Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 37.403
Filter
1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 47: 120, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828420

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Aedes albopictus, like Aedes aegypti, is a virulent vector of arboviruses especially the well-documented spread of yellow fever around the world. Although yellow fever is prevalent in Nigeria, there is a paucity of information in the Niger Delta region on the distribution of Aedes mosquito vectors and molecular detection of the virus in infected mosquitoes. This study sampled Aedes mosquitoes around houses associated with farms from four communities (Otolokpo, Ute-Okpu, Umunede, and Ute Alohen) in Ika North-East Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. Methods: various sampling methods were used in Aedes mosquito collection to test their efficacy in the survey. Mosquitoes in holding cages were killed by freezing and morphologically identified. A pool of 15 mosquitoes per Eppendorf tube was preserved in RNAi later for yellow fever virus screening. Two samples were molecularly screened for each location. Results: seven hundred and twenty-five (725) mosquitoes were obtained from the various traps. The mean abundance of the mosquitoes was highest in m-HLC (42.9) compared to the mosquitoes sampled using other techniques (p<0.0001). The mean abundance of mosquitoes was lowest in Center for Disease Control (CDC) light traps without attractant (0.29). No yellow fever virus strain was detected in all the mosquitoes sampled at the four locations. Conclusion: this study suggests that Aedes albopictus are the mosquitoes commonly biting around houses associated with farms. More so, yellow fever virus was not detected in the mosquitoes probably due to the mass vaccination exercise that was carried out the previous year in the study area. More studies are required using the m-HLC to determine the infection rate in this endemic area.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Mosquito Vectors , Yellow Fever , Yellow fever virus , Animals , Aedes/virology , Nigeria , Yellow fever virus/isolation & purification , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Yellow Fever/transmission , Yellow Fever/epidemiology , Yellow Fever/virology , Humans
2.
J Addict Nurs ; 35(2): 67-75, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829996

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND: Individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) are at an increased risk of developing comorbid medical conditions, including Type 2 diabetes. Although the diabetes prevention program (DPP) is efficacious and cost-effective, there is no published evidence to support its implementation in Nigeria or within SUD treatment settings. In this first known DPP within an SUD treatment program, we implemented a multiphased, nurse-led DPP at a small outpatient drug treatment center in Nigeria. The aim of this article was to describe only the processes utilized for the initial peer facilitator (PF) training (Phase 1). METHODS: In Phase 1, a diabetes prevention master trainer delivered a virtual DPP training to the facility's lead nurse, who return-demonstrated the DPP workshop skills and competencies over four 4-hour sessions. The lead nurse then independently delivered four 8-hour training sessions to a small number of client volunteers (n = 4) who subsequently delivered the DPP lifestyle interventions to their peers in the outpatient treatment program. RESULTS: The client volunteers attended all PF workshop sessions and were observed to be proficient in all aspects of implementation. They indicated that the training objectives were easily achieved and expressed enthusiasm for delivering DPP content to their peers. The need to better contextualize the DPP curriculum specific to Nigerian food preferences was identified. CONCLUSION: The Phase 1 training process appears to be an appropriate and effective approach for preparing PFs to deliver health programs, like the DPP, in environments with limited resources for populations facing numerous challenges.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Peer Group , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Nigeria , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Substance-Related Disorders/nursing , Female , Male , Adult
3.
J Water Health ; 22(5): 939-952, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822471

ABSTRACT

Health authorities are particularly concerned about water security in Enugu, southeast Nigeria and heavy metal (HM) pollution. The HM profiles of 51 samples collected from 17 different commercial bottled water brands in Enugu were examined using an flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn had mean values of 0.15 ± 0.03, 0.03 ± 0.02, 0.16 ± 0.03, 0.13 ± 0.02, and 0.02 ± 0.01 mg/L, respectively. The highest levels of Pb2+ were 0.27 mg/L in Exalté, Ni2+ 0.26 mg/L in Jasmine, Cd2+ 0.36 mg/L in Ezbon, Cr3+ 0.07 mg/L in Trinity, Cu2+ 0.04 mg/L in Bigi, and Zn2+ 0.02 mg/L in Aquarapha. The amounts of Cr, Cu, and Zn were below the allowable limits; nevertheless, the Pb content in eight bottled water samples exceeded both the Nigerian and World Health Organization (WHO)/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) permissible limits. The Cd2+ and Ni2+ levels in the 11th and 4th bottled water samples were above the WHO/USEPA-approved limits. Statistical evaluation revealed significant differences in the amounts of HM ions in the samples (p < 0.05). The findings indicated that concentration levels of Cd2+ Ni2+, and Pb2+ pose a public health concern that needs to be addressed due to potential risk to consumer health.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Metals, Heavy , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Nigeria , Drinking Water/analysis , Drinking Water/chemistry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Humans , Environmental Monitoring , Risk Assessment , Spectrophotometry, Atomic
5.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 31(2): 102-110, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826013

