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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246038, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339397

ABSTRACT

Abstract Isla Arena is located in the coordinate 20° 70´ N - 90° 45´ W, from Campeche, Mexico. In these estuaries, the ocean mixes with fresh water, and ecosystems are concentrated where petenes and pink flamingos proliferate. Crustaceans and mollusks abound in the sea. Despite its enormous marine wealth, there are no studies carried out on which halophilic microorganisms are present in these waters. In this work, the diversity and structure of the microbial community was investigated through a metagenomics approach and corroborated for sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. It was found that the phylum Fimicutes predominates with more than 50%, in almost the same proportion of the class Bacilli and with almost 41% of relative abundance of the order Bacillales. The sequencing results showed that one of the samples presented a high percentage of similarity (99.75%) using the Nucleotide BLAST program with a peculiar microorganism: Bacillus subtilis. This microorganism is one of the best characterized bacteria among the gram-positive ones. Our results demonstrate that B. subtilis can be an efficient source of proteases, lipases and cellulases, from halophilic microbial communities located in poorly explored areas.


Resumo Isla Arena está localizada na coordenada 20°70'N - 90°45'W, de Campeche, México. Nesses estuários, o oceano se mistura com a água doce e os ecossistemas se concentram onde proliferam petenos e flamingos rosa. Crustáceos e moluscos abundam no mar. Apesar de sua enorme riqueza marinha, não há estudos realizados sobre a presença de microrganismos halofílicos nessas águas. Neste trabalho, a diversidade e estrutura da comunidade microbiana foram investigadas através de uma abordagem metagenômica e corroboradas para o sequenciamento de genes 16S rRNA. Verificou-se que o filo Fimicutes predomina com mais de 50%, quase na mesma proporção da classe Bacilli e com quase 41% de abundância relativa da ordem Bacillales. Os resultados do sequenciamento mostraram que uma das amostras apresentou alto percentual de similaridade (99,75%) pelo programa Nucleotide BLAST com um microrganismo peculiar: Bacillus subtilis. Nossos resultados demonstram que B. subtilis pode ser uma fonte eficiente de proteases, lipases e celulases, provenientes de comunidades microbianas halofílicas localizadas em áreas pouco exploradas.


Subject(s)
Archaea , Microbiota , Phylogeny , Bacteria/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Mexico
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5241, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347208

ABSTRACT

Serosurveillance helps establish reopening guidelines and determine the immunity levels in different populations to reach herd immunity. Then, there is an urgent need to estimate seroprevalence population wide. In Mexico, information about COVID-19 cases and related deaths is scarce. Also, there is no official serosurveillance, limiting our knowledge of the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Here, we report the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 522,690 unvaccinated people from July 5th to December 31st, 2020. The overall seroprevalence was 32.8% and highest in adults aged 30-39 years (38.5%) than people under 20 years (33.0%) or older (28.9%). Moreover, in a cohort of 1655 individuals confirmed COVID-19 by PCR, we found that symptomatic people (HR = 2.56) increased seroconversion than presymptomatic. Also, we identified that the most discriminative symptoms for COVID-19 that could predict seroconversion were anosmia and ageusia (HR = 1.70), fever, myalgia/arthralgia, and cough (HR = 1.75). Finally, we found that obese people had lower seroconversion (HR = 0.53) than healthy people, but the opposite happens in diabetic people (HR = 1.39). These findings reveal that around one-third of Mexican outpatients had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies before vaccination. Also, some symptoms improve empirically COVID-19 diagnosis and seroconversion. This information could help fine-tune vaccination schemes and the reopening and back-to-work algorithms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Seroconversion , Seroepidemiologic Studies
3.
Scand J Immunol ; 95(4): e13143, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35067952

