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1.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 38: 549-553, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increased body mass index (BMI) adversely affects the mechanics of the musculoskeletal system. It is known that obese people have poorer postural stability and mobility-related outcomes compared to normal weight people, but there is limited research comparing overweight and class 1 obese people, two consecutive and prevalent BMI categories. AIMS: To compare postural stability, functional mobility, and risk of falling and developing disability between overweight and obese women, and to investigate the relationship of BMI and body weight with the outcomes. METHODS: Thirty women with class 1 obesity and 30 overweight women were included. Standing postural stability with eyes-open and eyes-closed and stability limits were assessed using the Prokin system. The Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) was used to assess functional mobility and risk of falling (≥11 s) and developing disability (≥9 s). RESULTS: The average center of pressure displacements on the y-axis (COPY) obtained during quiet standing with both eyes-open and eyes-closed were higher in obese women than overweight women (p < 0.05) and the effect sizes were moderate for the results. The COPY values in the eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions were correlated with BMI (r = 0.295 and r = 0.285, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the COPX value in the eyes-open condition and the TUG score were correlated with body weight (r = 0.274 and r = 0.257, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Obese women had poorer static standing stability in the anteroposterior direction than overweight women, while functional mobility and risk of falling and developing disability did not differ. Furthermore, BMI and body weight were related to poorer static standing stability.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Body Mass Index , Obesity , Overweight , Postural Balance , Humans , Female , Postural Balance/physiology , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Obesity/physiopathology , Obesity/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Overweight/physiopathology , Overweight/epidemiology , Adult , Aged
2.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302510, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The increased prevalence of overweight and obesity, along with high diet diversity, is observed among higher socio-economic groups in Sub-Saharan Africa. One contributing factor to these observed variations is food choice motives. However, the role of these motives in explaining the observed differences has not been thoroughly explored in this context. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates whether there are significant differences in food choice motives among socio-economic groups and whether these variations can partly explain the socio-economic disparities in diet diversity and overweight and obesity outcomes. METHODS: This study utilizes cross-sectional data from four counties in Kenya: Kiambu, Murang'a, Uasin Gishu, and Nakuru. The survey employed a three-stage cluster sample design to gather data using structured questionnaires on food choice motives, diet diversity, and anthropometrics from 381 adults in 2022. The mediating effects of 8 food choice motives (health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, and familiarity) were analyzed using the Karlson-Holm-Breen method. RESULTS: The results show that individuals with higher household incomes place greater importance on health, mood, sensory, and weight concerns. The probability of an overweight and obesity outcome increases by 19% for a standard deviation change in the asset score, and by 8% for a standard deviation change in the years of schooling. Sensory motives significantly mediated these relationships. Sensory motives explained 29% of the income-BMI association and 30% of the education-BMI relationship. Higher education was also associated with increased diet diversity (ß = 0.36, P < 0.001) mediated by higher health and sensory concerns. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest significant differences in food choice motives among socio-economic groups, which contribute to outcomes such as overweight and obesity. Therefore, educational and other policies aimed at reducing obesity should also address food choice motives, while considering the disparities among socio-economic segments within populations.


Subject(s)
Diet , Food Preferences , Motivation , Obesity , Socioeconomic Factors , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/psychology , Female , Male , Food Preferences/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Choice Behavior , Adolescent , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/psychology
3.
Nutrients ; 16(9)2024 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732598

