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1.
BMC Prim Care ; 25(1): 200, 2024 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844839

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Outpatient care is central to both primary and tertiary levels in a health system. However, evidence is limited on outpatient differences between these levels, especially in South Asia. This study aimed to describe and compare the morbidity profile (presenting morbidities, comorbidities, multimorbidity) and pharmaceutical management (patterns, indicators) of adult outpatients between a primary and tertiary care outpatient department (OPD) in Sri Lanka. METHODS: A comparative study was conducted by recruiting 737 adult outpatients visiting a primary care and a tertiary care facility in the Kandy district. A self-administered questionnaire and a data sheet were used to collect outpatient and prescription data. Following standard categorisations, Chi-square tests and Mann‒Whitney U tests were employed for comparisons. RESULTS: Outpatient cohorts were predominated by females and middle-aged individuals. The median duration of presenting symptoms was higher in tertiary care OPD (10 days, interquartile range: 57) than in primary care (3 days, interquartile range: 12). The most common systemic complaint in primary care OPD was respiratory symptoms (32.4%), whereas it was dermatological symptoms (30.2%) in tertiary care. The self-reported prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) was 37.9% (95% CI: 33.2-42.8) in tertiary care OPD and 33.2% (95% CI: 28.5-38.3) in primary care; individual disease differences were significant only for diabetes (19.7% vs. 12.8%). The multimorbidity in tertiary care OPD was 19.0% (95% CI: 15.3-23.1), while it was 15.9% (95% CI: 12.4-20.0) in primary care. Medicines per encounter at primary care OPD (3.86, 95% CI: 3.73-3.99) was higher than that at tertiary care (3.47, 95% CI: 3.31-3.63). Medicines per encounter were highest for constitutional and respiratory symptoms in both settings. Overall prescribing of corticosteroids (62.7%), vitamin supplements (45.8%), anti-allergic (55.3%) and anti-asthmatic (31.3%) drugs was higher in the primary care OPD, and the two former drugs did not match the morbidity profile. The proportion of antibiotics prescribed did not differ significantly between OPDs. Subgroup analyses of drug categories by morbidity largely followed these overall differences. CONCLUSIONS: The morbidities between primary and tertiary care OPDs differed in duration and type but not in terms of multimorbidity or most comorbidities. Pharmaceutical management also varied in terms of medicines per encounter and prescribed categories. This evidence supports planning in healthcare and provides directions for future research in primary care.


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Tertiary Healthcare , Humans , Sri Lanka/epidemiology , Female , Male , Middle Aged , Adult , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Ambulatory Care , Multimorbidity , Aged , Tertiary Care Centers , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Morbidity
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12622, 2024 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824134

ABSTRACT

South Africans are not accustomed to the dry arid climate and sweltering heat in Saudi Arabia. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to identify the common health conditions pre-Hajj, during the 5 days of Hajj and on return to South Africa from Hajj amongst the 2023 pilgrims. A QR code and a mobile link to a self-administered questionnaire was sent to all 3500 South African pilgrims. Five hundred and seventy-seven pilgrims returned the completed surveys. Mean age of the participants was 48 years (SD 12) with a higher female representation (3:2). Forty eight percent (279) had pre-existing chronic conditions. Forty five percent (259) reported being ill during their stay in the Kingdom, 20% (115) reported having an illness during the main 5 days, whilst 51% (293) reported having an illness within 7 days of returning to South Africa. Only six pilgrims were admitted to hospital after their return home. Respiratory tract linked symptoms were the most frequently reported (95% pre Hajj and 99% post Hajj). Participants who reported having a chronic condition (AOR 1.52 95% CI 1.09-2.11) and engaging in independent exercising prior to Hajj (AOR 1.52-1.07-2.10) were at an increased likelihood of developing an illness within 7 days of returning home. Post travel surveillance swabs to identify potential pathogens that the returning pilgrims are incubating should be explored to guide further interventions.


