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1.
Multimedia | Multimedia Resources | ID: multimedia-9778

ABSTRACT

Também conhecido como agente causador de doença. O aplicativo FioLibras é um projeto do Instituto de Comunicação e Informação Científica e Tecnológica em Saúde da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Icict/Fiocruz), em parceria com o Núcleo de Estudos em Diversidade e Inclusão de Surdos da Universidade Federal Fluminense (Nuedis/UFF), e conta com financiamento do Fundo de Inovação da Fiocruz e do Ministério da Saúde, por meio do Programa Fiocruz de Fomento à Inovação (Inova Fiocruz).


Subject(s)
Noxae , Coronavirus Infections , Information Dissemination , Sign Language , e-Accessibility
2.
Multimedia | Multimedia Resources | ID: multimedia-9753

ABSTRACT

A mulher é um ser de fases existenciais e ciclos biopsicossociais que muitas vezes dificultam a elas mesmas expressarem para seus médicos homeopatas suas reações. Interpretar estes mistérios e traduzi-los em terapêuticas adequadas é o desafio que discutiremos nesta ocasião. Palestrante: Dr. Eliezer Berenstein e Dra. Helena Las Casas Ralid.


Subject(s)
Homeopathic Therapeutics , Progesterone/adverse effects , Climacteric , Comprehensive Health Care , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Noxae , Contraceptive Agents , Progesterone/adverse effects , Climacteric , Comprehensive Health Care , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Noxae , Contraceptive Agents , Endometriosis/therapy
3.
Multimedia | Multimedia Resources | ID: multimedia-9718

ABSTRACT

O vídeo informa o que é um decaimento exponencial. O aplicativo FioLibras é um projeto do Instituto de Comunicação e Informação Científica e Tecnológica em Saúde da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Icict/Fiocruz), em parceria com o Núcleo de Estudos em Diversidade e Inclusão de Surdos da Universidade Federal Fluminense (Nuedis/UFF), e conta com financiamento do Fundo de Inovação da Fiocruz e do Ministério da Saúde, por meio do Programa Fiocruz de Fomento à Inovação (Inova Fiocruz).


Subject(s)
Noxae , Coronavirus Infections , Mobile Applications , Information Dissemination , e-Accessibility , Sign Language
4.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 14: 1-7, 20 de Enero del 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1358819

ABSTRACT

NTRODUCCIÓN: Los roedores sinantrópicos, representados por el ratón doméstico (Mus musculus), la rata parda (Rattus norvegicus) y la rata negra (Rattus rattus), representan un riesgo importante para la salud. En Sudamérica, la fragmentación socioeconómica se refleja en marcadas diferencias entre centros urbanos y áreas periféricas, y se asocia a un registro heterogéneo. El objetivo fue relevar datos por encuestas a los habitantes de dos barrios del Gran La Plata con características contrastantes para explorar, describir y evaluar la percepción en relación con la presencia de roedores en domicilio, peridomicilio y barrio como vehículos de transmisión de enfermedades. MÉTODOS: A partir de un diseño descriptivo exploratorio, se confeccionaron y realizaron encuestas siguiendo la técnica de muestreo estratificado. Se consideraron las variables género y grupo, de tal manera que la muestra tuviese la misma distribución. La información se transfirió a una base de datos y se analizó a través de IBM SPSS Statistics V25. RESULTADOS: Existe una preocupación común respecto al rol de los roedores urbanos como reservorios y fuentes de infección de patologías zoonóticas. En el barrio más vulnerable, la presencia de roedores fue más frecuente que en el centro de la ciudad. DISCUSIÓN: Este estudio provee un abordaje diferente en relación con roedores y patologías asociadas, considerando la percepción social y revelando su importancia para los programas de manejo y control.


Subject(s)
Parasites , Rodentia , Social Perception , Zoonoses , Noxae
5.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(3): 413-417, dez 20, 2021. fig, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354260

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a meningite bacteriana em equinos é uma enfermidade frequente em animais jovens. Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli são as bactérias mais comumente isoladas nesses casos. Apesar da bactéria Providencia rettgeri já ter sido isolada em casos de meningite humana e de crocodilo, não há relatos de seu isolamento em equinos. Objetivo: relatar o isolamento e a identificação da bactéria P. rettgeri de um potro com sintomas neurológicos e avaliar o perfil de sensibilidade a antibióticos deste isolado. Metodologia: o isolamento foi realizado a partir do líquido cefalorraquidiano do potro, por meio de cultivo em meio ágar chocolate. Após isolamento, as colônias formadas foram identificadas por equipamento Biotyper, baseado em espectrometria de massa. O perfil de sensibilidade foi definido por teste de difusão em discos, seguindo metodologia relatada pelo CLSI M2-A8 em 2003, sendo a bactéria classificada como resistente, padrão indeterminado ou sensível aos antibióticos, de acordo com o descrito pelo EUCAST em 2021. Resultados: este é o primeiro relato do isolamento de P. rettgeri como agente etiológico de meningite em potro. Dos 15 antibióticos testados, a bactéria foi resistente a 9, sensível a 5 e com padrão indeterminado a 1 antibiótico. Conclusão: nossos resultados indicam que P. rettgeri deve ser considerada entre possíveis agentes etiológicos de quadros neurológicos em equinos e que testes de sensibilidade a antibiótico são fundamentais, uma vez que essa bactéria já apresenta resistência a diversos antibióticos disponíveis comercialmente.