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: For many patients with primary immune deficiency (PID), stem-cell transplantation (SCT) may be life-saving. OBJECTIVE: To review our experience of 11 years transplanting children with PID in Mexico. METHODS: Chart review of patients who underwent SCT from 2008 to 2018, to describe their diagnoses, time to transplant, conditioning regime, survival rate and outcomes. All patients received post-transplant cyclophosphamide as graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. RESULTS: 19 patients with combined, phagocytic or syndromic PID from 5 states. Twelve of them were male (58%) and 14 survive (79%). Mean age at HSCT was 41.9 months; mean time from diagnosis was 31.2 months. Seven grafts were umbilical cord and 12 haploidentical. The conditioning regime was myeloablative, with five primary graft failures. Two patients had partial and 10 full chimerism. Five patients died within 2 months after transplant. Immune reconstitution was complete in 11 of 19 patients. We found a prevalence of 21% GVHD. DISCUSSION: We describe 19 patients from Mexico with 8 PID diagnoses who underwent allogenic HSCT over a period of 11 years. Survival rate and other outcomes compare well with industrialized countries. We recommend the use of post-transplant cyclophosphamide to prevent GVHD in scenarios of resource scarcity and a lack of HLA-identical donors.


Subject(s)
Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases , Child , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Mexico , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Transplantation Conditioning
4.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387722

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La diversidad de una comunidad biológica es el resultado de procesos ecológicos e históricos, los cuales, analizados en conjunto, producen una mejor comprensión de las causas que la generan. Objetivo: Actualizamos y analizamos la diversidad específica y taxonómica de la ictiofauna del río Amacuzac, México. Métodos: Durante cinco temporadas de muestreo (2019-2020), recolectamos peces de diez sitios en el río y aplicamos un análisis de conglomerados a las variables del hábitat. Resultados: Recolectamos 7 638 individuos, siete de especies nativas y nueve no nativas, incluyendo Copadichromis borleyi, un nuevo registro para el Amacuzac. La riqueza por sitio osciló entre ocho y 13 especies. Las variables del hábitat definieron cuatro grupos. Las especies más abundantes fueron: Poeciliopsis gracilis, Poecilia maylandi y Amatitlania nigrofasciata. Las especies menos abundantes fueron: Pterygoplichtys pardalis, Ilyodon whitei, Copadichromis borleyi e Ictalurus punctatus. Las especies más relevantes fueron: A. nigrofasciata, Amphilophus istlanus, Andinoacara rivulatus, Notropis boucardi, Oreochormis sp., P. maylandi, P. gracilis y Thorichthys maculipinis. Las especies más restringidas fueron: Atherinella balsana, C. borleyi e I. punctatus. Conclusiones: Las especies en peligro de extinción, A. istlanus y N. boucardi, aun prevalecen en el río. Además, se muestra un aumento en el número de especies no nativas. Analizar la diversidad desde dos perspectivas, aporta una visión más completa de los cambios que se dan en el Río Amacuzac como consecuencia del establecimiento de especies, información que es importante para futuras estrategias de conservación.


Abstract Introduction: The diversity of a biological community is the result of ecological and historical processes, which, when analyzed jointly, produce a better understanding of the causes that generate it. Objective: We update and analyze the specific and taxonomic diversity of the ichthyofauna of the Amacuzac River, Mexico. Methods: During five sampling seasons (2019-2020) we collected fishes from ten sites in the river and applied a cluster analysis to habitat variables. Results: We collected 7 638 individuals; seven were native species and nine were non-native, including Copadichromis borleyi, a new record for the Amacuzac. Richness per site ranged from eight to 13 species. Habitat variables defined four groups. The most abundant species were Poeciliopsis gracilis, Poecilia maylandi and Amatitlania nigrofasciata. The least abundant species were: Pterygoplichtys pardalis, Ilyodon whitei, Copadichromis borleyi and Ictalurus punctatus. The most prevalent species were: A. nigrofasciata, Amphilophus istlanus, Andinoacara rivulatus, Notropis boucardi, Oreochormis sp., P. maylandi, P., gracilis and Thorichthys maculipinis. The most restricted species were: Atherinella balsana, C. borleyi and I. punctatus. Conclusions: Endangered species such as A. istlanus and N. boucardi are still prevalent in the river, but non-native species continue to increase. Analyzing the diversity from two perspectives provides a more complete view of the changes taking place in the Amacuzac River as a consequence of species establishment, information that is important for future conservation strategies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aquatic Fauna , Rivers , Biodiversity , Mexico
5.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387721