Subject(s)
Travel , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , Retrospective Studies , South Africa/epidemiology , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Adult , Islam , Surveys and Questionnaires , Morbidity , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Aged
3.
Trop Biomed ; 41(1): 78-83, 2024 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38852137

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed at exploring whether sunlight exposure might account for the relative difference in COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality between tropical and non-tropical countries. A retrospective observational study was designed and data from the World Health Organization weekly COVID-19 epidemiological update was compiled. We examined the total number of confirmed COVID-19 cases per 100 000 population, as well as the total number of COVID-19-related mortalities per 100 000 population. Solar variables data were obtained from the Global Solar Atlas website (https://globalsolaratlas.info/). These data were analyzed to determine the association of sunlight exposure to COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality in tropical and non-tropical countries. Results revealed a statistically significant decrease in the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases per 100 000 population (P<0.001), as well as the number of COVID-19-related mortalities per 100 000 population (P<0.001) between tropical and non-tropical countries. Analyses of sunlight exposure data found that specific photovoltaic power output, global horizontal irradiation, diffuse horizontal irradiation and global tilted irradiation at optimum angle were significantly inversely correlated to COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality. This suggests that stronger sunlight exposure potentially leads to lower COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality. Findings from this study suggest that the relatively low COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality in tropical countries were possibly due to better sunlight exposure that translates into adequate vitamin D status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Sunlight , Tropical Climate , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Morbidity
4.
BMJ Open ; 14(6): e078842, 2024 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834326

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated changes in the length of stay (LoS) at a level III/IV neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and level II neonatology departments until discharge home for very preterm infants and identified factors influencing these trends. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study based on data recorded in the Netherlands Perinatal Registry between 2008 and 2021. SETTING: A single level III/IV NICU and multiple level II neonatology departments in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: NICU-admitted infants (n=2646) with a gestational age (GA) <32 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: LoS at the NICU and overall LoS until discharge home. RESULTS: The results showed an increase of 5.1 days (95% CI 2.2 to 8, p<0.001) in overall LoS in period 3 after accounting for confounding variables. This increase was primarily driven by extended LoS at level II hospitals, while LoS at the NICU remained stable. The study also indicated a strong association between severe complications of preterm birth and LoS. Treatment of infants with a lower GA and more (severe) complications (such as severe retinopathy of prematurity) during the more recent periods may have increased LoS. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study highlight the increasing overall LoS for very preterm infants. LoS of very preterm infants is presumably influenced by the occurrence of complications of preterm birth, which are more frequent in infants at a lower gestational age.


Subject(s)
Gestational Age , Infant, Extremely Premature , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Length of Stay , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/trends , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Female , Male , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Premature, Diseases/therapy , Registries , Morbidity/trends , Infant, Premature
5.
Wiad Lek ; 77(4): 772-777, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865636

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Aim: To analyze the incidence and prevalence of diseases of the circulatory system in the adult population of the Kyiv oblast region, including the able-bodied population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Material and Methods: Medical history records on cardiovascular diseases were the materials, and statistical methods of medical and social data procession were used in the study. RESULTS: Results: The distribution of cardiovascular diseases in the adult population of the Kyiv oblast region was highlighted. The districts with the lowest and highest rates of myocardial infarction, strokes, ischemic disease and hypertension were found. The trends in relevant morbidity were described. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: When analyzing data from statistical reporting, it was established that before the start of a full-scale invasion and partial quarantine restrictions due to the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the incidence of diseases in the circulatory system was characterized by significant unevenness across administrative units. However, a specific area with the highest morbidity was not singled out, only in respect of which it would be necessary to carry out measures to improve the provision of medical cardiology care. In general morbidity, areas with the highest levels of morbidity were established, which need to improve the provision of cardiac care, as this is a negative socio-economic factor with the need for intervention measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Humans , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence , Male , Middle Aged , Female , Ukraine/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Incidence , Aged , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13771, 2024 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877070