Introduction: Bacterial meningitis in horses is a frequent disease in young animals. Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are the most commonly isolated bacteria in these cases. Although Providencia rettgeri bacterium has already been isolated in cases of human and crocodile meningitis, there are no reports of its isolation in cases of meningitis in horses. Objective: to report isolation and identification of the P. rettgeri bacteria from a foal with neurological symptoms and to assess antibiotic sensitivity profile in isolate of it. Methods: isolation was performed from the foal's cerebrospinal fluid, through cultivation in chocolate agar medium. After isolation, formed colonies were identified by Biotyper equipment, based on mass spectrometry. Sensitivity profile was verified by disk diffusion test, according to methodology that was reported by CLSI M2-A8 in 2003, which classified bacteria as resistant, indeterminate pattern or sensitive to antibiotics, as described by EUCAST in 2021. Results: this is the first report on isolation of P. rettgeri as an etiologic agent of meningitis in foals. Among 15 antibiotics that were tested, results showed bacteria resistence to 9 antibiotics, bacteria sensitivity to 5, but undetermined pattern to 1 antibiotic. Conclusion: results indicate that P. rettgeri shall be considered among potential etiologic agents of neurological conditions in horses and that antibiotic sensitivity tests are essential, since this type of bacterium is already resistant to several commercially available antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Equidae , Meningitis , Anti-Infective Agents , Staphylococcus aureus , Bacteria , Escherichia coli , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Noxae
6.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685588

ABSTRACT

The heart tissue is a potential target of various noxae contributing to the onset of cardiovascular diseases. However, underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are largely unknown. Human stem cell-derived models are promising, but a major concern is cell immaturity when estimating risks for adults. In this study, 3D aggregates of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes were cultivated for 300 days and characterized regarding degree of maturity, structure, and cell composition. Furthermore, effects of ionizing radiation (X-rays, 0.1-2 Gy) on matured aggregates were investigated, representing one of the noxae that are challenging to assess. Video-based functional analyses were correlated to changes in the proteome after irradiation. Cardiomyocytes reached maximum maturity after 100 days in cultivation, judged by α-actinin lengths, and displayed typical multinucleation and branching. At this time, aggregates contained all major cardiac cell types, proven by the patch-clamp technique. Matured and X-ray-irradiated aggregates revealed a subtle increase in beat rates and a more arrhythmic sequence of cellular depolarisation and repolarisation compared to non-irradiated sham controls. The proteome analysis provides first insights into signaling mechanisms contributing to cardiotoxicity. Here, we propose an in vitro model suitable to screen various noxae to target adult cardiotoxicity by preserving all the benefits of a 3D tissue culture.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Human Embryonic Stem Cells/drug effects , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Noxae/pharmacology , X-Rays , Adult , Cardiotoxicity/drug therapy , Human Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Noxae/metabolism
7.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(3)2021-08-11. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Biosensing techniques have been the subject of exponentially increasing interest due to their performance advantages such as high selectivity and sensitivity, easy operation, low cost, short analysis time, simple sample preparation, and real-time detection. Biosensors have been developed by integrating the unique specificity of biological reactions and the high sensitivity of physical sensors. Therefore, there has been a broad scope of applications for biosensing techniques, and nowadays, they are ubiquitous in different areas of environmental, healthcare, and food safety. Biosensors have been used for environmental studies, detecting and quantifying pollutants in water, air, and soil. Biosensors also showed great potential for developing analytical tools with countless applications in diagnosing, preventing, and treating diseases, mainly by detecting biomarkers. Biosensors as a medical device can identify nucleic acids, proteins, peptides, metabolites, etc.; these analytes may be biomarkers associated with the disease status. Bacterial food contamination is considered a worldwide public health issue; biosensor-based analytical techniques can identify the presence or absence of pathogenic agents in food. OBJECTIVES: The present review aims to establish state-of-the-art, comprising the recent advances in the use of nucleic acid-based biosensors and their novel application for the detection of nucleic acids. Emphasis will be given to the performance characteristics, advantages, and challenges. Additionally, food safety applications of nucleic acid-based biosensors will be discussed. METHODS: Recent research articles related to nucleic acid-based biosensors, biosensors for detecting nucleic acids, biosensors and food safety, and biosensors in environmental monitoring were reviewed. Also, biosensing platforms associated with the clinical diagnosis and food industry were included. RESULTS: It is possible to appreciate that multiple applications of nucleic acid-based biosensors have been reported in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, as well as to identify foodborne pathogenic bacteria. The use of PNA and aptamers opens the possibility of developing new biometric tools with better analytical properties. CONCLUSIONS: Biosensors could be considered the most important tool for preventing, treating, and monitoring diseases that significantly impact human health. The aptamers have advantages as biorecognition elements due to the structural conformation, hybridization capacity, robustness, stability, and lower costs. It is necessary to implement biosensors in situ to identify analytes with high selectivity and lower detection limits


