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1.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 14(1): e1-e10, 2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35695440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:  Diarrhoea is a leading cause of death among children under five years old globally. It remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among this age group in Nigeria. Using simple home management, mothers play important roles in the prevention and control of diarrhoea among these children. AIM:  This study aimed to assess mothers' knowledge, attitude and practice in the prevention and home management of diarrhoeal diseases among children under five years old in Lagos, Nigeria. SETTING:  This study was conducted within the communities of Kosofe local government area of Lagos State, Nigeria. METHODS:  A descriptive cross-sectional study design was conducted using a multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and analysed using EPI info version 7.2.1. Chi-square statistic was used to test the association between variable at the level of significance of 5%. RESULTS:  A total of 360 respondents participated in this study. The mean age of the respondents was 32.5 ± 5.5 years. About 59.2% of respondents had good knowledge, 59.2% of them had positive attitude, and 53.1% of them had good practice towards prevention and home management of diarrhoea. Age (p = 0.007), occupation (p = 0.008) and level of education (p = 0.001) were significantly associated with practice of home management of diarrhoea among children under five years old. CONCLUSION:  Educated, employed, and married mothers were more likely to have good prevention and home management practices towards diarrhoea in their children under five years old.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Mothers , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Nigeria , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(6): e2215787, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679048

ABSTRACT

Importance: Epidemiologic studies suggest maternal immune activation during pregnancy may be associated with neurodevelopmental effects in offspring. Objective: To evaluate whether in utero exposure to SARS-CoV-2 is associated with risk for neurodevelopmental disorders in the first 12 months after birth. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study examined live offspring of all mothers who delivered between March and September 2020 at any of 6 Massachusetts hospitals across 2 health systems. Statistical analysis was performed from October to December 2021. Exposures: Maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction test during pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Neurodevelopmental disorders determined from International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) diagnostic codes over the first 12 months of life; sociodemographic and clinical features of mothers and offspring; all drawn from the electronic health record. Results: The cohort included 7772 live births (7466 pregnancies, 96% singleton, 222 births to SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers), with mean (SD) maternal age of 32.9 (5.0) years; offspring were 9.9% Asian (772), 8.4% Black (656), and 69.0% White (5363); 15.1% (1134) were of Hispanic ethnicity. Preterm delivery was more likely among exposed mothers: 14.4% (32) vs 8.7% (654) (P = .003). Maternal SARS-CoV-2 positivity during pregnancy was associated with greater rate of neurodevelopmental diagnoses in unadjusted models (odds ratio [OR], 2.17 [95% CI, 1.24-3.79]; P = .006) as well as those adjusted for race, ethnicity, insurance status, offspring sex, maternal age, and preterm status (adjusted OR, 1.86 [95% CI, 1.03-3.36]; P = .04). Third-trimester infection was associated with effects of larger magnitude (adjusted OR, 2.34 [95% CI, 1.23-4.44]; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in utero found preliminary evidence that maternal SARS-CoV-2 may be associated with neurodevelopmental sequelae in some offspring. Prospective studies with longer follow-up duration will be required to exclude confounding and confirm these associations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Mothers , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
3.
Soc Sci Res ; 106: 102726, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680360

ABSTRACT

The theory of compensating wage differentials may explain part of the motherhood wage gap if mothers are more likely than childless women and men to make a trade-off between monetary and non-monetary rewards when looking for a job. Whereas previous studies focus primarily on jobs that employees currently hold, we present a more accurate test of this theory by studying the extent to which childless (wo)men, fathers and mothers trade off wages and family-friendly working conditions (flexibility, no overtime) in looking for a new job. Using a unique vignette experiment in four European countries (N = 7040), we find that the theory of compensating wage differentials is not supported. When presented with fictional job-openings that vary randomly on family-friendly working conditions and wages, mothers are not more likely than fathers or childless men and women to choose jobs with more family-friendly working conditions and lower pay. Instead, we find that mothers are more likely to apply for jobs with lower wages regardless of other job characteristics. These results suggest that the motherhood wage gap may not be explained by compensating wage differentials, but by mothers' higher likelihood of applying for jobs with lower wages.