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Maternal mortality is a major public health problem. Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR) constitute a veritable strategy for reducing maternal mortality, yet adoption is low with wide urban-rural discrepancies. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to compare the practice of BP/CR amongst women in rural and urban areas of Rivers State, Nigeria, and determine the individual-level predictors. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional comparative study using a multistage sampling method was employed in the selection of 924 (462 urban and 462 rural) women who gave birth within the last 12 months in urban and rural local government areas. Outcome measures were birth preparedness (defined as undergoing antenatal care (ANC) with a skilled birth provider, voluntary counselling and testing for HIV and saving money for childbirth at an agreed place of delivery with a skilled birth attendant) and complication readiness (defined as being knowledgeable about danger signs, identifying decision-maker, a nearest functional institution in case of emergency, emergency means of transport and funds and a suitable blood donor). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed at P < 0.05. RESULTS: The proportion of women who were birth prepared was significantly higher amongst women in urban areas (85.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 82.7%-89.1%) versus rural counterparts (56.7%; 95% CI: 52.2%-61.2%), whereas the proportion of complication readiness was significantly higher in rural (31.8%; 95% CI: 27.6%-36.1%) than urban (18.2%; 95% CI: 15.2%-47.8%) groups. Predictors were possession of secondary educational level or higher (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 4.9; 95% CI: 1.5-15.5), being employed (AOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.5-15.0) and ANC attendance (AOR: 29.2; 95% CI: 8.8-96.9) in urban, whereas amongst the rural, it was ANC attendance (AOR: 20.0; 95% CI: 9.1-43.7). CONCLUSION: In urban areas, more women were birth prepared while fewer women were complication ready compared to the women in rural areas, with predictors such as education, employment and ANC attendance in urban areas and only ANC attendance in rural areas. Measures to promote ANC uptake, maternal education and empowerment could promote BP/CR.


Subject(s)
Delivery, Obstetric , Prenatal Care , Rural Population , Urban Population , Humans , Female , Nigeria , Cross-Sectional Studies , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Maternal Mortality , Obstetric Labor Complications/epidemiology , Adolescent , Socioeconomic Factors , Parturition/psychology , Maternal Health Services/statistics & numerical data
6.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 31(2): 111-117, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826014