ANTECEDENTES: Las técnicas de biodetección han sido objeto de un interés cada vez mayor debido a ventajas, tales como alta selectividad y sensibilidad, facilidad de manejo, bajo costo, tiempo de análisis corto, preparación sencilla de muestras y detección en tiempo real. Los biosensores se han desarrollado integrando la especificidad única de las reacciones biológicas y la alta sensibilidad de los sensores físicos. Por lo tanto, las técnicas de biodetección han tenido un amplio campo de aplicación y hoy en día son omnipresentes en diferentes áreas del medio ambiente, la salud y la seguridad alimentaria. Se han utilizado biosensores para estudios ambientales, detectando y cuantificando contaminantes en el agua, el aire y el suelo. Los biosensores también mostraron un gran potencial para desarrollar herramientas analíticas con innumerables aplicaciones en el diagnóstico, prevención y tratamiento de enfermedades, principalmente mediante la detección de biomarcadores. Los biosensores como dispositivo médico pueden utilizarse para identificar ácidos nucleicos, proteínas, péptidos, metabolitos, etc. Estos analitos pueden ser biomarcadores asociados al estado de la enfermedad. La contaminación bacteriana de los alimentos se considera un problema de salud pública mundial; se pueden utilizar técnicas analíticas basadas en biosensores para determinar la presencia o ausencia de agentes patógenos en los alimentos. OBJETIVOS: La presente revisión tiene por objeto establecer los últimos adelantos en la utilización de biosensores basados en ácidos nucleicos y su novedosa aplicación para la detección de ácidos nucleicos. Se hará hincapié en las características del desempeño, las ventajas y los desafíos. Además, se examinarán las aplicaciones de los biosensores basados en ácidos nucleicos para la inocuidad de los alimentos. MÉTODOS: Se examinaron artículos de investigación recientes relacionados con los biosensores a base de ácidos nucleicos, los biosensores para la detección de ácidos nucleicos, los biosensores y la inocuidad de los alimentos, y los biosensores para la vigilancia del medio ambiente. También se incluyeron plataformas de biosensores asociadas al diagnóstico clínico y a la industria alimentaria. RESULTADOS: Es posible apreciar que se han reportado múltiples aplicaciones de biosensores basados en ácido nucleico para el diagnóstico, prevención y tratamiento de enfermedades, así como para identificar bacterias patógenas transmitidas por los alimentos. El uso de PNA y aptámeros abre la posibilidad de desarrollar nuevas herramientas biométricas con mejores propiedades analíticas. CONCLUSIONES: Los biosensores pueden ser considerados como los instrumentos más importantes para la prevención, el tratamiento y la vigilancia de las enfermedades que tienen un impacto significativo en la salud humana. Los aptámeros tienen ventajas como elemento de biorreconocimiento debido a la conformación estructural, capacidad de hibridación, robustez, estabilidad y menores costos. Es necesario implementar biosensores in situ para identificar analitos con alta selectividad y menores límites de detección


Subject(s)
Humans , Biosensing Techniques , Nucleic Acids , Biomarkers , Diagnosis , Noxae
8.
Neural Plast ; 2021: 6675052, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194488

ABSTRACT

In recent decades, little progress of objective evaluation of pain and noxious stimulation has been achieved under anesthesia. Some researches based on medical signals have failed to provide a general understanding of this problem. This paper presents a feature extraction method for heart rate variability signals, aiming at further improving the evaluation of noxious stimulation. In the process of data processing, the empirical mode decomposition is used to decompose and recombine heart rate variability signals, and the sliding time window approach is used to extract the signal features of noxious stimulation, respectively. The influence of window size on feature extraction is studied by changing the window size. By comparing the results, the feature extraction in the process of data processing is valuable, and the selection of window size has a significant impact. With the increase of selected window sizes, we can get better detection results. But for the best choice of window size, to ensure the accuracy of the results and to make it easy to use, then, we need to get just a suitable window size.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Heart Rate/physiology , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Noxae , Adolescent , Adult , Electrocardiography , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted , Time Factors , Young Adult
9.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072740

ABSTRACT

This study aims to quantify concentrations of minerals and trace elements in human milk (HM) and infant formula (IF) and evaluate associations with medical, social, environmental, and demographic variables. A prospective, case series study of 170 nursing mothers was made. HM samples were obtained from full-term (colostrum, intermediate and mature HM) and preterm (mature HM) mothers. Variables of interest were assessed by a questionnaire. For comparison, IF samples (n = 30) were analyzed in a cross-sectional study. Concentrations of 35 minerals, essential and toxic trace elements were quantified, 5 for the first time: thallium in HM and IF; strontium in preterm HM; and gallium, lithium and uranium in IF. In preterm and full-term HM, levels of selenium (p < 0.001) were significantly lower than recommended and were associated with low birth weight (p < 0.002). Cesium and strontium concentrations were significantly higher than recommended (p < 0.001). Associations were observed between arsenic and residence in an urban area (p = 0.013), and between lead and smoking (p = 0.024) and well-water consumption (p = 0.046). In IF, aluminum, vanadium, and uranium levels were higher than in HM (p < 0.001); uranium, quantified for the first time, was 100 times higher in all types of IF than in HM. Our results indicate that concentrations of most trace elements were within internationally accepted ranges for HM and IF. However, preterm infants are at increased risk of nutritional deficiencies and toxicity. IF manufacturers should reduce the content of toxic trace elements.