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Spiraxidae es la familia de gasterópodos terrestres más diversa de México con una distribución principalmente neotropical. Sin embargo, la influencia de las condiciones ambientales de esta región en su distribución aún es poco conocida. Objetivo: Determinar las afinidades zoogeográficas y la influencia de factores ambientales en la distribución de Spiraxidae en México. Métodos: Compilamos registros de distribución de museos y usamos modelos para establecer áreas con composición de especies, concentración de especies, afinidades y relaciones con variables ambientales similares. Resultados: Encontramos 231 especies y subespecies, 96 en el estado de Veracruz y 74 en la Sierra Madre Oriental. La principal afinidad zoogeográfica fue neotropical. El bosque mesófilo de montaña tuvo la mayor cantidad de especies y subespecies (93). Tres de los grupos zonales tienen una composición particular de especies y el 67 % de las especies son especialistas de hábitat. La presencia de especies sigue un gradiente ambiental, con la cubierta de árboles de hoja perenne de hoja ancha y la precipitación media anual como variables determinantes. Las especies del norte tuvieron mayor tolerancia a la aridez y menor cobertura de hojas. Conclusiones: Spiraxidae tiene su mayor diversidad en los estados del Sur de México; sin embargo, la zona nororiental tiene más registros de especies. Estos caracoles se encuentran principalmente en bosques mesófilos de montaña y bosques tropicales siempre verdes. Las especies del norte de México tuvieron una mayor tolerancia a los sitios con poca lluvia y menos cobertura de árboles de hoja perenne de hoja ancha que las especies del sur.


Abstract Introduction: Spiraxidae is the most diverse family of terrestrial gastropods in Mexico with a mainly neotropical distribution. However, the influence of environmental conditions in this region on its distribution is still poorly known. Objective: To determine zoogeographic affinities and the influence of environmental factors on the distribution of Spiraxidae in Mexico. Methods: We compiled museum distribution records and used models to establish areas with similar species composition, species concentration, affinities and relationship with environmental variables. Results: We found 231 species and subspecies, 96 in Veracruz state and 74 in Sierra Madre Oriental. The main zoogeographic affinity was neotropical. Mountain mesophyll forest had the most species and subspecies (93). Three of zone groups have a particular species composition and 67 % of the species are habitat specialists. Species presence follows an environmental gradient, with broadleaf evergreen tree cover and average annual precipitation as determining variables. Northern species had greater tolerance to aridity and reduced leaf cover. Conclusions: Spiraxidae has its greatest diversity in the Southern states of Mexico; however, the Northeastern zone has more species records. These snails mostly occur in mesophyll mountain forest and tropical evergreen forest. Species from Northern Mexico had greater tolerance to sites with low rainfall and less broadleaf evergreen tree cover than Southern species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Snails/classification , Animal Distribution , Mexico
6.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387719

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Seed removal by ants is an interaction that may greatly affect the dynamic and structure of the vegetation. This aspect is well known for granivorous ants; however, there is little information on the effect of omnivorous ants. Objective: To assess the potential impact of the omnivorous ant Dorymyrmex insanus on vegetation. Methods: In the Pedregal Reserve, Mexico City, we identified the items in the refuse piles of ten ant colonies, for one year, covering the rainy and dry seasons. For each season we calculated seed diversity and analyzed the possible relationship between seed size and their abundance in the refuse piles, with regression models. We also did germination tests with seeds of Tagetes micrantha, comparing seeds from piles and from plants. Results: D. insanus removed seeds of 19 plant species as well as plant remains (such as leaves, twigs, roots), and remains of insects. Seed diversity was higher in the rainy season but the greatest abundance was in the dry season. When analyzing the relationship between seed length and abundance in the refuse piles, we found that the ants preferred seeds of around 10 mm. We also found that more seeds of T. micrantha germinated when they were previously handled by ants. Conclusions: The ant D. insanus actively participates in the removal of seeds from several species, favoring germination, and seasonality affects the selectivity of resources.