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the blood pressure (BP) pattern and prevalence of hypertension amongst apparently healthy primary school pupils in Abuja. METHODOLOGY: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out on apparently healthy primary school children aged 6-12 years. BP was measured using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer according to standard guidelines. Data were analysed using SPSS version 17.0. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) and analysis of variance were used to determine the relationship between BP and various variables where applicable. P = 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Out of 1011 pupils recruited for the study, 457 (42.2%) were male. The mean systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) increased significantly with age from 94.5 mmHg to 101.0 mmHg and from 61.5 mmHg to 65.3 mmHg from 6 to 12 years for SBP and DBP, respectively (P < 0.05). The prevalence of high BP was 9.1%. Age was the only predictor of SBP (ß = -0.629, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.115, -0.142), while age, height and body mass index (BMI) were the predictors of DBP (ß = -0.686, 95% CI of -1.152, -0.221; ß = 0.490, 95% CI of 0.172, 0.809; ß = 1.753, 95% CI of 0.374, 3.160) for age, height and BMI, respectively, at P < 0.05. CONCLUSION: The predictors of SBP and DBP as shown in this study support the recommendations by various reports for taking body size into consideration in developing reference values for various populations. Age and body size are important determinants of BP in children. Its measurement should be encouraged in schools.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Hypertension , Humans , Male , Child , Nigeria/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Prevalence , Hypertension/epidemiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Schools , Blood Pressure Determination/methods , Students/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors
7.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 31(2): 118-129, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children develop dynamically, and when a child fails to reach age-appropriate developmental milestones compared to their peers, it is considered a developmental delay. In developing nations like Nigeria, several demographics, socioeconomic, childcare and external factors may influence the highly individualised process. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of developmental delay, across Nigeria's geopolitical zones including identified factors associated with developmental delay, providing insight for appropriate interventions to prevent disability in affected children. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), which was carried out in rounds 4 (2011) and 5 (2016/2017). Every 5 years, the UNICEF-supported MICS cross-sectional household survey is carried out using the cluster sampling method. A semi-structured, questionnaire administered by the interviewer was used to obtain individual and household-level data. This study comprised a weighted sample of 17,373 under-5 children who had complete data from both survey rounds on characteristics deemed significant for the study. Data were analysed using SPSS version 23. Using the Chi-square test and multivariate binomial logistic regression, factors linked to developmental delay were identified, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) provided and the significance level set at 5%. RESULTS: The mean age and sex distribution of the children surveyed in both rounds was comparable, with a male preponderance of 51.2% in round 4 and 50.4% in round 5. In both round 4 (51.2%) and round 5 (49.0%), the Northeast zone had the highest prevalence of overall developmental delay while the least prevalence was seen in the Southwest zone (20.3%) and the Southeast zone (14.7%) in round 4 and round 5, respectively. Across all the zones, delay in the literacy-numeracy domain of development was the most prevalent, with the highest (91.3% and 86.7%, respectively) in the Northeast zone during both rounds of the survey. Delay in the physical domain was, however, the least prevalent form of developmental delay across the zones, with the least in South South (20.6%) and Southeast (5.4%) in rounds 4 and 5. The odds of developmental delay were 1.5 and 1.7 times higher amongst children 4 years old than 3 years old in both rounds of the survey. The likelihood of having developmental delay was found to increase with the severity of stunting amongst the children during both rounds of the survey (odds ratio [OR] =1.5; 95% CI = 1.20-1.78 in round 4 and OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.16-1.58 in round 5). Children from the poorest wealth index had higher odds of developmental delay (OR = 5.8; 95% CI = 4.92-6.82 in round 4 and OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.99-3.10 in round 5). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of developmental delay is high across all zones; however, the burden varies amongst them. The age of the child, nutritional status and wealth index were indicators of developmental delay in Nigerian under-5 children. This underscores the need for surveillance and interventions focussed on improving child literacy, nutritional status and household standard of living across the zones.


Subject(s)
Developmental Disabilities , Humans , Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology , Nigeria/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Male , Female , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Infant , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 31(2): 130-138, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826016

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The world over, women are victims of violence in close and intimate relationships where they are expected to be safe and protected. Intimate partner violence (IPV) significantly impacts the physical and mental well-being of those affected. This study assessed the prevalence, pattern and effects of IPV amongst women in Abeokuta South Local Government Area (LGA) of Ogun State, South West Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Abeokuta - South LGA in Ogun State. Data were collected from 339 women in intimate relationships using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Ethical approval (HPRS/381/471) was obtained from the Ogun State Ministry of Health Ethical Review Committee. Analysis was done using IBM® SPSS version 23, and results were presented in frequencies and proportions using tables and charts. RESULTS: About three-quarters (73.2%) of the 339 respondents had experienced one form of IPV. Psychological/emotional violence, 224 (66.1%), and physical violence, 161 (47.5%), were the study's most commonly reported forms of violence. Amongst those affected, 186 (54.9%) were 'insulted', 87 (25.7%) were 'embarrassed in public' and another 124 (36.6%) were slapped. The effects of IPV reported were bruises/lacerations, unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections and attempted suicide. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of IPV of all forms were high in the studied population. Therefore, the government needs to create more awareness of the problem and promote investments in women's empowerment to reverse this trend.


