology , Australia/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Child
18.
Lancet Planet Health ; 8(5): e285-e296, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increasing body of research has examined the link between biodiversity of birds and human mental health, but most studies only use cross-sectional data. Few studies have used longitudinal or repeated cross-sectional data to investigate the mental health benefits of bird diversity. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between bird diversity and mental health at the national level using a unique repeated cross-sectional dataset. METHODS: I used repeated cross-sectional health data from the German National Cohort health study, collected between March, 2014, and September, 2019, and annual bird citizen science data to investigate the effects of bird-diversity exposure on mental health. Mental health was measured using the summary score of the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module 9 (SumPHQ) and the Short Form Health Survey-12 Mental Health Component Scale. As a proxy for bird diversity, I created a unique indicator called reporting-rate richness and combined it with the health data. Reporting-rate richness measures the number of bird species within postcode areas across Germany in probabilities while accounting for variation in survey efforts. Alternative indicators of bird diversity, such as bird-species richness or abundance, were also calculated. Associations between bird diversity and mental health were estimated using linear regression with region and time fixed effects, adjusted for a range of sociodemographic and environmental confounders and spatial autocorrelation. Interaction terms between income levels and reporting-rate richness were also analysed to examine the moderating effect of socioeconomic status. FINDINGS: I did the analyses for an unbalanced (n=176 362) and balanced (n=125 423) dataset, with the balanced dataset comprising only regions (postcode areas) in which health data were available for each year. The linear fixed-effects regression analysis indicated a significant negative association between reporting-rate richness and SumPHQ, as observed in both the unbalanced dataset (ß -0·02, p=0·017) and the balanced dataset (ß -0·03, p=0·0037). Similarly, regression results with both datasets showed a positive relationship between reporting-rate richness and Mental Health Component Scale (MCS; unbalanced ß 0·02, p=0·0086; balanced ß 0·03, p=0·0018). The moderator analyses revealed a significant influence of socioeconomic status on the relationship between reporting-rate richness and mental health. The robustness of these findings was confirmed through sensitivity analyses. INTERPRETATION: The results suggest that a greater likelihood of having many different bird species in a person's area of residence might positively contribute to mental health, especially for people with lower socioeconomic status. These findings could have implications for biodiversity conservation and health policy decisions, as governments are facing challenges such as global biodiversity loss and growing public mental health problems. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Birds , Mental Health , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Animals , Germany , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Adult , Aged , Young Adult
19.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e081924, 2024 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692715

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can affect individuals' resilience to stressors and their vulnerability to mental, physical and social harms. This study explored associations between ACEs, financial coping during the cost-of-living crisis and perceived impacts on health and well-being. DESIGN: National cross-sectional face-to-face survey. Recruitment used a random quota sample of households stratified by health region and deprivation quintile. SETTING: Households in Wales, UK. PARTICIPANTS: 1880 Welsh residents aged ≥18 years. MEASURES: Outcome variables were perceived inability to cope financially during the cost-of-living crisis; rising costs of living causing substantial distress and anxiety; and self-reported negative impact of rising costs of living on mental health, physical health, family relationships, local levels of antisocial behaviour and violence, and community support. Nine ACEs were measured retrospectively. Socioeconomic and demographic variables included low household income, economic inactivity, residential deprivation and activity limitation. RESULTS: The prevalence of all outcomes increased strongly with ACE count. Perceived inability to cope financially during the cost-of-living crisis increased from 14.0% with 0 ACEs to 51.5% with 4+ ACEs. Relationships with ACEs remained after controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors. Those with 4+ ACEs (vs 0 ACEs) were over three times more likely to perceive they would be unable to cope financially and, correspondingly, almost three times more likely to report substantial distress and anxiety and over three times more likely to report negative impacts on mental health, physical health and family relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomically deprived populations are recognised to be disproportionately impacted by rising costs of living. Our study identifies a history of ACEs as an additional vulnerability that can affect all socioeconomic groups. Definitions of vulnerability during crises and communications with services on who is most likely to be impacted should consider childhood adversity and history of trauma.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Adverse Childhood Experiences , Humans , Wales , Cross-Sectional Studies , Male , Female , Adverse Childhood Experiences/statistics & numerical data , Adverse Childhood Experiences/economics , Adult , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Young Adult , Aged , Mental Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Financial Stress/psychology
20.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e078558, 2024 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719280

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The use of androgenic anabolic steroids (AASs) among recreational athletes is steadily increasing. However, knowledge regarding the potentially harmful effects of AAS primarily originates from case reports and small observational studies. This large-scale study aims to investigate the impact of AAS use on vascular plaque formation, preclinical coronary disease, cardiac function, circulating cardiovascular risk markers, quality of life (QoL) and mental health in a broad population of illicit AAS users. METHODS AND ANALYSES: A nationwide cross-sectional cohort study including a diverse population of men and women aged ≥18 years, with current or previous illicit AAS use for at least 3 months. Conducted at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, the study comprises two parts. In part A (the pilot study), 120 recreational athletes with an AAS history will be compared with a sex-matched and age-matched control population of 60 recreational athletes with no previous AAS use. Cardiovascular outcomes include examination of non-calcified coronary plaque volume and calcium score using coronary CT angiography, myocardial structure and function via echocardiography, and assessing carotid and femoral artery plaques using ultrasonography. Retinal microvascular status is evaluated through fundus photography. Cardiovascular risk markers are measured in blood. Mental health outcomes include health-related QoL, interpersonal difficulties, body image concerns, aggression dimensions, anxiety symptoms, depressive severity and cognitive function assessed through validated questionnaires. The findings of our comprehensive study will be used to compose a less intensive investigatory cohort study of cardiovascular and mental health (part B) involving a larger group of recreational athletes with a history of illicit AAS use. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study received approval from the Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics for Southern Denmark (S-20210078) and the Danish Data Protection Agency (21/28259). All participants will provide signed informed consent. Research outcomes will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05178537.


Subject(s)
Athletes , Doping in Sports , Mental Health , Quality of Life , Humans , Denmark/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Male , Female , Athletes/psychology , Adult , Anabolic Agents/adverse effects , Testosterone Congeners/adverse effects , Pilot Projects , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Research Design , Androgens/adverse effects , Anabolic Androgenic Steroids
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