Subject(s)
Mothers , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Europe , Female , Humans , Male
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9551, 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680970

ABSTRACT

Short Birth Interval (SBI, defined as < 33 months interval between the two most recent births or < 24 months between one live birth to the next pregnancy) is a public health problem in most low- and lower-middle-income countries. Understanding geographic variations in SBI, particularly SBI hot spots and associated factors, may help intervene with tailored programs. This study identified the geographical hot spots of SBI in Bangladesh and the factors associated with them. We analyzed women's data extracted from the 2017/18 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey and the healthcare facility data extracted from the 2017 Service Provision Assessment. SBI was the outcome variable, and it was defined as an interval between consecutive births of 33 months or less, as recommended by the World Health Organization. The characteristics of mothers and their partners were the explanatory variables. Moran's I was used to examine the spatial variation of SBI in Bangladesh whereas the Getis-Ord [Formula: see text](d) was used to determine the hot spots of SBI. The Geographical Weighted Regression (GWR) was used to assess the predictors of SBI at the enumeration areas' level. The variables included in the GWR were selected using the exploratory regression and ordinary least square regression model. Data of 5941 women were included in the analyses. Around 26% of the total births in Bangladesh had occurred in short intervals. A majority of the SBI hot spots were found in the Sylhet division, and almost all SBI cold spots were in the Rajshahi and Khulna divisions. No engagement with formal income-generating activities, high maternal parity, and history of experiencing the death of a child were significantly associated with SBI in the Sylhet division. Women's age of 34 years or less at the first birth was a protective factor of SBI in the Rajshahi and Khulna divisions. The prevalence of SBI in Bangladesh is highly clustered in the Sylhet division. We recommend introducing tailored reproductive health care services in the hot spots instead of the existing uniform approach across the country.


Subject(s)
Birth Intervals , Mothers , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Child , Female , Health Facilities , Humans , Pregnancy , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682245

ABSTRACT

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has become more prevalent globally. The disorder is predominantly characterised by low social skills noted explicitly in people with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD). The individuals usually possess a normal or superior intelligence quotient (IQ) but the disability impedes the achievement of their actual high potential, hence compromising their quality of life (QoL). Managing adversities encountered by children with HFASD often compromises the QoL of the entire family. Thus, this study aimed to identify specific domains of QoL among mothers of high-functioning autistic adolescents. The study assessed seven mothers of adolescents with HFASD using a semi-structured interview format. A thematic qualitative analysis was conducted to analyse the data. The results suggested that mothers perceived their QoL based on physical and emotional well-being, material well-being, interpersonal relationship, and environmental well-being. Intervention for HFASD is multidisciplinary, which targets a broad spectrum of symptoms and skills deficits and customises the programme to meet each individual's different needs. Nonetheless, intervention facilities in Malaysia are seriously limited, particularly in supporting QoL for children with HFASD. Therefore, by identifying the domains of QoL would improve the mothers' resilience in raising their children with HFASD.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Adolescent , Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , Child , Female , Humans , Mothers , Quality of Life/psychology , Social Skills
6.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682329

ABSTRACT

The adolescence period is considered a life stage worthy of strategic health investments since it is a critical period of physical and neuro-maturational development. Adolescent girls face different health difficulties in that phase of life. Children born to adolescent mothers are at a higher risk of undernutrition. This paper aims to estimate the prevalence of stunting among adolescent mothers and their children in Bangladesh by time period and determine the associated factors of adolescent maternal stunting status. We also sought to establish the relationship between maternal and childhood stunting by comparing the geographical regions in Bangladesh. We derived data from the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, which was conducted between 2007 and 2017/18. The outcome variables of this study were ever-married adolescent girls' stunting status and their children's stunting status. Interaction analysis between administrative division and maternal stunting status was conducted with childhood stunting as the outcome variable to investigate the impact of maternal stunting status on their children's stunting compared to geographical location. Our results indicated that in comparison to other divisions, the frequency of stunting among children and adolescent mothers was higher in the Sylhet region. It also revealed that children whose mothers were stunted had a 2.36 times increased chance of being stunted. Our study suggests that education for women could help them attain self-sufficiency and, as a result, reduce the prevalence of poor childhood nutrition, especially stunting.