ABSTRACT

Background: Breastfeeding appears to reduce the risk of childhood overweight/obesity. However, it remains unclear whether this protective effect persists among high-risk populations. This study aims to investigate the association of breastfeeding with the risk of overweight/obesity in early childhood and whether this association is altered by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or size at birth. Methods: Feeding practices during the first 12 months of age and weight and length at 12-36 months of age were collected. Full breastfeeding includes exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. Children with body mass index (BMI) values greater than 1 standard deviation from the mean of sex- and age-specific BMI were classified as overweight/obese. Multiple generalized estimating equations models were applied to analyze the associations of full breastfeeding duration with overweight/obesity risk. Results: Among all participants (n = 9329), infants with a longer full-breastfeeding duration had a reduced risk of overweight/obesity in early childhood compared with those breastfed for less than one month. Infants exposed to GDM and those born large for gestational age (LGA) had a higher risk of overweight/obesity in early childhood. Among infants of mothers with GDM (n = 1748), infants with full breastfeeding for greater than 6 months (aOR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.78) showed a decreased risk of overweight/obesity in early childhood compared with those breastfed for less than one month. Among LGA infants (n = 1279), infants with full breastfeeding for 3-5 months (aOR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.76) and greater than 6 months (aOR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.88) showed a decreased risk of overweight/obesity in early childhood. Similar results were observed among LGA infants of mothers with GDM. Conclusions: Initiating and prolonging breastfeeding would reduce the risk of overweight/obesity in early childhood, and LGA infants and infants born to mothers with GDM would experience greater benefits.


Subject(s)
Birth Weight , Breast Feeding , Diabetes, Gestational , Pediatric Obesity , Humans , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational/prevention & control , Diabetes, Gestational/etiology , Female , Pregnancy , Infant , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Pediatric Obesity/etiology , Male , Child, Preschool , Infant, Newborn , Risk Factors , Body Mass Index , Adult , Overweight/epidemiology
4.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 302, 2024 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are increasing at epidemic levels in all ages globally, but there is little nationally representative data on female adolescents in Nigeria. The focus on female adolescents is important because of the negative implications of overweight and obesity on their health and survival, and that of their unborn children. AIM: To estimate the prevalence and identify the determinants of overweight and obesity among female adolescents in Nigeria. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from the Nigeria demographic and health survey, 2018. A total of 2,721 female adolescents aged 15-19 years were selected using cluster sampling technique. Overweight and obesity were determined using BMI-for-age reference values of World Health Organization and different explanatory variables at the individual, household and community levels were included. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify the determinants of overweight/obesity using five models. RESULTS: The mean age of the respondents was 16.8 ± 1.4 years. The prevalence rate of overweight/obesity was 10.2%, but with a large variation in the geographical and socio-economic distribution. At the crude/unadjusted rate, nearly all the explanatory variables showed a statistically significant association with overweight and obesity, but at the full model which controlled for all the explanatory variables, only the household wealth index retained its statistically significant association, such that female adolescents who were from richer and richest households had about 3 times higher odds of being obese compared to those from the poorest households. (OR: 2.7; p = 0.018; CI: 1.18-6.18), (OR: 2.8; p = 0.027; CI: 1.13-7.06) respectively. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of overweight/obesity among female adolescents in Nigeria was 10.2%. The household wealth index remained the only factor with a statistically significant association with overweight and obesity after controlling for confounders. Efforts at addressing overweight and obesity among female adolescents in Nigeria should target those from the richer/richest households.


Subject(s)
Overweight , Humans , Adolescent , Female , Nigeria/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Overweight/epidemiology , Prevalence , Young Adult , Body Mass Index , Obesity/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Socioeconomic Factors , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology
5.
Gac Med Mex ; 160(1): 53-61, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a global problem that affects schoolchildren and can increase the risk of diseases in adulthood. Adult members of the Yaqui Indigenous group have been shown to have serious health problems, and Yaqui schoolchildren could therefore find themselves in a similar situation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the nutritional status, lipid profile and associated factors in a sample of Yaqui schoolchildren. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 109 Yaqui schoolchildren who lived in their localities of origin were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were carried out, a venous blood sample was extracted in fasting conditions, and several questionnaires were applied. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 38.5%, with no cases of chronic malnutrition being recorded; 38.6% of the children had dyslipidemia. Fiber consumption was a protective factor against overweight/obesity, while fat intake was a risk factor. The physical activity score was found to be a protective factor against dyslipidemia, and the risk factors were BMI-for-age Z-scores, waist circumference, family history of dyslipidemia, educational level, and permanent employment. CONCLUSIONS: Yaqui schoolchildren equally suffer from a high proportion of overweight/obesity and dyslipidemia. The associated factors may be useful for the design of contextualized interventions for this population.