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to register and analyse outcomes after iatrogenic ureteral injuries (IUI) with special emphasis on potential consequences of a delayed diagnosis, and further to analyse if the incidence of IUI has changed during the study period. 108 patients treated for an IUI during 2001-2021 were included. Injuries due to endourological procedures, planned tumour resection and traumatic injuries were excluded. All relevant information to answer the research questions were entered into a database. Chi-square and t-tests were used for categorical and continuous variables respectively. Regression analysis was used to evaluate potential change of incidence in IUIs over time. Our results showed that most IUIs (74, 69%) were caused by gynaecological surgery. 49 (45%) had a delayed diagnosis (not diagnosed intraoperatively). Younger age (mean 50 vs 62 years, p < 0.001) and benign indication for laparoscopic hysterectomy (OR 8.0, p < 0.001) predisposed for a delayed diagnosis. Patients with a delayed diagnosis had a higher number of secondary injury related procedures (mean 4.6 vs 1.7, p < 0.001), hospital admissions (mean 3.0 vs 0.8, p < 0.001) and longer hospital stays (mean 20.6 vs 3.9 days p < 0.001) compared to patients with an intraoperative diagnosis. There was complete recovery for 91% of the patients. We did not observe any changes in IUI incidence during the study period. In conclusion, our study underlines that IUI can cause major morbidity for the patient affected if not diagnosed intraoperatively. Benign indication and younger age are predictors for a delayed diagnosis. The prognosis is good, with 91% full recovery. No significant changes in incidence of IUIs were observed.


Subject(s)
Delayed Diagnosis , Iatrogenic Disease , Ureter , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Iatrogenic Disease/epidemiology , Ureter/injuries , Ureter/surgery , Adult , Aged , Incidence , Male , Morbidity , Length of Stay , Retrospective Studies
7.
Hipertens. riesgo vasc ; 41(2): 118-131, abr.-jun2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-232397

ABSTRACT

Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) remain a leading cause of pregnancy-related maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality worldwide, including chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, and pre-eclampsia. Affected women and newborns also have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life, independent of traditional cardiovascular disease risks. Despite these risks, recommendations for optimal diagnosis and treatment have changed little in recent decades, probably due to fear of the foetal repercussions of decreased blood pressure and possible drug toxicity. In this document we review the diagnostic criteria and classification of (HDP), as well as important aspects regarding pathophysiology and early detection that allows early identification of women at risk, with the aim of preventing both immediate and long-term consequences. Prophylactic treatment with aspirin is also reviewed early and a therapeutic approach is carried out that involves close maternal and foetal monitoring, and if necessary, the use of safe drugs in each situation. This review aims to provide an updated vision for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of HDP that is useful in our usual clinical practice.(AU)


Los estados hipertensivos del embarazo (EHE) siguen siendo una de las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad materna y fetal relacionada con el embarazo en todo el mundo, incluyen la hipertensión crónica, la hipertensión gestacional y la preeclampsia. Las mujeres afectadas y los recién nacidos también tienen un mayor riesgo de sufrir enfermedades cardiovasculares en el futuro, independientemente de los riesgos tradicionales de la enfermedad cardiovascular. A pesar de estos riesgos, las recomendaciones para un diagnóstico y un tratamiento óptimo han cambiado poco en las últimas décadas, probablemente por el miedo a las repercusiones fetales de la disminución de la presión arterial y la posible toxicidad farmacológica. En ese documento revisamos los criterios diagnósticos y la clasificación de los EHE, así como aspectos importantes en cuanto a fisiopatología y la detección temprana que permita la identificación precoz de las mujeres en riesgo, con el objetivo de prevenir tanto las secuelas inmediatas como a largo plazo. También se revisa el tratamiento profiláctico con aspirina de forma precoz y se realiza una aproximación terapéutica que implica una estrecha vigilancia materna y fetal, y si es necesario, el uso de fármacos seguros en cada situación. Esta revisión pretende dar una visión actualizada para la prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de los EHE que sea de utilidad en nuestra práctica clínica habitual.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications , Pre-Eclampsia , Hypertension , Arterial Pressure , Morbidity , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/mortality
8.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 25(3): 599-608, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38802643

ABSTRACT

Hypopituitarism is a highly heterogeneous multisystem disorder that can have a major impact on long-term morbidity and mortality, but even more so during acute medical conditions requiring hospitalization. Recent studies suggest a significant in-hospital burden with prolonged length of stay, increased rate of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and initiation of mechanical ventilation - all of which may lead to an increased risk of in-hospital mortality. On the one hand, patients with hypopituitarism are often burdened by metabolic complications, including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia, which alone, or in combination, are known to significantly alter relevant physiological mechanisms, including metabolism, innate and adaptive immune responses, coagulation, and wound healing, thereby contributing to adverse in-hospital outcomes. On the other hand, depending on the extent and the number of pituitary hormone deficiencies, early recognition of hormone deficiencies and appropriate management and replacement strategy within a well-organized multidisciplinary team are even stronger determinants of short-term outcomes during acute hospitalization in this vulnerable patient population. This review aims to provide an up-to-date summary of recent advances in pathophysiologic understanding, clinical implications, and recommendations for optimized multidisciplinary management of hospitalized patients with hypopituitarism.