Subject(s)
Intimate Partner Violence , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Female , Adult , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent
9.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 31(2): 147-155, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The thickness of extraocular muscles (EOMs) is important in the management of several conditions associated with EOM enlargement. This study determined the normative values of EOM diameters in adult patients seen at a teaching hospital in Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study measured the thickness of the EOMs and the interzygomatic line (IZL) on brain images of 300 patients with non-orbital conditions (150 computed tomography [CT] and 150 magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) archived in the radiological database of Delta State University Hospital, Nigeria, after ethical clearance. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 23) was used to obtain descriptive statistics and further compare the variables based on gender, age groups and laterality. The association between parameters was tested using Pearson's correlation test. A probability value of <5% was considered significant. RESULTS: The thickest muscles were the medial rectus (0.42 ± 0.08 cm) and superior muscle group (0.42 ± 0.33 cm) on CT and the inferior rectus (0.40 ± 0.08 cm) on MRI. The diameters were symmetrical with sexual dimorphism in the superior muscle group on CT, medial and lateral recti on MRI and sum of all EOMs on both imaging groups (P < 0.05). The superior muscle group and the sum of all EOMs showed significant age group variations and a positive correlation with age. We noted a positive correlation between each EOM diameter and the sum of all EOMs besides the IZL (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study offers normative data regarding EOMs that radiologists and ophthalmologists can use to diagnose disease conditions that cause EOM enlargement and further assess their response to treatment.


Subject(s)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Oculomotor Muscles , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Humans , Oculomotor Muscles/diagnostic imaging , Oculomotor Muscles/anatomy & histology , Male , Female , Adult , Nigeria , Retrospective Studies , Middle Aged , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Aged , Reference Values , Young Adult , Adolescent
10.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 31(2): 156-162, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826019

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Advancements in the medical field have made organ transplantation an attractive treatment option for patients when indicated. Shortage of organs and commodification of organs are major challenges encountered in organ donation and transplantation. These could potentially breed unethical practices, if the process is not well regulated. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of healthcare workers (HCWs) on the legal provisions regulating organ donation and transplantation in Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional study was conducted amongst physicians and nurses across Nigeria. Knowledge of legal provisions on organ donation and transplantation was assessed using a validated questionnaire that had 21 questions derived from the National Health Act. Each correctly answered question was given 1 point with a total obtainable score of 21 points. A score of ≥14 points was classified as good knowledge. P <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: A total of 836 physicians and nurses with a mean age of 37.61 ± 9.78 years participated in the study. Females and physicians constituted 53.3% and 62.9% of the respondents, respectively. The mean knowledge score of the respondents was 9.70 ± 2.91 points. Eighty-three (9.9%) respondents had a good knowledge score. There was a significantly higher proportion of male HCWs (P < 0.037) and older HCWs (P = 0.017) with good knowledge of legal provisions. On logistic regression, age was the only factor found to be associated with good knowledge of legal provision (adjusted odds ratio: 3.92; confidence interval: 1.33-11.59; P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The overall knowledge of legal provisions on organ donation and transplant was very poor amongst HCWs in Nigeria. There is a need to educate them on these provisions to curb unethical practices.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Organ Transplantation , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Humans , Nigeria , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Male , Adult , Tissue and Organ Procurement/legislation & jurisprudence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Middle Aged , Organ Transplantation/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Personnel/legislation & jurisprudence , Physicians/legislation & jurisprudence
11.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 31(2): 163-169, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interprofessional collaboration in healthcare is important to optimise healthcare delivery. However, relatively few studies have been conducted on the topic in Nigeria, especially in the North. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the levels of interprofessional collaboration, enablers and barriers amongst healthcare workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected using a five-domain modified Assessment of Interprofessional Team Collaboration Scale questionnaire, with a Likert scale of 1-5. The ideal mean score was ≤2 for the barriers domain and ≥4 for the other domains. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-six participants responded to the questionnaire. Male and female respondents were 131 (49.2%) each. Half of the respondents were 31 to 40 years old. One hundred and thirty-six (51.1%) of the respondents were nurses, and 48 (18.0%) were doctors. The modal working experience was 6-11 years (41.4%), and 117 (44.0%) respondents had at least a bachelor's degree. The mean scores for the domains were 4.1032 for partnership, 3.2383 for cooperation, 3.6309 for coordination, 4.2844 for enablers and 3.7902 for barriers. CONCLUSION: There was adequate level of partnership and enablers amongst the healthcare workers but insufficient cooperation and coordination and high level of barriers. Staff training on cooperation, coordination and identified barriers is necessary to improve interprofessional collaboration in the hospital.