Subject(s)
Milk, Human/chemistry , Minerals/analysis , Pregnancy/statistics & numerical data , Trace Elements/analysis , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant Formula/chemistry , Infant, Newborn , Noxae/analysis , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Spain , Young Adult
10.
Acta amaz ; 51(1): 79-84, jan.-mar. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353172

ABSTRACT

A doença de Chagas, enfermidade causada pelo protozoário Trypanosoma cruzi, tem sido relacionada com frequência à transmissão oral pelo consumo de açaí. Métodos moleculares que fornecem uma identificação rápida e precisa do patógeno para a detecção da presença do parasita são de extrema importância para a detecção da presença do parasita neste alimento. Este estudo teve como objetivo otimizar a detecção de DNA de T. cruzi em polpa de açaí por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Foram preparadas várias diluições das formas tripomastigotas de T. cruzi DTU TcI cultivadas em meio de cultivo Liver Infusion Tryptose. O DNA de T. cruzi foi extraído das células e submetido à PCR. Posteriormente, as diluições da cultura foram adicionadas às polpas de açaí para avaliar o limite de detecção do novo ensaio de PCR otimizado. Mostramos que nosso ensaio pode detectar DNA de T. cruzi em polpas de açaí na concentração de 1.08 × 10-10 ng µL-1. Concluímos que a metodologia desenvolvida se mostra eficaz e pode ser uma ferramenta importante para a detecção de contaminação por T. cruzi em açaí.(AU)


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease , Foodborne Diseases , Genetic Carrier Screening , Noxae
11.
Ann Neurol ; 89(3): 444-458, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219556

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: It is unclear if stopping treatment with dabigatran, a new oral anticoagulant (NOAC), induces a paradoxical rebound prothrombotic state. We investigated if short-term (1-3 days) dabigatran cessation is associated with a higher thrombus volume than expected from a simple reversal of the anticoagulant effect. METHODS: Ten-week-old C57Bl/6 mice (n = 338) received one of the following oral treatments: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), dabigatran for 7 days with or without 1 to 4 day cessation, and aspirin in either a single dose or daily for 7 days. Some of the animals that ceased dabigatran for 1 to 3 days received single-dose aspirin. Thereafter, we induced FeCl3 -mediated carotid thrombosis in 130 mice, after which we performed micro computed tomography thrombus imaging. The other 208 mice underwent coagulation assays or platelet function tests. As an explorative pilot study, we reviewed the medical records of 18 consecutive patients with NOAC cessation-related cerebral infarction in a large acute stroke cohort. RESULTS: We observed a ~ 40% higher volume of carotid thrombus after dabigatran cessation at 1 to 3 days than after vehicle treatment and showed that this effect could be prevented by single-dose aspirin pretreatment. Dabigatran cessation unduly increased platelet aggregability for 2 days after drug cessation, an effect mediated through thrombin or arachidonic acid, which effect was significantly attenuated by single-dose aspirin pretreatment. In patients, short-term (≤ 3 days) cessation of NOAC therapy, compared with longer-term (≥ 5 days) cessation, tended to be associated with relatively high stroke severity. INTERPRETATION: We provide the first preclinical evidence that a rebound prothrombotic state follows short-term cessation of dabigatran therapy. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:444-458.


Subject(s)
Antithrombins/adverse effects , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Dabigatran/adverse effects , Deprescriptions , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/blood , Thrombophilia/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Antithrombins/pharmacology , Arachidonic Acid/blood , Aspirin/pharmacology , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/chemically induced , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/prevention & control , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Infarction/etiology , Cerebral Infarction/physiopathology , Cerebral Infarction/prevention & control , Chlorides/toxicity , Computed Tomography Angiography , Dabigatran/pharmacology , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Ferric Compounds/toxicity , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Ischemic Stroke/prevention & control , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Male , Mean Platelet Volume , Mice , Noxae/toxicity , Pilot Projects , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Platelet Count , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyridones/adverse effects , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Severity of Illness Index , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/etiology , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/prevention & control , Thrombin/metabolism , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/prevention & control , X-Ray Microtomography
12.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00592020, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1357869

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (TB) by molecular techniques has been broadly studied. These methods allow accelerating the diagnosis, in addition to presenting high specificity and sensitivity in the identification of the pathogen, critical characteristic for public health, especially when it comes to the direct diagnosis of the biologic samples, which has been little explored. This paper has evaluated a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) as a tool to diagnose TB, which was performed directly on the granulomatous material of suspicious lesions collected in a cold chamber under state inspection in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Of the 74 samples evaluated, 14.86% were positive, with 10.81% positive for mPCR and culture, 4.05% negative for cultivation and positive for mPCR. The correlation between the cultivation and the mPCR presented agreeance higher than 61.54% of the cases. The results have indicated that the protocol proved itself effective, fast and very promising in the surveillance in slaughterhouses for the diagnosis of tuberculosis directly from the granuloma.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Tuberculosis, Bovine/diagnosis , Diagnosis , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mycobacterium , Abattoirs , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Granuloma , Noxae
13.
Med. interna (Caracas) ; 37(1): 13-20, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1253882