Subject(s)
Hospitalization , Hypopituitarism , Humans , Hypopituitarism/epidemiology , Hypopituitarism/mortality , Prevalence , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Morbidity , Hospital Mortality
9.
Gastroenterol. hepatol. (Ed. impr.) ; 47(5): 439-447, may. 2024.
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-CR-353

ABSTRACT

Background This study was designed to analyze the influence of age and comprehensive geriatric evaluation on clinical results of pancreaticobiliary disease management in elderly patients. Methods A prospective observational study has been undertaken, including 140 elderly patients (over 75 years) with benign pancreaticobiliary disease. Patients were divided according to age in the following groups: group 1: 75–79 years old; group 2: 80–84 years old; group 3: 85 years and older. They underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment with different scales: Barthel Index, Pfeiffer Index, Charlson Index, and Fragility scale, at admission and had been follow-up 90 days after hospital discharge to analyze its influence on morbidity and mortality. Results Overall, 140 patients have been included (group 1=51; group 2=43 and group 3=46). Most of them, 52 cases (37.8%), had acute cholecystitis, followed by 29 cases of acute cholangitis (20.2%) and acute pancreatitis with 25 cases (17.9%). Significant differences has been observed on complications in different age groups (p=0.033). Especially in patients with a Barthel Index result ≤60, which suggests that these less functional patients had more severe complications after their treatment (p=0.037). The mortality rate was 7.1% (10 patients). Conclusions No significant differences were found between age, morbidity and mortality in elderly patients with pancreaticobiliary disease. Comprehensive geriatric scales showed some utility in their association with specific complications. (AU)


Antecedentes Este estudio fue diseñado para analizar la influencia de la edad y la evaluación geriátrica integral en los resultados clínicos del manejo de la enfermedad pancreatobiliar en pacientes de edad avanzada. Métodos Se ha realizado un estudio observacional prospectivo en el que se incluyeron 140 pacientes de edad avanzada (mayores de 75 años) con enfermedad pancreatobiliar benigna. Los pacientes se dividieron según la edad en los siguientes grupos: Grupo 1: 75-79 años; Grupo 2: 80-84 años; Grupo 3: 85 años y más. Se les realizó una valoración geriátrica integral con diferentes escalas: Barthel Index, Pfeiffer Index, Charlson Index y Fragility scale, al ingreso y seguimiento 90 días después del alta hospitalaria para analizar su influencia en la morbimortalidad. Resultados En total, se incluyeron 140 pacientes (Grupo 1=51; Grupo 2=43 y Grupo 3=46). La mayoría de ellos, 52 casos (37,8%), presentaron colecistitis aguda, seguido de colangitis aguda con 29 casos (20,2%) y pancreatitis aguda con 25 casos (17,9%). Se han observado diferencias significativas en las complicaciones en diferentes grupos de edad (p=0,033). Especialmente en pacientes con un índice de Barthel ≤60, lo que sugiere que estos pacientes menos funcionales tuvieron complicaciones más severas después de su tratamiento (p=0,037). La tasa de mortalidad fue de 7,1% (10 pacientes). Conclusiones No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre la edad, la morbilidad y la mortalidad en pacientes ancianos con enfermedad pancreatobiliar. Las escalas geriátricas integrales mostraron cierta utilidad en su asociación con complicaciones específicas. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /diagnosis , /mortality , Morbidity , /surgery , Prospective Studies
10.
WMJ ; 123(2): 120-123, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: When unanticipated and/or poor patient outcomes occur, clinicians frequently experience guilt, anger, psychological distress, and fear, which can be intensified by traditional morbidity and mortality conferences. METHODS: The Pediatric Event Review and Learning (PEaRL) curriculum was developed to discuss unanticipated and/or poor patient outcomes and foster support while highlighting foundational safety concepts. Pre- and post-implementation evaluations of quarterly cased-based sessions were completed. RESULTS: All respondents endorsed that unanticipated and/or poor patient outcomes affected their mood, well-being, and functioning. Post-implementation of the PEaRL curriculum, significantly more respondents endorsed existence of a safe environment and structured format to discuss these outcomes, as well as feeling more supported. DISCUSSION: The PEaRL curriculum provides a valuable opportunity for trainees and experienced clinicians alike to explore and discuss unanticipated and/or poor patient outcomes while addressing key patient safety principles.