Resumen Introducción: La remoción de semillas por parte de las hormigas es una interacción que puede afectar en gran medida la dinámica y estructura de la vegetación. Este aspecto es bien conocido para las hormigas granívoras; sin embargo, hay poca información sobre el efecto de las omnívoras. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto potencial de la hormiga omnívora Dorymyrmex insanus sobre la vegetación. Métodos: En la Reserva Pedregal, Ciudad de México, se identificaron los ítems en el área del basurero para diez colonias de hormigas, durante un año, cubriendo la época de lluvia y sequía. Para cada temporada calculamos la diversidad de semillas y analizamos la posible relación entre el tamaño de las semillas y su abundancia en los basureros, con modelos de regresión. También hicimos pruebas de germinación con semillas de Tagetes micrantha, comparando las encontradas en los basureros con las provenientes de las plantas. Resultados: D. insanus eliminó semillas de 19 especies de plantas, así como restos de plantas (hojas, ramitas, raíces) y restos de insectos. La diversidad de semillas fue mayor en la estación lluviosa pero la mayor abundancia lo fue en la estación seca. Al analizar la relación entre la longitud de las semillas y la abundancia en el área del basurero, encontramos que las hormigas preferían semillas de alrededor de 10 mm. También encontramos que germinaron más semillas de T. micrantha cuando fueron manipuladas previamente por hormigas. Conclusiones: La hormiga D. insanus participa activamente en la remoción de semillas de varias especies, favoreciendo la germinación, y la estacionalidad afecta la selectividad de recursos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ants , Green Belt , Seed Dispersal , Hymenoptera/classification , Mexico
7.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387717

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: There is low evidence of genetic diversity and hybridization processes within Crocodylus acutus and C. moreletii populations. Objetive: To evaluate genetic diversity and some phylogenetic relationships in wild and captive populations of C. acutus and C. moreletii using the Barcode of Life Data System (COX1, cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene). Methods: 28 individuals phenotypically like C. acutus located in the state of Guerrero, Oaxaca and Quintana Roo were sampled, as well as animals belonging to C. moreletii located in the states of Tabasco, Campeche, and Quintana Roo. 641 base pairs of nucleotide sequence from COX1 were used to obtain the haplotype and nucleotide diversity per population, and a phylogenetic and network analysis was performed. Results: Evidence of hybridization was found by observing C. moreletti haplotypes in animals phenotypically determined as C. acutus, as well as C. acutus haplotypes in animals classified as C. moreletti. Low haplotypic diversity was observed for C. acutus (0.455 ± 0.123) and for C. moreletii (0.505 ± 0.158). A phylogenetic tree was obtained in which the sequences of C. acutus and C. moreletii were grouped into two well-defined clades. Organisms identified phenotypically as C. acutus but with C. moreletii genes were separated into a different clade within the clade of C. moreletii. Conclusions: There are reproductive individuals with haplotypes different from those of the species. This study provides a small but significant advance in the genetic knowledge of both crocodile species and the use of mitochondrial markers, which in this case, the COX1 gene allowed the detection of hybrid organisms in wild and captive populations. Conservation efforts for both species of crocodiles should prevent the crossing of both threatened species and should require the genetic identification of pure populations, to design effective conservation strategies considering the possibility of natural hybridization in areas of sympatry.