Subject(s)
Malnutrition , Adolescent , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Child , Female , Growth Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Mothers , Nutritional Status
7.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35683986

ABSTRACT

Along with the increasing overweight and obesity trends among adults and children globally, numerous studies have suggested a strong association between maternal overweight and obesity among their offspring. We sought to report the prevalence and associated factors of intergenerational overweight and obesity among mother-child pairs in Malaysia from 2006 to 2015. Data were analysed from three waves of the Malaysian National Health and Morbidity Survey, a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2006, 2011 and 2015. A mother and the youngest child from each household formed 'mother-child pairs' and were grouped according to their body mass index categories. A multivariable logistic regression model was performed to determine the factors associated with overweight mother/overweight child pairs (OWM/OWC), with normal weight mother/normal weight child pairs (NWM/NWC) as the reference group. The prevalence of OWM/OWC increased from 15.3% to 21.7%, while the prevalence of NWM/NWC decreased from 28.4% to 23.8% between 2006 and 2015. Older maternal age and having primary and secondary education levels were positively associated with OWM/OWC. Conversely, older child age, Chinese ethnicity, large household size and low-income households were inversely associated with OWM/OWC. In conclusion, intergenerational weight gain is a worrisome trend in Malaysia. These findings may help in guiding priority setting for obesity prevention strategies in Malaysia.


Subject(s)
Overweight , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , Adult , Body Mass Index , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Morbidity , Mothers , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors
8.
Psychosom Med ; 84(5): 525-535, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653611

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Maternal health and wellness during pregnancy are associated with long-term health outcomes in children. The current study examined whether infants of women who participated in a mindfulness-based intervention during pregnancy that reduced levels of stress and depression, increased physical activity, and improved glucose tolerance differed on biobehavioral markers of psychopathological and physical health risk compared with infants of women who did not. METHODS: Participants were 135 mother-infant dyads drawn from a racially and ethnically diverse, low-income sample experiencing high stress. The women participated in an intervention trial during pregnancy that involved assignment to either mindfulness-based intervention or treatment-as-usual (TAU). Infants of women from both groups were assessed at 6 months of age on sympathetic (preejection period), parasympathetic (respiratory sinus arrhythmia), and observed behavioral (negativity and object engagement) reactivity and regulation during the still face paradigm. Linear mixed-effects and generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to examine treatment group differences in infant outcomes. RESULTS: Relative to those in the intervention group, infants in the TAU group showed a delay in sympathetic activation and subsequent recovery across the still face paradigm. In addition, infants in the intervention group engaged in higher proportions of self-regulatory behavior during the paradigm, compared with the TAU group. No significant effect of intervention was found for parasympathetic response or for behavioral negativity during the still face paradigm. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide evidence that maternal participation in a short-term, group mindfulness-based intervention during pregnancy is associated with the early development of salutary profiles of biobehavioral reactivity and regulation in their infants. Because these systems are relevant for psychopathology and physical health, prenatal behavioral interventions may benefit two generations.


Subject(s)
Mindfulness , Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia , Autonomic Nervous System/physiology , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Mothers , Pregnancy , Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia/physiology , Stress, Psychological/therapy
9.
Breastfeed Med ; 17(6): 506-510, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687116

ABSTRACT

Background: Nipple dimensions may be an important factor in breastfeeding (BF) initiation success. Objective: To establish standards of nipple/areola dimensions in early BF and to determine whether maternal age, gestational age (GA), parity, cup size, previous BF experience, and early (<2 hours) BF affect nipple dimensions (assessed on the second day of BF). Design/Methods: A total of 205 consecutive BF women were enrolled. They were all Caucasians, and had uncomplicated pregnancies, labors, and vertex vaginal deliveries. Measurements (immediately before and after BF) of nipple length and diameter and of prefeeding areolas were by sliding calipers. Results: In average, there were no significant differences between right (R) and left (L) side dimensions, except for post-BF nipple length, and post-BF horizontal nipple diameter (significantly higher on the L side). Both R and L nipple length correlated positively with maternal age, gravidity, parity, number of previously breastfed infants, and cumulative number of BF months. Early (<2 hours) first BF did not correlate with increased nipple length. Pre-BF nipple length correlated significantly with post-BF nipple length on both sides. There were significant differences between pre- and post- BF values in terms of nipple length (longer length post-BF), but not in terms of nipple diameter. In stepwise regression analysis, where pre-BF nipple length was the dependent variable, and parity (or maternal age, or previous BF), early first BF, and GA were independent variables, parity, maternal age, gravidity, or previous BF experience were positively and significantly associated with nipple length (p < 0.001). The correlation maternal age-nipple length remained significant in primigravida mothers. Conclusions: This study provided a set of standards for nipple and areola dimensions on day 2 of BF in Caucasian women. The only areola/nipple dimension significantly affected by BF is the nipple length. Increasing parity, maternal age, or previous BF experience is significantly associated with increased nipple length.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Nipples , Female , Humans , Infant , Mothers , Parity , Pregnancy
10.
Enferm Clin (Engl Ed) ; 32 Suppl 1: S31-S37, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688565