ANTECEDENTES: La malnutrición es un problema mundial que afecta a niños escolares, capaz de incrementar el riesgo de enfermedades en la edad adulta. Adultos yaquis han presentado graves problemas de salud, por lo que los escolares podrían encontrarse en una situación similar. OBJETIVO: Evaluar el estado nutricional, el perfil lipídico y los factores asociados en una muestra de escolares yaquis. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron 109 escolares habitantes de los pueblos originarios, en quienes se realizaron mediciones antropométricas, se extrajo una muestra de sangre venosa en condición de ayuno y se aplicaron cuestionarios. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad fue de 38.5 %, sin que se registraran casos de desnutrición crónica; 38.6 % de los escolares presentó dislipidemia. El consumo de fibra resultó ser un factor protector contra sobrepeso/obesidad y el consumo de grasa constituyó un factor de riesgo. La puntuación de actividad física resultó ser un factor protector contra dislipidemia y los factores de riesgo fueron puntuaciones Z del índice de masa corporal/edad, circunferencia de cintura, historia familiar de dislipidemias, nivel educativo y empleo permanente. CONCLUSIONES: Los escolares yaquis padecen por igual alta proporción de sobrepeso/obesidad y dislipidemia. Los factores asociados pueden resultar útiles para el diseño de intervenciones contextualizadas para esta población.


Subject(s)
Dyslipidemias , Nutritional Status , Overweight , Humans , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Male , Female , Child , Risk Factors , Adolescent , Prevalence , Overweight/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Body Mass Index
6.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1210, 2024 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Available data show that the epidemiological profile of most indigenous Brazilian populations is characterized by the coexistence of long-standing health problems (high prevalence of infectious and parasitic diseases, malnutrition, and deficiency diseases, such as anemia in children and women of reproductive age), associated with new health problems, especially those related to obesity (hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia). Based on this scenario, this study analyzed the nutritional profile of the adult population of seven indigenous peoples from the Brazilian Amazon in the years 2007 and 2021. METHODS: A total of 598 adults individuals were analyzed in 2007 (319 women and 279 men) and 924 in 2021 (483 women and 441 men), from seven indigenous peoples located in the state of Pará, who were assisted during health actions carried out in 2007 and in 2021. Body mass index classification used the World Health Organization criteria for adults: low weight, < 18.5 kg/m2; normal weight, ≥ 18.5 and < 25 kg/m2); overweight, ≥ 25 and < 30 kg/m2, and obesity, ≥ 30 kg/m2. A waist circumference (WC) < 90 cm in men and < 80 cm in women was considered normal. RESULTS: The data revealed heterogeneous anthropometric profiles, with a low prevalence of nutritional changes in the Araweté, Arara and Parakanã peoples, and high proportions of excess weight and abdominal obesity in the Kararaô, Xikrin do Bacajá, Asurini do Xingu and Gavião peoples, similar to or even higher than the national averages. CONCLUSION: Different stages of nutritional transition were identified in the indigenous peoples analyzed, despite apparently having been subjected to the same environmental pressures that shaped their nutritional profile in recent decades, which may indicate different genetic susceptibilities to nutritional changes. The evidence shown in this study strongly suggests the need to investigate in greater depth the genetic and environmental factors associated with the nutritional profile of Brazilian indigenous peoples, with assessment of diet, physical activity and sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables that enable the development of appropriate prevention and monitoring measures.