Resumen Introducción: Existe poca evidencia de la diversidad genética y los procesos de hibridación dentro de las poblaciones de Crocodylus acutus y C. moreletii. Objetivo: Evaluar la diversidad genética y algunas relaciones filogenéticas en poblaciones silvestres y cautivas de C. acutus y C. moreletii utilizando el Sistema de Código de Barras de la vida (COX1, subunidad I del gen del citocromo C oxidasa). Métodos: Se muestrearon 28 individuos fenotípicamente similares a C. acutus ubicados en los estados de Guerrero, Oaxaca y Quintana Roo, así como animales pertenecientes a C. moreletii ubicados en los estados de Tabasco, Campeche y Quintana Roo. Se utilizaron 641 pares de bases de la secuencia de nucleótidos de la subunidad I del gen del citocromo C oxidasa para obtener el haplotipo y la diversidad de nucleótidos por población, y se realizó un análisis filogenético y de redes. Resultados: Se encontró evidencia de hibridación al observar haplotipos de C. moreletti en animales determinados fenotípicamente como C. acutus, así como haplotipos de C. acutus en animales clasificados como C. moreletti. Se observó una baja diversidad haplotípica para C. acutus (0.455 ± 0.123) y para C. moreletii (0.505 ± 0.158). Se obtuvo un árbol filogenético en el que las secuencias propias de C. acutus y C. moreletii se agruparon en dos grandes y bien definidos clados. Los organismos identificados fenotípicamente como C. acutus pero con genes de C. moreletii se separaron en un clado diferente dentro del clado de C. moreletii. Conclusiones: Existen individuos reproductores con haplotipos diferentes a los de la especie. Este estudio aporta un pequeño pero significativo avance en el conocimiento genético tanto de las especies de cocodrilos como del uso de marcadores mitocondriales, que, en este caso, el gen COX1 permitió la detección de organismos híbridos en poblaciones silvestres y cautivas. Los esfuerzos de conservación para ambas especies de cocodrilos deben evitar el cruce de ambas especies amenazadas y deben requerir la identificación genética de poblaciones puras, para diseñar estrategias de conservación efectivas considerando la posibilidad de hibridación natural en áreas de simpatría.


Subject(s)
Animals , Alligators and Crocodiles/genetics , Mexico , Electronic Data Processing
8.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387706

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The scleractinian coral life cycle includes planktonic larvae that settle on the benthos, allowing the primary polyp to clone and build a sexually reproducing adult colony. The larval physiology and ecology of Eastern Tropical Pacific scleractinians needs the exploration of basic aspects such as the internal morphology of planulae. Objective: To describe histological and cytological characteristics of Porites panamensis larvae. Methods: During August-July 2019, at Islas Marias Biosphere Reserve, Central Mexican Pacific, we made 14 collections of coral larvae and identified the species with cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene. We used a scanning electron microscope and other techniques. Results: The ectoderm was composed by heterogeneous, mono-ciliated, columnar epithelial cells. Nematocysts were clustered at the oral pole of the ectoderm, and cells were evident in the aboral pole of the ectoderm gland. The endoderm had secretory cells, lipids and symbionts. Conclusions: The abundance of secretory cells and nematocysts in the aboral pole suggests their importance in substrate exploration and larval settlement. Our results support previous descriptions of larval ultrastructure in other coral species.


Resumen Introducción: El ciclo de vida del coral escleractinio incluye larvas planctónicas que se asientan en el bentos, lo que permite que el pólipo primario se clone y construya una colonia de adultos con reproducción sexual. La fisiología y ecología larvaria de los escleractinios del Pacífico Tropical Oriental necesita la exploración de aspectos básicos como la morfología interna de las plánulas. Objetivo: Describir las características histológicas y citológicas de las larvas de Porites panamensis. Métodos: Durante agosto-julio 2019, en la Reserva de la Biosfera Islas Marías, Pacífico Central Mexicano, realizamos 14 recolectas de larvas de coral e identificamos las especies con el gen citocromo oxidasa subunidad 1. Utilizamos un microscopio electrónico de barrido y otras técnicas. Resultados: El ectodermo está compuesto por células epiteliales columnares heterogéneas, monociliadas. Los nematocistos se agrupan en el polo oral del ectodermo, mientras que en el polo aboral son visibles células glandulares. El endodermo presentó células secretoras, lípidos y simbiontes. Conclusiones: La abundancia de células secretoras y nematocistos en el polo aboral sugiere su importancia en la exploración del sustrato y asentamiento larvario. Nuestros resultados respaldan las descripciones previas de la ultraestructura de las larvas en otras especies de coral.