Subject(s)
Cooperative Behavior , Interprofessional Relations , Tertiary Care Centers , Humans , Nigeria , Male , Female , Adult , Surveys and Questionnaires , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Attitude of Health Personnel , Middle Aged , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Young Adult
12.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 31(2): 139-146, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826017

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Physical exercise helps to mitigate cardiovascular risks in people with diabetes mellitus (DM), but there are limited data in Nigeria. This study aimed to assess cardiovascular risk awareness, exercise practices and metabolic outcomes among Nigerians with diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at five tertiary hospitals using questionnaire interviews and clinical assessments. Participants' knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors and knowledge of exercise were assessed on 12- and 5-item scores, while exercise practices were classed as adequate if performed regularly on 3 or more days weekly for a total of 150 min or more based on the American Diabetes Association recommendations. Mean body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose, serum haemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), lipid profile, urea, creatinine and uric acid were then compared among participant groups. RESULTS: We studied 426 participants with DM, 58.7% females. The mean age was 52.9 ± 13.1 years, with males significantly older than females (54.6 ± 12.2 vs. 51.8 ± 13.5 years; 95% confidence interval: 0.27-5.28, P = 0.03). The mean age at diabetes diagnosis was 44.8 ± 11.7 years, and the median duration of diabetes was 84 months. There was low knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors and low knowledge of exercise (mean scores of 2.94 and 2.31, respectively). Forty-three per cent of participants reported adequate exercise, which was significantly associated with younger age (P = 0.007), male gender (P = 0.001) and formal education (P = 0.021). Participants with adequate exercise had lower systolic BP and serum urea compared to those with inadequate exercise, but there were no significant differences in BMI, fasting glucose, HbA1c, serum lipids, creatinine or uric acid. CONCLUSION: Participants had low knowledge of cardiovascular risks and the appropriate exercise practices for diabetes patients. There is a need for better patient education on diabetes self-care and exercise at clinic visits.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Exercise , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Nigeria , Exercise/physiology , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Aged , Glycated Hemoglobin/metabolism , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Risk Factors , Body Mass Index
13.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 317, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inequalities in modern contraceptive use among women in low-income countries remain a major public health challenge. Eliminating or reducing the inequalities in modern contraceptive use among women could accelerate the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals, Targets 3.7 & 5.6. Thus, this study examined the inequality gaps in modern contraceptive use and associated factors among women of reproductive age in Nigeria between 2003 and 2018. METHODS: This study employed the World Health Organisation's Health Equity Assessment Toolkit to analyse the 2003 and 2018 Nigeria Demographic Health Surveys. Modern contraceptive use was aggregated using five equity stratifiers: age, economic status, educational level, place, and region of residence among women of reproductive aged 15 to 49, with a sample size of 5,336 and 29,090 for 2003 and 2018, respectively. Inequality was measured in this study using difference (D), ratio (R), population-attributable risk (PAR), and a population-attributable fraction (PAF). RESULTS: The study shows an increase in modern contraceptive use among women of reproductive age in Nigeria from 8.25% in 2003 to 12.01% in 2018, with the use being more prominent among women of reproductive age 20-49 and those in the richest economic quintile. In both surveys, women with primary education showed the most upward increase in modern contraceptive use. Women residing in the urban areas also show an upward use of modern contraceptives use. The study further highlights inequality gaps, with age being a substantial factor, while economic status and sub-national regions showed mild to marginal inequality gaps. Finally, the educational level of women of reproductive age in Nigeria significantly shows inequality in modern contraceptive use, with a PAF of 129.11 in 2003 and 65.39 in 2018. CONCLUSION: The inequality gap in modern contraceptive use among women of reproductive age in Nigeria between 2003 and 2018 reported in this study includes age, education, wealth quintile, residence, and region-related inequalities. The study highlights the need for policies and programmes that target the groups with low use of modern contraceptives to promote equity in family planning services.