Subject(s)
Curriculum , Humans , Pilot Projects , Wisconsin , Female , Pediatrics/education , Male , Patient Safety , Morbidity
11.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303179, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728272

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Efficient NTDs elimination strategies require effective surveillance and targeted interventions. Traditional methods are costly and time-consuming, often failing to cover entire populations in case of movement restrictions. To address these challenges, a morbidity image-based surveillance system is being developed. This innovative approach which leverages the smartphone technology aims at simultaneous surveillance of multiple NTDs, enhancing cost-efficiency, reliability, and community involvement, particularly in areas with movement constraints. Moreover, it holds promise for post-elimination surveillance. METHODOLOGY: The pilot of this method will be conducted across three states in southern Nigeria. It will target people affected by Neglected Tropical Diseases and members of their communities. The new surveillance method will be introduced to target communities in the selected states through community stakeholder's advocacy meetings and awareness campaigns. The pilot which is set to span eighteen months, entails sensitizing NTDs-affected individuals and community members using signposts, posters, and handbills, to capture photos of NTDs manifestations upon notice using smartphones. These images, along with pertinent demographic information, will be transmitted to a dedicated server through WhatsApp or Telegram accounts. The received images will be reviewed and organized at backend and then forwarded to a panel of experts for identification and annotation to specific NTDs. Data generated, along with geocoordinate information, will be used to create NTDs morbidity hotspot maps using ArcGIS. Accompanying metadata will be used to generate geographic and demographic distributions of various NTDs identified. To protect privacy, people will be encouraged to send manifestation photos of the affected body part only without any identifiable features. EVALUATION PROTOCOL: NTDs prevalence data obtained using conventional surveillance methods from both the pilot and selected control states during the pilot period will be compared with data from the CIMS-NTDs method to determine its effectiveness. EXPECTED RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: It is expected that an effective, privacy-conscious, population inclusive new method for NTDs surveillance, with the potential to yield real-time data for the identification of morbidity hotspots and distribution patterns of NTDs will be established. The results will provide insights into the effectiveness of the new surveillance method in comparison to traditional approaches, potentially advancing NTDs elimination strategies.


Subject(s)
Crowdsourcing , Neglected Diseases , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Crowdsourcing/methods , Smartphone , Pilot Projects , Tropical Medicine/methods , Population Surveillance/methods , Morbidity
12.
Int Breastfeed J ; 19(1): 35, 2024 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755734

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite growing evidence of the impacts of exclusively breastfeeding infants during the first 6 months of life on preventing childhood infections and ensuring optimal health, only a small number of studies have quantified this association in South Asia. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Demographic and Health Surveys in Afghanistan (2015; n = 3462), Bangladesh (2017-2018; n = 1084), India (2019-2021; n = 26,101), Nepal (2022; n = 581), and Pakistan (2017-2018; n = 1,306), including babies aged 0-6 months. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine the association between exclusive breastfeeding in the last 24 h and diarrhoea, acute respiratory infections, and fever in the two weeks before the survey. We also examined the association between other infant and young feeding indicators and these outcomes. RESULTS: Infants who were exclusive breastfed had decreased odds of diarrhoea in Afghanistan (AOR: 0.49, 95% CI 0.35, 0.70), India (AOR: 0.80, 95% CI 0.70, 0.91), and Nepal (AOR: 0.42, 95% CI 0.20, 0.89). Compared with infants who were not exclusive breastfed, infants who were exclusively breastfed were less likely to have fever in Afghanistan (AOR: 0.36, 95% CI 0.26, 0.50) and India (AOR: 0.75, 95% CI 0.67, 0.84). Exclusive breastfeeding was associated with lower odds of acute respiratory infections in Afghanistan (AOR: 0.57, 95% CI 0.39, 0.83). Early initiation of breastfeeding was protective against diarrhoea in India. Bottle feeding was a risk factor for diarrhoea in India and for fever in Afghanistan and India. Bottle feeding was also a risk factor for acute respiratory infection in Afghanistan and India. CONCLUSIONS: Not exclusive breastfeeding is a risk factor for diarrhoea, acute respiratory infections, and fever in some South Asian countries. These findings could have substantial implications for global and national efforts to increase exclusive breastfeeding rates. More support, advocacy, and action are required to boost breastfeeding rates as a crucial public health measure.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Fever , Health Surveys , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Female , Male , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Fever/epidemiology , Adult , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Young Adult , Morbidity , India/epidemiology , Adolescent , Nepal/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology
14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791828