Subject(s)
Plankton/ultrastructure , Mexico
9.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387703

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: México concentra alrededor del 11 % de las especies de aves del mundo, de las cuales el 20 % son endémicas del país, concentrándose el mayor número en la región occidental. Objetivo: Analizar la composición, diversidad y distribución de la avifauna a lo largo de un gradiente altitudinal en el occidente de México. Métodos: La investigación se realizó en la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra de Manantlán. Registramos especies de aves vistas o escuchadas en 28 puntos de conteo fijos a lo largo de un gradiente de elevación de 1 000 m. La comparación de la riqueza y la completitud del muestreo se determinaron con curvas de interpolación y extrapolación. Las franjas se compararon con un Procedimiento no Paramétrico de Permutación Multirespuesta. Se usaron correlaciones y ordenaciones indirectas para analizar cambios en la riqueza y abundancia. Resultados: Registramos 129 especies (estimado: 96 % de completitud): 19 endémicas de México, 13 en alguna categoría de riesgo y 21 consideradas indicadoras. La elevación determinó la distribución y abundancia de las especies, y las franjas altitudinales más bajas, tuvieron los valores más altos de riqueza y abundancia. Conclusión: La mayor riqueza y abundancia de especies se registró a menor altitud, con un cambio significativo en la composición y tipo de especies indicadoras por franja.


Abstract Introduction: Mexico concentrates around 11 % of the world's bird species, of which 20 % are endemic to the country, with the highest number concentrated in the Western region. Objective: To analyze composition, diversity and avifaunal distribution along an elevation gradient in Western Mexico. Methods: The research was done in the Sierra de Manantlán Biosphere Reserve. We recorded seen or heard bird species in 28 fixed count points along a 1 000 m elevation gradient. Comparative richness and sampling completeness were determined with interpolation and extrapolation curves. Belts were compared with Non-Parametric Multi-Response Permutation. Correlations and indirect ordinations were used to analyze changes in richness and abundance. Results: We recorded 129 species (estimate: 96 % completeness): 19 endemics to Mexico, 13 in some risk category, and 21 considered indicators. Elevation determined the distribution and abundance of species, and the lower elevational bands, had the highest richness and abundance values. Conclusion: The highest species richness and abundance were recorded at lower elevations, with a significant change in composition and type of indicator species by belt. The numbers of endemic and at-risk species remained constant with elevation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds/classification , Mexico
11.
Zootaxa ; 5174(4): 381-394, 2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095391

ABSTRACT

The taxonomy of the leafhopper genus Draeculacephala Ball in Mexico is revised. A new species, D. quetzalcoatli sp. nov., is described and illustrated from Chiapas state. In addition, D. albipicta Dietrich is recorded for first time occurring in the country. Eight species are recognized, and updated distribution data are provided. A key to all Mexican species is also given.


Subject(s)
Hemiptera , Animals , Mexico
12.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274641, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108072

ABSTRACT

Agave lechuguilla Torr., of the family Agavaceae, is distributed from southwestern United States to southern Mexico and is one of the most representative species of arid and semiarid regions. Its fiber is extracted for multiple purposes. The objective of this study was to generate a robust model to predict dry fiber yield (Dfw) rapidly, simply, and inexpensively. We used a power model in its linear form and bioclimatic areas as dummy variables. Training, generation (80%) and validation (20%) of the model was performed using machine learning with the package 'caret' of R. Using canonical correlation analysis (CCA), we evaluated the relationship of Dwf to bioclimatic variables. The principal components analysis (PCA) generated two bioclimatic zones, each with different A. lechuguilla productivities. We evaluated 499 individuals in four states of Mexico. The crown diameter (Cd) of this species adequately predicts its fiber dry weight (R2 = 0.6327; p < 0.05). The intercept (ß0), slope [lnCd (ß1)], zone [(ß2)] and interaction [lnCd:Zona (ß3)] of the dummy model was statistically significant (p < 0.05), giving origin to an equation for each bioclimatic zone. The CCA indicates a positive correlation between minimum temperature of the coldest month (Bio 6) and Dwf (r = 0.84 and p < 0.05). In conclusion, because of the decrease in Bio 6 of more than 0.5°C by 2050, the species could be vulnerable to climate change, and A. lechuguilla fiber production could be affected gradually in the coming years.