Subject(s)
Contraception Behavior , Socioeconomic Factors , Humans , Female , Nigeria , Adult , Adolescent , Young Adult , Contraception Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Contraception Behavior/trends , Middle Aged , Contraception/statistics & numerical data , Contraception/methods , Family Planning Services/statistics & numerical data , Educational Status
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 403, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The practice of intrapartum use of oxytocin for induction and augmentation of labour is increasing worldwide with documented wide variations in clinical use, especially dose administrations. There is also evidence of intrapartum use by unauthorized cadre of staff. AIM: This study assessed the patterns - frequency of intrapartum use of oxytocin, the doses and routes of administration for induction and augmentation of labour, and identified the predictors of oxytocin use for induction and augmentation of labour by healthcare providers in Nigeria. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among healthcare providers - doctors, nurses/midwives and community health workers (CHWs) in public and private healthcare facilities across the country's six geopolitical zones. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 6,299 eligible healthcare providers who use oxytocin for pregnant women during labour and delivery. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect relevant data and analysed using STATA 17 statistical software. Summary and inferential statistics were done and further analyses using multivariable regression models were performed to ascertain independent predictor variables of correct patterns of intrapartum oxytocin usage. The p-value was set at < 0.05. RESULTS: Of the 6299 respondents who participated in the study, 1179 (18.7%), 3362 (53.4%), and 1758 (27.9%) were doctors, nurses/midwives and CHWs, respectively. Among the respondents, 4200 (66.7%) use oxytocin for augmentation of labour while 3314 (52.6%) use it for induction of labour. Of the 1758 CHWs, 37.8% and 49% use oxytocin for induction and augmentation of labour, respectively. About 10% of the respondents who use oxytocin for the induction or augmentation of labour incorrectly use the intramuscular route of administration and about 8% incorrectly use intravenous push. Being a doctor, and a healthcare provider from government health facilities were independent positive predictors of the administration of correct dose oxytocin for induction and augmentation of labour. The CHWs were most likely to use the wrong route and dose administration of oxytocin for the induction and augmentation of labour. CONCLUSION: Our study unveiled a concerning clinical practice of intrapartum oxytocin use by healthcare providers in Nigeria - prevalence of intrapartum use of oxytocin, inappropriate routes of administration for induction and augmentation of labour, varied and inappropriately high start dose of administration including unauthorized and high intrapartum use of oxytocin among CHWs.


Subject(s)
Health Personnel , Labor, Induced , Oxytocics , Oxytocin , Humans , Oxytocin/administration & dosage , Nigeria , Female , Pregnancy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Labor, Induced/methods , Labor, Induced/statistics & numerical data , Oxytocics/administration & dosage , Adult , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Labor, Obstetric , Male , Young Adult
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13235, 2024 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38853154

ABSTRACT

The study investigated the economic concerns associated with livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in livestock (cow), examining its connection to severe infections, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and virulence factors. The research, conducted in Edo State, Nigeria, analyzed 400 samples (200 rectal and 200 nasal swabs) collected between March 2018 and February 2019. MRSA prevalence was identified using conventional culture-based methods and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques, revealing 63.5% (n = 254) for Staphylococcus aureus and 55% (n = 220) for MRSA. Of the 76 mecA-positive MRSA isolates, 64.5% (n = 49) exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR) while the remaining were sensitive to specific antimicrobials. Key virulence genes, such as PVL (81.6%; n = 62) and tsst-1 (44.7%; n = 34), were prevalent, along with AMR genes like mecC, tetM, ermA, ermC, vanA, and vanC. Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing identified different types, notably II, IVa, and IVb. Biofilm formation, a crucial virulence factor varied in strength, is associated with icaA and icaB genes (p < 0.01). The findings highlighted substantial AMR and biofilm-forming capacity within LA-MRSA isolates, emphasizing the importance of ongoing surveillance for informed treatment strategies, AMR policies, and control measures against MDR staphylococcal infections.


Subject(s)
Biofilms , Livestock , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections , Virulence Factors , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Animals , Virulence Factors/genetics , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/veterinary , Livestock/microbiology , Cattle , Biofilms/drug effects , Biofilms/growth & development , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Nigeria/epidemiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism
16.
Neurosurg Rev ; 47(1): 265, 2024 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38856859