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades infecciosas que comprometen el aparato respiratorio, generalmente son más graves en las gestantes y en las puérperas en comparación con las no embarazadas. Dentro de estas infecciones, se encuentran las producidas por agentes virales como la influenza estacional, pandémica y zoonótica, los coronavirus SARS, el MERS; y desde el año 2019 el SARS-CoV-2 causante de la actual pandemia COVID-19. Las noxas virales pueden ejercer un efecto deletéreo sobre el feto debido a respuesta inflamatoria vía cascada de citoquinas o daño directo a nivel de algunos tejidos. Los efectos del SARS-CoV-2 a nivel placentario, no están bien entendidos, los hallazgos histopatológicos incluyen alteraciones de la perfusión venosa materna y fetal y signos de inflamación placentaria en diferentes porcentajes. La placenta es un órgano altamente especializado que confiere una protección especial generando un ambiente protegido manteniendo un equilibrio de factores inmunes y bioquímicos que favorecen el desarrollo fetal. Su estructura funciona como una barrera protectora dificultando o impidiendo el paso de noxas al producto de la gestación. Diversos patógenos, incluyendo los virus pueden alterar los diferentes componentes celulares de la placenta. En la siguiente revisión describimos los más recientes hallazgos de la interacción con la placenta de diversos virus respiratorios y sus consecuencias en la salud materno fetal(AU)


Infectious diseases of the respiratory system generally present greater severity in women during pregnancy or puerperium, than in non-pregnant women. Among them, we find those produced by viral agents such as seasonal, pandemic and zoonotic influenza, SARS coronaviruses, MERS; and since 2019 the SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Viral noxae can exert a deleterious effect on the fetus due to an inflammatory response via the cytokines cascade or direct damage at some tissues. The effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the placenta is not well understood, the histopathological findings include alterations of maternal and fetal perfusion and signs of placental inflammation in different degrees. The placenta is a highly specialized organ that confers a special protection by generating a protected environment maintaining a balance of immune and biochemical factors that favor the fetal development. Its structure works as a protective barrier, hindering or preventing the passage of noxae to the fetus. Several pathogens, including viruses, can alter different cellular components of the placenta. In the review, we describe the most recent findings of the interaction of various respiratory viruses with the placenta and their consequences on maternal and fetal health(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Puerperal Infection , Respiratory Tract Diseases/physiopathology , Communicable Diseases , Pregnant Women , Viruses , Influenza, Human , COVID-19 , Noxae
15.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 27(supl.2): 4-14, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341334

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Neutrophils play an important role in immune defence against several pathogens. These cells actively participate in the innate immune response through different functions, such as chemotaxis, phagocytosis, oxidative burst and degranulation, which have been widely studied. However, in the last few years, a new function has been described; activated neutrophils are able to release web-like chromatin structures known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These structures formed by DNA, histones, and proteins, immobilize and kill microorganisms. Disruption in NET formation is associated with the pathophysiology of several disorders, including the autoimmune diseases. NETs are an important source of the autoantigens involved in the production of autoantibodies and maintenance of the inflammatory milieu. This review provides a summary of the contribution of NETs to the pathogenesis of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis. The preliminary findings on NETs components in Sjögren.'s syndrome will also be described.


RESUMEN Los neutrófilos juegan un papel muy importante en la defensa inmune contra diferentes patógenos. Estas células participan activamente en la respuesta inmune innata a través de diferentes funciones como quimiotaxis, fagocitosis, estallido oxidativo y degranulación, las cuales han sido estudiadas ampliamente. Sin embargo, en los últimos años se ha descrito una nueva función; los neutrófilos activados son capaces de liberar redes de cromatina llamadas trampas extracelulares de neutrófilos (NETs). Estas estructuras están formadas por ADN, histonas y proteínas capaces de inmovilizar y matar microorganismos. Alteraciones en la formación de estas NETs están asociadas con la fisiopatología de varios trastornos, incluyendo las enfermedades autoinmunes (EAI). Las NETs son consideradas una fuente de autoantígenos que ayudan a la producción de autoanticuerpos y al mantenimiento de un ambiente inflamatorio. Esta revisión resume la contribución de las NETs a la patogénesis de vasculitis asociada a anticuerpos contra el citoplasma de los neutrófilos, lupus eritematoso sistémico y artritis reumatoide. Adicionalmente, se describirán los resultados preliminares de la detección de componentes de las NETs en pacientes con síndrome de Sjögren.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmune Diseases , Extracellular Traps , Neutrophils , Pathogenesis, Homeopathic , Immunity , Noxae
16.
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(9): 524-528, 20200000. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1362782