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The study aims to investigate the perceptions of anemia among pregnant women to design culturally relevant interventions in Indonesia. METHOD: Qualitative study with dates from 24 pregnant women in a province in Indonesia through focus group discussions. Data were analyzed using the inductive content analysis method. RESULTS: Five themes emerged from the experiences of pregnant women with anemia: (1) anemia during pregnancy is perceived as a woman's destiny; (2) lack of knowledge related to clinical indicators of anemia; (3) the traditional taboo related to anemia; (4) the husband and family provide support related to anemia prevention; and (5) there is a need for cultural and religious-based health counseling. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to provide health information about anemia in pregnancy should be designed with consideration of local knowledge, beliefs and values, combined with medical elements. It is likely these interventions can change the perceptions of pregnant women's perceptions about anemia, ensuring that they are able to maintain their pregnancy. The implementation of programs to support these women should involves health workers who can understand their needs and who are adequately trained in cultural competence.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Mothers , Female , Humans , Indonesia , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Qualitative Research
11.
Enferm Clin (Engl Ed) ; 32 Suppl 1: S46-S53, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688567

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the feeding practices of malnourished infants and young children aged 6-24 months old in Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. METHOD: Fourteen mothers or caregivers who had malnourished infants and young children aged 6-24 months were interviewed, focusing on their feeding practices. Informants came from sub-districts in Bogor Regency, Indonesia, which had a higher incidence of malnutrition. The interview process was recorded. Verbatim transcripts of recorded interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Five major themes were identified: (1) Inappropriate practice of early initiation of breastfeeding, (2) Challenges in decision making to maintain breastfeeding, (3) Lack of complementary feeding practices, (4) Failing to follow feeding recommendations, and (5) Infant and young child feeding constraints. CONCLUSION: The feeding practice for malnourished infants and young children is not entirely based on the recommended standards. This situation is caused by several factors such as economic conditions, culture, parental knowledge, family and community health workers' support. Health workers need to provide comprehensive intervention for mothers and families intensively by taking into account the culture and conditions of the related family.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Feeding Behavior , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Indonesia , Infant , Life Style , Mothers
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 769, 2022 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Implementation of interventions for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in low- and middle-income countries, faces several barriers including health systems challenges such as health providers' knowledge and use of recommended guidelines. This study assessed PMTCT providers' knowledge of national PMTCT guideline recommendations in Lagos, Nigeria. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey of a purposive sample of twenty-three primary health care (PHC) centers in the five districts of Lagos, Nigeria. Participants completed a self-administered 16-item knowledge assessment tool created from the 2016 Nigeria PMTCT guidelines. Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) was used for data entry and R statistical software used for data analysis. The Chi square test with a threshold of P < 0.05 considered as significant was used to test the hypothesis that at least 20% of service providers will have good knowledge of the PMTCT guidelines. RESULTS: One hundred and thirteen (113) respondents participated in the survey. Most respondents knew that HIV screening at the first prenatal clinic was an entry point to PMTCT services (97%) and that posttest counselling of HIV-negative women was necessary (82%). Similarly, most respondents (89%) knew that early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV should occur at 6-8 weeks of life (89%). However, only four (3.5%) respondents knew the group counselling and opt-out screening recommendation of the guidelines; 63% did not know that haematocrit check should be at every antenatal clinic visit. Forty-eight (42.5%) service providers had good knowledge scores, making the hypothesis accepted. Knowledge score was not influenced by health worker cadre (p = 0.436), training(P = 0.537) and professional qualification of ≤5 years (P = 0.43). CONCLUSION: Service providers' knowledge of the PMTCT guidelines recommendations varied. The knowledge of group counselling and opt-out screening recommendations was poor despite the good knowledge of infant nevirapine prophylaxis. The findings highlight the need for training of service providers.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Infant , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Mothers , Nigeria , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Primary Health Care
13.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 222, 2022 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690815