ABSTRACT

The provision of specialized spine care in Nigeria presents a pressing challenge amid limited resources and geographical disparities. This correspondence offers a comprehensive roadmap for improving spine surgery and care within the country. We examine the current state of spinal health infrastructure, highlighting barriers such as limited access to specialists and facilities, particularly in rural areas, and financial constraints for patients. Innovations in spinal treatment, including the adoption of minimally invasive techniques and advancements in surgical modalities, are discussed alongside persistent challenges such as disparities in access and equipment costs. Training and education of spine surgeons emerge as critical areas requiring attention, with a shortage of qualified professionals exacerbated by inadequate training programs and resource constraints. We advocate for fostering local and international collaborations to address these gaps, emphasizing the role of partnerships in capacity building and knowledge exchange. Additionally, we explore the potential of public-private partnerships and investments to enhance the Nigerian spine healthcare system, calling for strategic initiatives to modernize infrastructure and improve accessibility. Finally, we propose a strategic blueprint encompassing infrastructure enhancement, training programs, research initiatives, policy advocacy, and public awareness campaigns. Through concerted efforts from local stakeholders and international partners, we envision a future where spine care in Nigeria is comprehensive, accessible, and of high quality, leading to improved health outcomes and a higher quality of life for those affected by spinal conditions.


Subject(s)
Spinal Diseases , Humans , Nigeria , Spinal Diseases/surgery , Spine/surgery , Health Services Accessibility , Neurosurgical Procedures , Delivery of Health Care
17.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304856, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Unskilled delivery, particularly the use of traditional birth attendants, is a major threat to reducing maternal mortality in Africa. Despite the associated risks, there is insufficient evidence on the major reasons why pregnant women in Nigeria continue to use traditional birth attendant (TBA) services, especially in rural areas. This study, therefore, assessed the perception, reasons for use, and utilization of only TBA services in current pregnancy among rural-dwelling pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 347 pregnant women recruited from traditional birth attendant facilities at Ikorodu Local Government Area, Lagos. Data were collected with an interviewer-administered questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 25. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted with a significance level set at p<0.05. The outcome measures included perception, utilization of only TBA services in current pregnancy, and reasons for use. Positive perception refers to positive thought, belief, or opinion held by the participants towards the TBA. RESULTS: All the respondents had a positive perception of TBAs, majority (70.3%) utilized TBA only while 29.7% combined TBA and healthcare facilities services in the current pregnancy. Recommendations from previous users (81.6%), welcoming and hospitable staff (77.2%), perceived spiritual protection (75.2%), and past use (68.6%), were some of the reasons cited by the respondents for utilizing only TBA services. Predictors of utilizing only TBA services were respondents' level of education, those with secondary (aOR = 0.261; 95% CI; 0.108-0.629) and tertiary (aOR = 0.352; 95% CI; 0.162-0.769) had lower utilization while the lack of health insurance coverage (aOR = 3.017; 95% CI; 1.476-6.166) were associated with higher utilization of TBAs. CONCLUSION: Respondents in this study had a positive perception of TBA services. Continuous training and an effective monitoring system of TBAs by the government and other healthcare stakeholders to improve women's birthing experiences is recommended.


Subject(s)
Midwifery , Prenatal Care , Rural Population , Humans , Female , Nigeria , Adult , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Young Adult , Surveys and Questionnaires , Perception , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Adolescent , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
18.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(7): 223, 2024 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849582

ABSTRACT

Heavy metal contamination in the soil and phytoremediation potential of the plants cultivated around the Gosa dumpsite were evaluated using pollution indices. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soil and plant samples were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Agilent 280FS AA). The mean heavy metal contents in the upper and lower soil layers ranged from 0.37 to 1662.61 mg/kg and 0.32 to 1608.61 mg/kg, respectively, in ascending order of Cd < Cr < Cu < Ni < Pb < Co < Zn < Fe. The results revealed a steady depthwise decrease in heavy metal contents from the upper to lower soil layers. Co, Pb, Zn and Fe were introduced through geogenic and anthropogenic pathways, while Cr, Ni, Cu and Cd were derived mainly from anthropogenic sources. The mean soil enrichment in the heavy metals ranged from 0.96 to 237.04 in the ascending order of Fe > Co > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cd > Cr > Ni. The soil was moderately polluted with Co, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe and Cd but heavily polluted with Cr and Ni. The results revealed that 37.5% of the sites studied had pollution load indices greater than 1.0, indicating gradual deterioration in overall soil quality. The concentrations of Pb, Cd and Fe exceeded the recommended limits for the five plant species assessed. The transfer factor (TF) values of okra plant 1 (0.7536), water hyacinth (1.3768), and Amaranthus hybridus (0.9783) indicated excellent Cd phytoremediation potential. Okra Plant, water hyacinth and Amaranthus hybridus had excellent potential for phytoremediation of Cu, Fe and Pb, respectively. The study area was strongly enriched in Fe, Cd, Cr, and Ni, suggesting some degree of soil pollution, while the plants demonstrated an excellent capacity to accumulate Cd, Cu, Fe and Pb. This dumpsite should be adequately monitored while proper remediation measures are adopted by government authorities.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Metals, Heavy , Soil Pollutants , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Nigeria , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Environmental Monitoring , Soil/chemistry , Plants/metabolism , Plants/chemistry , Spectrophotometry, Atomic
19.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(7): 241, 2024 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849713