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los abscesos hepáticos son infecciones focales supurativas. La Klebsiella pneumoniae es el agente etiológico más frecuente. Afecta principalmente a hombres de edad media, diabéticos, con afecciones hepáticas o en contexto de inmunodepresión. Se clasifican en abscesos colangíticos, pioflebíticos, hematógenos, por continuidad, traumáticos y criptogénicos, según mecanismo de producción. Se manifiestan con dolor abdominal en hipocondrio derecho, sd. febril y sd. colestásico en presencia de obstrucción de vía biliar. La ecografía, TAC y la Resonancia magnética de abdomen son los métodos de elección para determinar topografía y morfología de las colecciones. El tratamiento consiste en el drenaje oportuno de la colección por vía percutánea o quirúrgica, asociado al tratamiento antibiótico. Objetivos: 1. Análisis epidemiológico de abscesos hepáticos durante la Pandemia por Covid 19 en una Institución privada de Tucumán. 2. Estudiar la fisiopatología y agentes patógenos responsables de los mismos. 3. Comparar estadísticas con era similar no Covid 19. Material y métodos. Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo. Se incluyeron seis pacientes con diagnóstico de Absceso Hepático, cinco de ellos del período de la era Covid 19 y uno de la era no Covid 19. Las variables analizadas fueron: cantidad de pacientes ingresados al Servicio, pacientes con absceso hepático, sexo, edad, comorbilidades, métodos de diagnóstico imagenológico utilizados, localización anatómica del absceso, número de lesiones, microbiología de la muestra quirúrgica y en sangre, tratamiento implementado, días desde el diagnóstico hasta la resolución, STROC y recidiva. Resultados: En el análisis epidemiológico se evidenció un notable descenso de la actividad quirúrgica en el periodo del 2020, respecto al mismo período del año previo, a predominio del mes de abril con un porcentaje de descenso del 52%, coincidiendo este período con el inicio de la cuarentena en la provincia. En nuestra serie resultaron todos masculinos, hipertensos y 3 de ellos diabéticos. Todos estudiados por ecografía y 3 complementaron con TAC con contraste EV. Fueron tratados en un promedio de 48hs desde el diagnóstico. Cultivos positivos, Klebsiella Pn (3), St aureus (1), E. Coli (1), Bacilo gram ­ (1). Hemocultivos: 3 negativos, 2 positivos para Klebsiella Pn y 1 para St. Aureus. 3 pacientes fueron sometidos a drenaje percutáneo, 2 a laparoscópico y uno convencional. Se registraron 2 STROC IIIA y 1 IIIB. Un paciente obitó, el resto recibió alta sanatorial. Se registraron 2 recidivas. Conclusiones: Nuestros pacientes, en su totalidad masculinos y diabéticos, desarrollaron abscesos hepáticos piógenos; el agente patógeno más frecuente fue la Klebsiella Pneumoniae. Los abscesos criptogénicos fueron los más prevalentes. En las recidivas documentadas, se determinó misma ubicación topográfica y agente etiológico del primer episodio, lo que nos lleva a preguntarnos sobre la eficacia del tratamiento implementado en cada caso.


Introduction: liver abscess is a common infection. Klebsiella pneumoniae was de most frecuently etiologic agent. The patients were middle-aged men with diabetes, another liver afection or immunodepression context. According to the production mechanism, they are classified in colangitics, pyophlebics, haematogenes, by continuity, traumatic and cryptogrnics. Patients usually present with right upper quadrant, fever, colestasic síndrome when bile-way obstruction exist. Imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance are useful tools to demostrtate a space occupying lesión and morfology of liver abscess. Treatment consist in timely drainage by percutaneous or surgical route, plus antibiotic treatment. Objetives: 1. Epidemiological análisis of liver abscesses during the pandemic Covid 19 in a private center in Tucumán. 2. Study physiology and pathogenic agents. 3. Campare statistics whit previusly period. Materials and methods: retrospective descriptive study. Six live abscess diagnosis patient were included, five of them included in stage Covid 19 and only one belong stage no Covid 19. Variables analysed: number of patients belong to the Service, number of patients whit liver abscess diagnosis, sex, age, comorbilities, imaging methods, location and number of abscess, microbiology of surgical sample and blood, treatment, days from diagnosis to resolution, STROC and recidivation. Results: epidemiological análisis showed a decrease in surgeries in the period 2020, compared to the same period of the previous year, a predominance in April with a percentage decrease of 52%, coinciding with the start of quarantine in the province. All patients were male, hypertensive and 3 of them with diabetes. Al lof them studied by ultrasound and tomography with contrast. They were treated at 48hours of diagnosis. Microbiology of surgical sample positive: Klebsiella Pn (3), St aureus (1), E. Coli (1), Bacillos gram ­ (1). Microbiology of blood: 3 negative, 2 positive to Klebsiella Pn and 1 to St. Aureus. 3 patients were drainage by percutaneous , 2 by laparoscopic and 1 by surgical conventional. They registered 2 STROC IIIA y 1 IIIB. 1 patiente dead, the rest were external from hospital. Conclusions: our patients developed liver abscess, they were male, diabetics and the most frecuently agent was the Klebsiella pneumoniae. Criptogenics abscess were the most prevalent. The same topographic location in the liver and the etiologic agent was determined in recurrence. That´s why we wonder about the effectiveness of the treatment implemented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Recurrence , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Laparoscopy , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/therapy , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic/physiopathology , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic/therapy , COVID-19 , Liver Abscess/pathology , Noxae/immunology
17.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 214, ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103446