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) means providing only breast milk for infants for up to six months without the addition of solid or liquid matter. Even though EBF had great benefits for infants and mothers, the rate of EBF is so limited below the global target. In Ethiopia, the overall EBF practice is 59%. This low EBF practice had a great unexplained variation among employed and unemployed mothers. Therefore, this study aimed to compare EBF practice and associated factors among employed and unemployed mothers of infants aged 6-12 months in Wolkite town, Southern Ethiopia, 2020. METHODS: A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2020. A total sample of 485 (241 employed and 244 unemployed) study subjects was involved in the study. A simple random sampling technique was used to recruit study subjects. A pre-tested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associated factors of EBF practice for the whole study participants and then for employed and unemployed mothers independently. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practice was 63.9% [95% CI (59.8-68.2%)]. Exclusive breastfeeding practice was 54.8% [95% CI (48.5-61.4%)] and 73% [95% CI (66.8-78.7%)] among employed and unemployed mothers respectively. Three or more years of a birth interval [AOR = 4.03; 95% CI (1.80-8.99)], three or more ANC visits [AOR = 5.39; 95% CI (1.49-19.45)], and having PNC service [AOR = 4.56; 95% CI (2.0-9.4)] significantly associated to exclusive breastfeeding practice among employed mothers. No history of breastfeeding counseling during ANC visits [AOR = 0.15; 95% CI (0.06-0.41)], had history of breast disease [AOR = 0.28; 95% CI (0.08-0.99)], three or more ANC visits [AOR = 5.11; 95% CI (1.66-15.8)], and having social support [AOR = 3.05; 95% CI (1.23-7.6)] significantly associated to EBF practice among unemployed mothers. CONCLUSION: Employment among mothers was found to discourage EBF practice. The predictors of exclusive breastfeeding practice are different for employed and unemployed. Therefore Policymakers and program planners are called to come together and create a conducive environment for lactating employees, and appropriate intervention at respective predictor variables is needed to enhance EBF practice.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Mothers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Employment , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Lactation
14.
Int Breastfeed J ; 17(1): 44, 2022 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mothers of preterm infants often perceive the infant as having problems with crying, sleeping and feeding, sometimes summarised as 'state-regulation'. Breastfeeding rates are lower among preterm infants, and the mother's self-efficacy in breastfeeding is central to understanding which mothers are going to breastfeed their infants. We have previously shown that mothers with higher self-efficacy have an easier time adapting to the infant and in this study we hypothesised that the degree of self-efficacy also is associated with how difficult the mother believes it is to take care of the infant. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the late preterm infant's mother's self-efficacy in breastfeeding was associated with how the mother experienced her infant's state-regulation at three months of corrected age. METHODS: The study had a prospective and longitudinal design with a consecutive data collection through questionnaires. Inclusion criteria were mothers (n = 105) with a singleton infant born between 34 + 0 and 36 + 6 weeks of gestation. At term age, the mothers completed the Breastfeeding Self-efficacy Scale-Short Form and at the three months corrected age follow-up, mothers completed the Infant state-regulation index: questions related to whether the infant had difficulties with colic, persistent crying, comforting, falling asleep, sleep problems, breastfeeding, eating or poor weight gain. RESULTS: The analyses showed that being an older mother, perceiving breastfeeding support, and having a higher breastfeeding self-efficacy were all significantly associated with identifying the infant as having better state-regulation. CONCLUSIONS: There was an association between mothers' self-efficacy in breastfeeding and her perceptions of how good state-regulation the infant had. This is an important finding, as self-efficacy is a manageable factor that could positively affect how the mother perceives taking care of her infant. CLINICAL IMPLICATION: Improved self-efficacy is known to be an important factor in increased breastfeeding prevalence and healthcare professionals should also target mother's self-efficacy in breastfeeding to improve mother-infant relationship.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Mothers , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Prospective Studies , Self Efficacy
15.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0266762, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648755

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study were to compare the parenting behaviors of mothers and fathers when evaluated in a free play situation at home and to study how these behaviors were related to the sociodemographic variables of the family. The study included 155 mothers and 155 fathers from the same families in Spain. The children (90 boys and 65 girls) were typically developing and were aged between 10 and 47 months old. The parents completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, and parenting behaviors in four domains (Affection, Responsiveness, Encouragement, and Teaching) were assessed from self-recorded videotapes, in accordance with the Spanish version of the PICCOLO. Our results showed both commonalities and differences between the mothers and fathers. The mean scores for the four parenting domains followed a similar pattern in both mothers and fathers: the highest mean score was in the Responsiveness domain, followed by the Affection, Encouragement, and the Teaching domains. Regarding the second aim, no differences were observed in parenting according to the child's gender and the only domain related to the child's age was mother's Teaching. Mothers with a higher educational level scored higher on all parenting domains, except for Responsiveness. Family income was positively related to maternal Affection, Encouragement, and the total PICCOLO score, and to the father's score in the Teaching domain. This study provides evidence that Spanish mothers and fathers show very similar strengths for promoting children's development during interactions. These results are relevant to inform social public policies and family programs.