ABSTRACT

Soil contamination due to industrial activity in ceramics production is of concern because of the risk of heavy metal pollution. Successive extraction was used to measure and identify the concentrations of Cd, Mn, Ni, and Pb in farming soils near a ceramics company in Nigeria. Furthermore, soil pH and particle size analyses were determined. The concentration of Pb was the highest, followed by that of Ni, Mn, and Cd (lowest), and the mean level of Cd exceeded the regulatory allowed limit of 1.4 mg kg-1. The order of the metals' mobility factors was as follows: Cd > Mn > Ni, Pb. While the Fe-Mn oxide phase had 37% (Mn) and 20 to 83% (Ni), the residual fraction had approximately 30% (Cd) and 19 to 50% (Pb). Soil pollution evaluation was performed using enrichment factor (EF), contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index (Igeo). Values of EF indicated significant enrichment for all metals, as the EF mean values for Cd, Ni, and Pb in soil were > 1.5. Total EF is of the order Cd > Pb > Ni > Mn. CF results revealed moderate to very high contamination (CF < 1: 3 ≤ CF ≥ 6). Similarly, the PLI indicated moderately to severely polluted soil. The order is 100 m > 200 m > 300 m > 400 m. The Igeo ranged from 1.46 to 2.76 (Cd), 0.07 to 1.62 (Ni), and 0.05 to 2.81 (Pb). The PCA, CA, and EF analyses suggest that the metals are a consequence of anthropogenic activities.


Subject(s)
Ceramics , Environmental Monitoring , Metals, Heavy , Soil Pollutants , Soil , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Ceramics/chemistry , Soil/chemistry , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Nigeria , Chemical Fractionation , Particle Size , Lead/analysis , Farms , Nickel/analysis , Cadmium/analysis , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Manganese/analysis
20.
J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr ; 2024(63): 30-37, 2024 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836528

ABSTRACT

Effective communication about cancer diagnosis and prognosis in sub-Saharan African oncology settings is often challenged by the cancer-related shame and stigma patients and families experience. Enhancing empathic communication between health care providers, including physicians and nurses, and oncology patients and their families can not only reduce cancer stigma but also improve patient engagement, treatment satisfaction, and quality of life. To reduce lung cancer stigma, we adapted an evidence-based empathic communication skills training intervention to reduce patients' experience of stigma in Nigeria and conducted a pilot study examining the feasibility and acceptability of the empathic communication skills training. Thirty health care providers, recruited from University College Hospital, Ibadan, and Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, participated in a 2.25-hour didactic and experiential training session. Participant surveys were completed before and after the training. Overall, participants reported highly favorable training evaluations, with at least 85% of health care providers agreeing or strongly agreeing to survey items assessing training relevance, novelty, clarity, and facilitator effectiveness. Self-efficacy to communicate empathically with patients increased significantly from before-training (Mean [SD] = 3.93 [0.28]) to after-training (Mean [SD] = 4.55 [0.15]; t29 = 3.51, P < .05). Significant improvements were observed in health care provider reports of empathy toward lung cancer survivors and attitude toward lung cancer care as well as significant reductions in lung cancer blame were noted. The empathic communication skills training was feasible, well received by oncology clinicians in Nigeria, and demonstrated improvements in health care provider-reported outcomes from before- to after-training.


Subject(s)
Communication , Empathy , Feasibility Studies , Lung Neoplasms , Social Stigma , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/psychology , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Nigeria , Pilot Projects , Female , Male , Middle Aged , Adult , Health Personnel/education , Health Personnel/psychology , Quality of Life , Physician-Patient Relations
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...