ABSTRACT

El término Origen Temprano de las Enfermedades del Adulto explica la aparición temprana de las condiciones anormales cardiovasculares y metabólicas en la vida adulta, mayor riesgo de morbilidad y muerte asociados a factores ambientales, especialmente nutricionales, que actúan en las primeras etapas de la vida. Estas respuestas programadas dependen de la naturaleza del estímulo o noxa, del tiempo de exposición y del momento de ocurrencia de la noxa, pudiendo un solo genotipo original varios fenotipos y estarían condicionadas por criterios críticos en los cuales se desarrollarían cambios a largo plazo pudiendo ser reversibles o no. La Programación Fetal explica que respuestas adaptativas embrionarias y fetales en un ambiente subóptimo genera consecuencias adversas permanentes. La desnutrición, así como la sobrenutrición fetal aumenta el riesgo de desarrollar alteraciones en el peso y composición corporal fetal, y posteriormente obesidad, síndrome metabólico, incremento en la adiposidad, alteración en el metabolismo de la glucosa y / o insulina, alteración del metabolismo lipídico, alteraciones hepáticas y de las cifras tensionales. La impronta genómica es esencial para el desarrollo y defectos en la misma puede originar alteraciones de la identidad parental transmisibles a las siguientes generaciones. Esta programación fetal puede ser explicada por la epigenética, definida como la serie de alteraciones hereditarias de la expresión genética a través de modificaciones del ADN y las histonas centrales sin cambios en la secuencia de ADN. Estas modificaciones epigenéticas alteran la estructura y condensación de la cromatina, afectando la expresión del genotipo y fenotipo. Este artículo desarrolla los aspectos involucrados en la Programación Fetal y los posibles mecanismos sobre la misma(AU)


The term Early Origin of Adult Diseases explains the early onset of abnormal cardiovascular and metabolic conditions in adult life, increased risk of morbidity and death associated with environmental factors, especially nutritional factors, that act in the early stages of life. These programmed responses depend on the nature of the stimulus or noxa, the time of exposure and the moment of occurrence of the noxa, with a single original genotype being able to have several phenotypes and would be conditioned by critical criteria in which long-term changes could develop, reversibles or not. Fetal Programming explains that embryonic and fetal adaptive responses in a suboptimal environment generate permanent adverse consequences. Fetal malnutrition as overnutrition increases the risk of developing alterations in fetal body weight and composition, and subsequently obesity, metabolic syndrome, increased adiposity, impaired glucose and / or insulin metabolism, impaired lipid metabolism, liver disorders and altered blood pressure. The genomic imprint is essential for development and defects in it can cause alterations of the parental identity and are transmitted to the following generations. This fetal programming can be explained by epigenetics, defined as the series of inherited alterations of genetic expression through modifications of DNA and central histones without changes in the DNA sequence. These epigenetic modifications alter the structure and condensation of chromatin, affecting the expression of the genotype and phenotype. This article develops the aspects involved in Fetal Programming and the possible mechanisms on it(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Fetal Nutrition Disorders , Fetal Development , Noxae , Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases , Body Composition , Hypothalamus/anatomy & histology , Metabolism, Inborn Errors
18.
Infectio ; 24(2): 93-97, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114847

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The tourniquet used in venipuncture appears as a potential vehicle for the transmission of microorganisms that interferes with safety and the quality of clinical services. Objective: Mapping the scientific evidence on the microbiological contamination of the tourniquets used in peripheral venipuncture. Methodology: Scoping review following the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology. Results: 20 studies have been included, in which of 1477 tourniquets were analyzed. The rates of microbiological contamination varied between 10-100% and 19 studies reported the presence of S. aureus, 11 of them detected methicillin-resistant strains with prevalence between 3.3-58.3%. Conclusion: The contamination rate in the majority of studies was ≥70%, including 4 studies which had sampled ≥100 tourniquets. The evidence of our study is that the tourniquets are reservoirs of potential pathogens and can be transmitted to patient on staff hands. We recommend studies that confirm the reusable tourniquets can be responsible to healthcare associated infections.


Resumen Introducción: El torniquete utilizado en la venopunción aparece como potencial vehículo para transmisión de microorganismos que entorpece la seguridad y calidad de los servicios clínicos. Objetivo: Mapear pruebas científicas sobre contaminación microbiológica de los torniquetes utilizados en la venopunción periférica. Metodología: Revisión de acuerdo con la metodología del Instituto Joanna Briggs. Resultados: Se han incluido 20 estudios, en los que se analizó un total de 1477 torniquetes. Las tasas de contaminación microbiológica variaron entre 10-100% y 19 estudios informaron la presencia de S. aureus, 11 detectaron cepas resistentes a meticilina con prevalencia entre 3.3-58.3%. Conclusión: La tasa de contaminación en mayoría de los estudios fue ≥70%, 4 estudios que habían muestreado ≥100 torniquetes. Nuestro estudio evidencia que los torniquetes son reservorios de patógenos y pueden transmitirse al paciente en manos del personal. Recomendamos estudios que confirmen que los torniquetes pueden ser responsables de las infecciones asociadas a la atención médica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tourniquets , Staphylococcus aureus , Cross Infection , Anti-Infective Agents , Noxae
19.
J Neurogenet ; 34(3-4): 430-439, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362197

ABSTRACT

Across animal phyla, sleep is associated with increased cellular repair, suggesting that cellular damage may be a core component of sleep pressure. In support of this notion, sleep in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can be triggered by damaging conditions, including noxious heat, high salt, and ultraviolet light exposure. It is not clear, however, whether this stress-induced sleep (SIS) is a direct consequence of cellular damage, or of a resulting energy deficit, or whether it is triggered simply by the sensation of noxious conditions. Here, we show that thermosensation is dispensable for heat-induced sleep, that osmosensation is dispensable for salt-induced sleep, and that wounding is also a sleep trigger, together indicating that SIS is not triggered by sensation of noxious environments. We present evidence that genetic variation in cellular repair pathways impacts sleep amount, and that SIS involves systemic monitoring of cellular damage. We show that the low-energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is not required for SIS, suggesting that energy deficit is not the primary sleep trigger. Instead, AMPK-deficient animals display enhanced SIS responses, and pharmacological activation of AMPK reduces SIS, suggesting that ATP-dependent repair of cellular damage mitigates sleep pressure.