Subject(s)
Mothers , Parenting , Child , Child, Preschool , Fathers , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Parents
16.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268782, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648789

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Operative vaginal delivery is the use of forceps or vacuum devices to assist the eligible laboring mother to avoid poor birth outcomes. It is associated with increased maternal, neonatal morbidity and perinatal complications if it is not used appropriately. Instrumental delivery use needs health care providers' skills, knowledge, and decision-making ability for good maternal outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess immediate unfavorable birth outcomes and associated factors of operative vaginal delivery among women delivered in East Gojjam Zone Public Hospitals, North West Ethiopia. METHOD: The study design was institution based cross-sectional and consecutive sampling procedure was used to select 313 mothers in the study, from March 1, 2019, to April 30, 2019. We used Epi data version 3.1 for data entry and SPSS version 25 software for cleaning and analysis. A Bivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between each outcome variable and each factor. Again, a multivariable logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with each outcome variable, and variables with a p-value less than 0.05 were taken as significant variables. RESULTS: The overall unfavorable maternal outcomes of operative vaginal delivery were found to be 32.9% [95% CI: 27.8, 38.3]. No formal education (AOR = 8.36; 95% CI: 1.01, 69.2), rural residence (AOR: 11.77; 95% CI: 2.02, 68.41), male sex of the neonate (AOR: 2.87; 95% CI: 1.08, 7.61) and zero station during instrumental application (AOR: 6.93; 95% CI: 1.75, 27.5) were factors associated with unfavorable maternal outcomes. The study also showed that the magnitude of unfavorable neonatal outcomes was 34.8% (95% CI: 29.7, 40.3). Vaginal first-degree tear (AOR = 0.03, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.951) and blood transfusion (AOR = 7.38, 95% CI: 1.18-46.15) was statistically significant factors associated with unfavorable neonatal outcomes. CONCLUSION: The overall unfavorable maternal and neonatal outcomes of operative vaginal delivery were high compared with some other studies done in Ethiopia.


Subject(s)
Delivery, Obstetric , Mothers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy
17.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(5): e00209121, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649095

ABSTRACT

This study examined the relationships between diet quality, satisfaction with food-related life and life satisfaction in mother-adolescent dyads. The sample consisted of 470 mother-adolescent dyads in Temuco, Chile. Mothers and adolescents responded to the Adapted Healthy Eating Index, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Satisfaction with Food-related Life scale. Data was analyzed using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Diet quality was associated with satisfaction with food-related life, which related to life satisfaction in mothers and adolescents. We did not find direct relationships between diet quality and life satisfaction for either dyad member. Adolescents' diet quality negatively affected their mothers' satisfaction with food-related life; adolescents' food-related life was positively associated with their mothers' life satisfaction. The mothers' satisfaction with food-related life played a mediating role between their own diet quality and life satisfaction. Mothers and their adolescent children affect one another in their dietary patterns and life satisfaction. Child-to-mother influences on food-related experiences show that adolescents' satisfaction with food-related life improves their own and their mothers' life satisfaction. Interventions to promote healthy eating habits must be addressed to both mothers and their adolescent children.