ABSTRACT

Melioidosis is an endemic infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei bacteria, which contaminates soil and water. To better understand the environmental changes that have contributed to melioidosis outbreaks, this study used spatiotemporal analyses to clarify the distribution pattern of melioidosis and the relationship between melioidosis morbidity rate and local environmental indicators (land surface temperature, normalised difference vegetation index, normalised difference water index) and rainfall. A retrospective study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2022, covering data from 219 sub-districts in Northeast Thailand, with each exhibiting a varying morbidity rate of melioidosis on a monthly basis. Spatial autocorrelation was determined using local Moran's I, and the relationship between the melioidosis morbidity rate and the environmental indicators was evaluated using a geographically weighted Poisson regression. The results revealed clustered spatiotemporal patterns of melioidosis morbidity rate across sub-districts, with hotspots predominantly observed in the northern region. Furthermore, we observed a range of coefficients for the environmental indicators, varying from negative to positive, which provided insights into their relative contributions to melioidosis in each local area and month. These findings highlight the presence of spatial heterogeneity driven by environmental indicators and underscore the importance of public health offices implementing targeted monitoring and surveillance strategies for melioidosis in different locations.


Subject(s)
Melioidosis , Melioidosis/epidemiology , Thailand/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Burkholderia pseudomallei/isolation & purification , Remote Sensing Technology , Morbidity , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Rain
15.
Birth Defects Res ; 116(5): e2338, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung's disease is a rare congenital anomaly of the colon with absence of the ganglionic nerve cells. The treatment of the anomaly is surgical. METHODS: This population-based data-linkage cohort study was part of the EUROlinkCAT project and investigated mortality and morbidity for the first 5 years of life for European children diagnosed with Hirschsprung's disease. Nine population-based registries in five countries from the European surveillance of congenital anomalies network (EUROCAT) participated. Data on children born 1995-2014 and diagnosed with Hirschsprung's disease were linked to hospital databases. All analyses were adjusted for region and length of follow-up, which differed by registry. RESULTS: The study included 680 children with Hirschsprung's disease. One-year survival was 97.7% (95% CI: 96.4-98.7). Overall, 85% (82-87) had a code for a specified intestinal surgery within the first year increasing to 92% (90-94) before age 5 years. The median age at the first intestinal surgery up to 5 years was 28 days (11-46) and the median number of intestinal surgical procedures was 3.5 (3.1-3.9). Thirty days mortality after neonatal surgery (within 28 days after birth) was 0.9% (0.2-2.5) for children with a code for intestinal surgery within the first 28 days after birth and there were no deaths for children with a code for stoma surgery in the neonatal period. CONCLUSION: Children with Hirschsprung's disease have a high morbidity in the first 5 years of life requiring more surgical procedures in addition to the initial surgery. Mortality after neonatal surgery is low.


Subject(s)
Hirschsprung Disease , Registries , Humans , Female , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Infant, Newborn , Morbidity , Cohort Studies , Europe
16.
Glob Heart ; 19(1): 42, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708404