Subject(s)
Agave , Cadmium , Climate Change , Dietary Fiber , Humans , Mexico
13.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(8): 1269-1277, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099369

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is limited information about the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease in Latin-American countries. Our objective was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients in Mexico. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a retrospective cohort study with 333 consecutive patients who were admitted to Hospital de Especialidades "Dr. Antonio Fraga Mouret" in Mexico City with COVID-19 between April 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020. Demographic, clinical, laboratory data, treatment details and 30-day outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: The patients studied included 52% men (172/233) and the median age was 45 years. Up to 75% (250/333) of patients were classified as overweight or obese. There were 185 (56%) inpatients; 85% (158/185) were hospitalized in the general ward, and 15% (27/185) in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Laboratory measurements showed significant differences between inpatients and outpatients such as lymphocyte-count (median 0.8 vs 1.2×109/L, p < 0.001), LDH (median 650 vs 294 U/L, p < 0.001), CRP (median 147 vs 5 mg/L, p = 0.007), CK-MB (median, 15 vs 10 U/L, p = 0.008), ferritin (median, 860 vs 392 ng/mL, p = 0.02), and D-dimer (median, 780 vs 600 ng/mL, p = 0.15). These differences were seen between survivor and non-survivor patients as well. The rate of death in mechanically ventilated patients was 94% (67/71). Mortality at 30-day follow-up was 57% (105/185). CONCLUSIONS: We observed that majority of the non-survivors were obese and young. Complications leading to death was observed in majority of the cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies
14.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274322, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112642

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the moderating effects of sociodemographic and work-related variables on levels of burnout and mental health among medical residents. METHOD: A cross-sectional online survey was administered at the beginning of the second wave of COVID-19 at different public teaching hospitals where medical residents practiced in Mexico City. A total of 201 medical residents of different years completed the survey. RESULTS: Different univariate inferential analyses on the level of burnout and mental health indices showed significant differences between sex, marital status, previous reports of physical illness or psychological conditions, and residency ranking. However, the effect sizes of those differences were of low to medium size. A predictive path analysis revealed that the three stages of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and achievement dissatisfaction) negatively affect psychological wellbeing and positively affect psychological distress. Finally, even though sociodemographic variables showed some significant variation, the effect sizes were small and did not moderate the direct effect of burnout on mental health indices. CONCLUSIONS: Medical residents deling with every day medical situations, will be exposed to stressors that might increase the probability to experience emotional exhaustion. This would negatively affect levels of wellbeing and positively affect distress, despite their sociodemographic characteristics.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Burnout, Psychological , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Status , Humans , Mental Health , Mexico/epidemiology
15.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(10): 616, 2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094535

ABSTRACT

Ehrlichia canis has gained importance over the years as a zoonotic bacterium, nevertheless in Mexico is unknown the extent of the problem in animals and public health. The country had a few studies carried out locally using serology and molecular tests as diagnostic methods. Ehrlichiosis is not considered endemic in the central valley of Mexico, because the climatic conditions in the region have not allowed the vector (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) to establish itself adequately, therefore, diagnosis is not used in clinical practice in this area. A nested PCR (nPCR) offers rapid results with high sensitivity and specificity regardless of cost. The use of a recombinant positive control provides the advantage of timely diagnosis, follow-up treatment and allows the clinician to decide. In this work, the nPCR reported by Wen et al. (J Clin Microbiol 35(7):1852-2185, 1997) was used for the diagnosis of E. canis by modifying the reaction conditions to improve the detection of the test. We constructed a recombinant positive control to nPCR as diagnostic technique for E. canis, also we modified the reaction conditions to improve detection of the test which allowed the diagnosis of E. canis in dogs in the Mexican Republic using 53 samples from dogs with positive serological diagnosis of Ehrlichiosis, some of them from the valley of Mexico. Currently, this nPCR is offered to public at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics of the National Autonomous University of Mexico at an accessible cost and allows to begin to generate epidemiological information to know distribution of the bacterium.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases , Ehrlichiosis , Rhipicephalus sanguineus , Animals , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dogs , Ehrlichia canis/genetics , Ehrlichiosis/diagnosis , Ehrlichiosis/epidemiology , Ehrlichiosis/veterinary , Mexico/epidemiology , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/microbiology
16.
Zootaxa ; 5175(2): 231-252, 2022 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095368

ABSTRACT

To accurately identify the species that make up the assemblage of the family Cichlidae in the Mexican state of Chiapas, we first updated the total species account (36 species) for the state and then created an identification key. For the distribution maps, the geographic records were projected using a geographic information system considering the layers of the two largest basins in the state (Grijalva and Usumacinta) and the Chiapas coast basin. The dichotomous key includes meristic, morphometric and coloration patterns that facilitate species identification present in the state. Rheoheros coeruleus (Stawikowski and Werner 1987) and Vieja breidohri Werner and Stawikowski 1987 are included in a key for the first time. The distributions of Paraneetroplus gibbiceps Steindachner 1864a, Rheoheros coeruleus, and Vieja zonata Meek 1905 in the state are mapped for the first time, and the range of 16 species was expanded. By updating and creating tools of great taxonomic use, we contribute to the study of this complex family with high morphological diversity.