Subject(s)
Mothers , Personal Satisfaction , Adolescent , Brazil , Diet , Female , Food Quality , Humans
18.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1092, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Public health guidance and associated interventions seek to bring about change in diet and physical activity behaviours to improve life expectancy and healthy life expectancy in the population. Low socioeconomic status (SES) groups suffer from reduced life/healthy life expectancy compared with the population as a whole. This in-depth qualitative study, investigates the lives and experiences of mothers with young children living in a low SES area in a London (UK) borough, to understand the context in which current public health guidance on diet and physical activity is received and viewed, and how this understanding could be used to inform the development of public health guidance and interventions for this group. METHODS: The mothers (n = 20), were recruited from a Surestart Centre, Children's Centres and through the local branch of a national charity. The mothers took part in a series of three in depth interviews over two years (2016-2017). Thematic analysis was used to generate an iterative set of codes informing an understanding of motherhood, diet and physical activity. RESULTS: Motherhood was found to be a major factor for understanding and interpreting how women in low SES areas respond to public health guidance on diet and physical activity. The mothers were well informed about dietary guidance, considered that provision of healthy food was critical to the mothering role, but found it difficult to implement the guidance in their own lives. In contrast, physical activity was not seen as integral to the mothering role, although it was acknowledged that it played a part in ensuring that the mothers remained healthy enough to fulfil all their duties. Constrained by the ethic of care, and a lack of material and time resources, the mothers prioritised their family's health above their own. This study, enabled the mothers to articulate ideas for interventions that would be supportive of a healthy lifestyle and of practical application in their busy lives. CONCLUSIONS: Mothers from this low SES area responded differently to the public health guidance on diet and on physical activity. Whilst providing and modelling a healthy diet was seen as an essential part of the mother's role, participating in leisure based physical activity was problematic, and unless carefully framed, could be perceived as selfish behaviour, inappropriate for the "good" mother.


Subject(s)
Diet , Public Health , Child , Child, Preschool , Exercise , Female , Healthy Lifestyle , Humans , Mothers
19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 834089, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35664102

ABSTRACT

Inadequate feeding is one of the most critical underlying determinants of child malnutrition. In this study, we explore infant young child feeding (IYCF) and deconstruct breastfeeding barriers in mothers of severely malnourished children in one of the most marginalized districts of Punjab province of Pakistan. Using purposive sampling, 20 lactating mothers are recruited for open-ended semi-structured interviews. Results reveal that barriers to immediate and exclusive breastfeeding include the introduction of pre-lacteal, butter, and cow or formula milk by mothers and grandmothers. Birthing difficulties and ritualizing prelacteal to transfer religion and culture cause the delay of early initiation of breastmilk. The colostrum is also discarded based on its weird physical look. Moreover, household circumstances, limited diet, extra workload, and mental stress associated with marital relationships are other significant barriers. Mothers perceive their breastmilk as thin, impotent, and of bad quality and often complain against breastmilk insufficiency due to general weakness. Furthermore, poor mothers reduce breastfeeding when the fertility burden is high, especially if a female baby is in their womb. Alternatively, outer milk is recommended but washing bottles with detergents often becomes frequent. In conclusion, immediacy, exclusivity, frequency, and duration of breastfeeding are circumscribed owing to multiple social, cultural, and economic causes. Therefore, a holistic approach combining cultural and structural causes might be more relevant for successful IYCF practices in marginalized communities of Pakistan.


Subject(s)
Child Nutrition Disorders , Mothers , Breast Feeding , Female , Humans , Lactation , Pakistan
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 469, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the percentage of cesarean sections (CS) in Czechia is below the average of that of other developed countries (23.6%), it still exceeds WHO recommendations (15%). The first aim of the study is to examine the association between a CS birth and the main health factors and sociodemographic characteristics involved, while the second aim is to examine recent trends in the CS rate in Czechia.  METHODS: Anonymized data on all mothers in Czechia for 2018 taken from the National Register of Expectant Mothers was employed. The risk of cesarean delivery for the observed factors was tested via the construction of a binary logistic regression model that allowed for adjustments for all the other covariates in the model. RESULTS: Despite all the covariates being found to be statistically significant, it was determined that health factors represented a higher risk of a CS than sociodemographic characteristics. A previous CS was found to increase the risk of its recurrence by 33 times (OR = 32.96, 95% CI 30.95-35.11, p<0.001). The breech position increased the risk of CS by 31 times (OR = 31.03, 95% CI 28.14-34.29, p<0.001). A multiple pregnancy increased the odds of CS six-fold and the use of ART 1.8-fold. Mothers who suffered from diabetes before pregnancy were found to be twice as likely to give birth via CS (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.76-2.60, p<0.001), while mothers with gestational diabetes had just 23% higher odds of a CS birth (OR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.16-1.31, p<0.001). Mothers who suffered from hypertension gave birth via CS twice as often as did mothers without such complications (OR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.86-2.21, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The increasing age of mothers, a significant risk factor for a CS, was found to be independent of other health factors. Accordingly, delayed childbearing is thought to be associated with the increase in the CS rate in Czechia. However, since other factors come into play, further research is needed to assess whether the recent slight decline in the CS rate is not merely a temporal trend.


Subject(s)
Cesarean Section , Fertility , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mothers , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Multiple
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