ABSTRACT

Physical inactivity is a leading contributor to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Almost 500 million new cases of preventable noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) will occur globally between 2020 and 2030 due to physical inactivity, costing just over US$300 billion, or around US$ 27 billion annually (WHO 2022). Active adults can achieve a reduction of up to 35% in risk of death from cardiovascular disease. Physical activity also helps in moderating cardiovascular disease risk factors such as high blood pressure, unhealthy weight and type 2 diabetes. For people with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes and many cancers, physical activity is an established and evidence-based part of treatment and management. For children and young people, physical activity affords important health benefits. Physical activity can also achieve important cross-sector goals. Increased walking and cycling can reduce journeys by vehicles, air pollution, and traffic congestion and contribute to increased safety and liveability in cities.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Exercise , Humans , Exercise/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Global Health , Morbidity/trends , Risk Factors
17.
Virol J ; 21(1): 104, 2024 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic viral disease of increasing intensity among humans in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. In Uganda, cases reported prior to 2016 were mild or not fully documented. We report in this paper on the severe morbidity and hospital-based mortality of human cases in Uganda. METHODS: Between November 2017 and March 2020 human cases reported to the Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI) were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Ethical and regulatory approvals were obtained to enrol survivors into a one-year follow-up study. Data were collected on socio-demographics, medical history, laboratory tests, potential risk factors, and analysed using Stata software. RESULTS: Overall, 40 cases were confirmed with acute RVF during this period. Cases were not geographically clustered and nearly all were male (39/40; 98%), median age 32 (range 11-63). The median definitive diagnosis time was 7 days and a delay of three days between presumptive and definitive diagnosis. Most patients (31/40; 78%) presented with fever and bleeding at case detection. Twenty-eight (70%) cases were hospitalised, out of whom 18 (64%) died. Mortality was highest among admissions in regional referral (11/16; 69%) and district (4/5; 80%) hospitals, hospitalized patients with bleeding at case detection (17/27; 63%), and patients older than 44 years (9/9; 100%). Survivors mostly manifested a mild gastro-intestinal syndrome with nausea (83%), anorexia (75%), vomiting (75%), abdominal pain (50%), and diarrhoea (42%), and prolonged symptoms of severe disease including jaundice (67%), visual difficulties (67%), epistaxis (50%), haemoptysis (42%), and dysentery (25%). Symptom duration varied between two to 120 days. CONCLUSION: RVF is associated with high hospital-based mortality, severe and prolonged morbidity among humans that present to the health care system and are confirmed by PCR. One-health composite interventions should be developed to improve environmental and livestock surveillance, prevent infections, promptly detect outbreaks, and improve patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Rift Valley Fever , Humans , Uganda/epidemiology , Rift Valley Fever/mortality , Rift Valley Fever/epidemiology , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Female , Young Adult , Child , Rift Valley fever virus/genetics , Hospital Mortality , Morbidity , Risk Factors
18.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302174, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771814

ABSTRACT

The progressive incorporation of quality of life indicators in health planning meets a critical need: The evaluation of the performance of health services, which are under stress by multiple causes, but in particular by an ageing population. In general, national health plans rely on health expectancies obtained using the Sullivan method. The Sullivan health expectancy index combines age-specific mortality rates and age-specific prevalence of healthy life, obtained from health surveys. The objective of this work is to investigate an equivalent estimation, using available information from morbidity and mortality datasets. Mortality and morbidity information, corresponding to years 2016 and 2017, was obtained for the population of the county of Baix Empordà (Catalonia), N = 91,130. Anonymized individual information on diagnoses, procedures and pharmacy consumption contained in the individual clinical record (ICD and ATC codes), were classified into health states. Based on the observed health transitions and mortality, life expectancies by health state were obtained from a multistate microsimulation model. Healthy life expectancies at birth and 65 years for females and males were respectively HLE0female = 39.94, HLE0male = 42.87, HLE65female = 2.43, HLE65male = 2.17. These results differed considerably from the Sullivan equivalents, e.g., 8.25 years less for HLE65female, 9.26 less for HLE65male. Point estimates for global life expectancies at birth and 65 years of age: LE0female = 85.82, LE0male = 80.58, LE65female = 22.31, LE65male = 18.86. Health indicators can be efficiently obtained from multistate models based on mortality and morbidity information, without the use of health surveys. This alternative method could be used for monitoring populations in the context of health planning. Life Expectancy results were consistent with the standard government reports. Due to the different approximation to the concept of health (data-based versus self-perception), healthy life expectancies obtained from multistate micro simulation are consistently lower than those calculated with the standard Sullivan method.