Subject(s)
Caenorhabditis elegans/physiology , Sleep/physiology , Wound Healing/physiology , Adenylate Kinase/physiology , Aminoimidazole Carboxamide/analogs & derivatives , Aminoimidazole Carboxamide/pharmacology , Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins/physiology , Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics , Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics , Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/physiology , Endotoxins/physiology , Enzyme Activation , Hemolysin Proteins/physiology , Hot Temperature , Noxae , Osmotic Pressure/physiology , Ribonucleotides/pharmacology , Sleep/genetics , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Stress, Physiological/physiology , Ultraviolet Rays , Wounds and Injuries/physiopathology
20.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(3): 691-701, 01-05-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146440

ABSTRACT

The application of chemical pesticides for the control of fungal diseases results in impacts on the environment and human health. The use of vegetal extracts with antifungal properties for the proper management of crops becomes a viable alternative, mainly for organic and family farming. The objective of this study was to carry out the phytochemical evaluation of Datura inoxia, evaluating its antifungal potential against the mycelial growth of Fusarium solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The extracts, aqueous and ethanolic, obtained from the leaves of the plant collected in areas of the municipality of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, were submitted to phytochemical prospecting and quantification of flavonoids and total phenols. It was evaluated its antifungal activity at concentrations of 800, 1200, 1600, 2000, and 2400 µg 100 mL-1. Each concentration was separately incorporated into BDA agar, poured into Petri dishes, and inoculated with the mycelial disc of the fungus. The diameter of the colonies were measured daily. Two solutions were prepared as control, one containing the solvent added to PDA medium (ethanol solution), and another with only PDA medium (without D. inoxia extract, control). In both extracts were found the same diversity of secondary metabolites (nine classes). The ethanolic extract, a solvent of lower polarity than water, was more efficient in the extraction of these constituents. Alkaloids and phenolic compounds were the most frequent compounds (100%). In relation to antifungal activity, the ethanolic extract provided 100% inhibition of mycelial growth ofSclerotinia sclerotitorum in all concentrations, relative to the control. On the other hand, the growth ofFusarium solani was only negatively affected at the highest concentrations of 800 and 1200 µmL-1 100 mL-1. The antifungal potential of Datura inoxia was probably related to the abundance of alkaloids and phenolic compounds in its chemical constitution that negatively effects the development of the vegetative mycelium.


A aplicação de defensivos químicos para o controle de doenças fúngicas tem por consequência impactos sobre o ambiente e a saúde humana. Desta forma, a utilização de extratos vegetais com propriedades antifúngicas associado ao manejo adequado de culturas, torna-se uma proposta viável de controle alternativo, principalmente na agricultura orgânica e familiar. Neste sentido, objetivou-se realizar a avaliação fitoquímica das folhas de Datura inoxia, avaliando seu potencial antifúngico frente ao crescimento micelial de Fusarium solani e Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Os extratos, aquoso e etanólico, obtidos das folhas da planta coletadas em áreas do município de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, foram submetidos à prospecção fitoquímica e quantificação flavonoides e fenóis totais, avaliando-se sua atividade antifúngica em concentrações de 800, 1200, 1600, 2000 e 2400 µg 100 mL-1. Cada concentração foi incorporada, separadamente, em ágar BDA, vertida em placas de petri, seguida da colocação do disco de micélio do fungo, com diâmetro das colônias sendo medido diariamente. Utilizou-se como controle negativo, ágar sem extrato e ágar com solução etanólica. Nos dois extratos ocorreu a mesma diversidade de metabólitos secundários (nove classes); porém o extrato etanólico, um solvente de menor polaridade que a água, foi mais eficiente na extração destes constituintes, com destaque aos alcaloides e compostos fenólicos com maior frequência (100%). Em relação a atividade antifúngica, o extrato etanólico proporcionou inibição de 100% do crescimento micelial de Sclerotinia sclerotitorum, em todas as concentrações, em relação a testemunha. Por outro lado, o crescimento de Fusarium solani foi afetado negativamente apenas nas maiores concentrações, 800 e 1200 µmL-1 100 mL-1.O potencial antifúngico da planta provavelmente está relacionado a sua constituição química, com abundância de alcaloides e compostos fenólicos, afetando negativamente o desenvolvimento do micélio vegetativo.


Subject(s)
Soil , Plant Extracts , Datura metel , Fungi , Pesticides , Plant Diseases , Ascomycota , Phenolic Compounds , Phytochemicals , Fusarium , Noxae
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