Subject(s)
Cichlids , Animals , Mexico
17.
Zootaxa ; 5174(1): 73-84, 2022 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095410

ABSTRACT

Three new species of the genus Chaetophloeus LeConte are described from Central Mexico: Chaetophloeus psittacanthi Burgos and Atkinson, sp. nov., C. woodi Burgos and Atkinson, sp. nov., and C. zapotecanus Burgos and Atkinson, sp. nov. A new sexually dimorphic character, the fifth abdominal ventrite, is discussed. Chaetophloeus heterodoxus (Casey) is reported from Mexico for the first time. There are now 17 species of this genus known from Mexico. Significant new distribution and host records for eight species other than the new ones are included.


Subject(s)
Coleoptera , Weevils , Animal Distribution , Animals , Mexico
18.
Zootaxa ; 5169(5): 472-480, 2022 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095430

ABSTRACT

A new monotypic genus of freshwater snail from late Holocene spring deposits in Viesca, Coahuila (Mexico), is described based on shell morphology. Spinopyrgus luismaedai n. gen. et n. sp. has two to three carinate shells with long and wide shovel-shaped spines, strong axial ridges and a pointed protoconch. All sculptural ornamentations on the teleoconch are part of the calcareous shell material and not projections of the periostracum. This combination of shell features and their almost marine-like appearance is unknown among North American recent and fossil freshwater snails. Because of its shell characteristics, we placed the new genus tentatively in the Cochliopidae. The springs of Viesca dried up in the second half of the 20th century so that any living occurrence of this species in neighboring areas is unlikely, rendering the new genus and species possibly extinct.


Subject(s)
Natural Springs , Snails , Animals , Fossils , Fresh Water , Mexico
19.
Zootaxa ; 5165(2): 151-179, 2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095474

ABSTRACT

Nine species of sea anemones are documented from the west coast of the Peninsula of Baja California. Short descriptions of Anthopleura artemisia (Pickering in Dana, 1846), A elegantissima (Brandt, 1835), A. sola Pearse Francis, 2000 and Epiactis prolifera Verrill, 1869 are provided, including images of the external and internal anatomy, as well as cnidae. In addition, an updated list of the sea anemone species recorded in Mexico, including both the Pacific and Atlantic regions, is provided. The northern species A. artemisia and E. prolifera are recorded for the first time in Mexico. With these new records, the number of sea anemone species known in the Mexican Pacific increases to 35, and to 57 for the entire country.


Subject(s)
Sea Anemones , Animals , Mexico , Sea Anemones/anatomy & histology
20.
Zootaxa ; 5162(1): 67-77, 2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095523

ABSTRACT

Two new species belonging to the braconid genus Bracon (Braconinae) are described from the tropical rainforest of Los Tuxtlas in the state of Veracruz, Mexico, B. laurae sp. nov. and B. rosamondae sp. nov. These species are morphologically similar and were reared from fruits of three Lauraceae species, Damburneya ambigens, D. salicifolia and Nectandra turbacensis. However, comparison of their DNA barcoding locus and a fragment of the nuclear ribosomal 28S gene confirmed their allospecificity. These two species share a number of morphological features with the two described Neotropical Bracon species that are known to be phytophagous (seed predators), B. phytophagus Quicke and B. zuleideae Perioto Lara. We therefore propose a new species-group for the above four species, the B. phytophagus Quicke species-group, and suggest that the two newly described species also have a phytophagous feeding strategy.


Subject(s)
Coleoptera , Lauraceae , Wasps , Animals , Fruit , Mexico
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