Subject(s)
Databases, Factual , Life Expectancy , Population Health , Humans , Male , Female , Population Health/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Middle Aged , Morbidity , Adult , Adolescent , Mortality/trends , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Infant , Quality of Life , Infant, Newborn
19.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1213, 2024 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk factors of infant mortality in Africa and south Asian countries have been broadly discussed. However, infant morbidity is largely underestimated. We analyzed the data from a randomized vaccine trial in Bangladesh to identify and assess the effect of risk factors on infant morbidity. METHODS: Pregnant women were randomly assigned to receive either inactivated influenza vaccine or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and the infants were randomly assigned to receive 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine or Hib conjugate vaccine at week 6, 10 and 14. The data were collected from August 2004 through December 2005. Each pair of infant and mother were followed for 24 weeks after birth with weekly visits. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) for repeated measurements and Poisson regression models were used to identify the risk factors and evaluate their effect on the longitudinal incidence and total number of episodes of respiratory illness with fever (RIF), diarrhea disease, ear problem and pneumonia. RESULTS: A total of 340 pregnant women were randomized with mean age of 25 years. The baseline mother and infant characteristics were similar between two treatment groups. Exclusive breastfeeding and higher paternal education level were common factors associated with lower infant morbidity of RIF (adjusted OR = 0.40 and 0.94 with p < 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively), diarrhea disease (adjusted OR = 0.39 and 0.95 with p < 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively), and ear problem (adjusted OR = 0.20 and 0.76 with p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). Maternal influenza vaccine significantly reduced the incidence of RIF (adjusted OR = 0.54; p < 0.01) but not diarrhea disease or ear problem (p > 0.05). Female infants had lower incidence of diarrhea disease (adjusted OR = 0.67; p = 0.01) and ear problem (adjusted OR = 0.12; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal influenza vaccination, exclusive breastfeeding, female children, and higher paternal education level significantly reduced the infant morbidity within the 24 weeks after birth in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Humans , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Infant , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Risk Factors , Infant, Newborn , Young Adult , Morbidity , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Male
20.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 35(5): e14131, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The morbidity burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in infants extends beyond hospitalization. Defining the RSV burden before implementing prophylaxis programs is essential for evaluating any potential impact on short- to mid-term morbidity and the utilization of primary healthcare (PHC) and emergency services (ES). We established this reference data using a population-based cohort approach. METHODS: Infants hospitalized for RSV from January 2016 to March 2023 were matched with non-hospitalized ones based on birthdate and sex. We defined the exposure as severe RSV hospitalization. The main study outcomes were as follows: (1) PHC and ES visits for RSV, categorized using the International Classification of Primary Care codes, (2) prescriptions for respiratory airway obstructive disease, and (3) antibacterial prescriptions. Participants were followed up from 30 days before hospitalization for severe RSV until the outcome occurrence or end of the study. Adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of the outcomes along with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Stratified analyses by type of PHC visit (nurse, pediatrician, or pharmacy) and follow-up period were undertaken. We defined mid-term outcomes as those taking place up to 24 months of follow-up period. RESULTS: The study included 6626 children (3313 RSV-hospitalized; 3313 non-hospitalized) with a median follow-up of 53.7 months (IQR = 27.9, 69.4). After a 3-month follow-up, severe RSV was associated with a considerable increase in PHC visits for wheezing/asthma (IRR = 4.31, 95% CI: 3.84-4.84), lower respiratory infections (IRR = 4.91, 95% CI: 4.34-5.58), and bronchiolitis (IRR = 4.68, 95% CI: 2.93-7.65). Severe RSV was also associated with more PHC visits for the pediatrician (IRR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.96-2.05), nurse (IRR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.75-1.92), hospital emergency (IRR = 2.39, 95% CI: 2.17-2.63), primary healthcare emergency (IRR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.31-1.82), as well as with important increase in prescriptions for obstructive airway diseases (IRR = 5.98, 95% CI: 5.43-6.60) and antibacterials (IRR = 4.02, 95% CI: 3.38-4.81). All findings remained substantial until 2 years of post-infection. CONCLUSIONS: Severe RSV infection in infants significantly increases short- to mid-term respiratory morbidity leading to an escalation in healthcare utilization (PHC/ES attendance) and medication prescriptions for up to 2 years afterward. Our approach could be useful in assessing the impact and cost-effectiveness of RSV prevention programs.


Subject(s)
Hospitalization , Primary Health Care , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Humans , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Infant , Male , Female , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Longitudinal Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Infant, Newborn , Incidence , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Morbidity , Cost of Illness
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