Subject(s)
Indians, South American , Obesity, Abdominal , Obesity , Overweight , Humans , Brazil/epidemiology , Female , Male , Adult , Obesity, Abdominal/epidemiology , Obesity, Abdominal/ethnology , Indians, South American/statistics & numerical data , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/ethnology , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/ethnology , Young Adult , Prevalence , Indigenous Peoples/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent
7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(9): e033610, 2024 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700033

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity represent critical modifiable determinants in the prevention of cardiometabolic disease (CMD). However, the long-term impact of prior overweight/obesity on the risk of CMD in later life remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between longitudinal transition of body mass index (BMI) status and incident CMD. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prospective cohort study included 57 493 CMD-free Chinese adults from the Kailuan Study. BMI change patterns were categorized according to the BMI measurements obtained during the 2006 and 2012 surveys. The primary end point was a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. Cox regression models were used to evaluate the associations of transitions in BMI with overall CMD events and subtypes, with covariates selected on the basis of the directed acyclic graph. During a median follow-up of 7.62 years, 8412 participants developed CMD. After considering potential confounders, weight gain pattern (hazard ratio [HR], 1.34 [95% CI, 1.23-1.46]), stable overweight/obesity (HR, 2.12 [95% CI, 2.00-2.24]), and past overweight/obesity (HR, 1.73 [95% CI, 1.59-1.89]) were associated with the incidence of CMD. Similar results were observed in cardiometabolic multimorbidity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. Additionally, triglyceride and systolic blood pressure explained 8.05% (95% CI, 5.87-10.22) and 12.10% (95% CI, 9.19-15.02) of the association between past overweight/obesity and incident CMD, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A history of overweight/obesity was associated with an increased risk of CMD, even in the absence of current BMI abnormalities. These findings emphasize the necessity for future public health guidelines to include preventive interventions for CMD in individuals with past overweight/obesity.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Obesity , Overweight , Humans , Male , China/epidemiology , Female , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Obesity/epidemiology , Adult , Incidence , Overweight/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors
8.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1323660, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706541

ABSTRACT

Background: Childhood malnutrition is a public health issue in developing countries, leading to a double burden of malnutrition, which is associated with both overweight and underweight. Objective: To assess body weight satisfaction and perception as well as body weight modification experiences, among adolescents from Saudi Arabia. Method: This study utilized a cross-sectional design targeting adolescents who attempted to modify their body weight. A questionnaire was constructed to measure their demographics, body weight satisfaction and perception, and experience concerning their weight modification attempts. The chi-square test was used to assess the association between the ability to modify weight and maintain the modification according to the ability to set an appropriate weight target based on the age and height of the adolescents, method of weight modification, and receipt of support to modify weight. Results: A total of 285 adolescents were recruited. More than half of the sample were female (58%); most respondents were secondary school students (73%). Nearly 45% had abnormal body weight where 12.6% were underweight, and 32.3% were overweight or obese. Most of the recruited sample were unsatisfied with their body weight (63%). Although 52% of the adolescents had a normal BMI, only 35% perceived their body weight as normal. Nearly 75% of the sample were able to modify their body weight. However, a smaller proportion were able to maintain the modification they achieved. The most frequently selected body weight modification method was dieting (83%), followed by exercise (69%). Only 40 adolescents (14%) reported consulting a physician regarding their body weight modification attempts. The most frequently reported source of support for weight modification was the family (51%), while the lowest frequency of support was reported concerning schools' contribution (29%). Upon assessing factors associated with the ability to modify weight or maintain the modification, a higher frequency of adolescents who indicated they employed dieting behavior were able to maintain the modification compared to other weight modification practices (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings highlight the importance of collaboration between families, schools, and healthcare services to improve adolescent body image and ensure the adoption of healthy body weight modification practices among adolescents.


Subject(s)
Body Weight , Humans , Saudi Arabia , Adolescent , Female , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thinness , Body Mass Index , Overweight/epidemiology , Body Image/psychology
9.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 65(1): E43-E49, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706769

ABSTRACT

Background: Overweight has been associated with several social and phycological problems and is perceived as one of the major health care challenges to focus on in the future. The purpose of the study is to investigate the correlations among nutritional status, assessed by the Body Mass Index, the perception of one's own health status and Life Satisfaction, detected in Italian adolescents living in Tuscany Region, and to investigate the influence of gender on them. Methods: A statistically representative sample of 2760 Tuscan adolescents aged 11, 13 and 15 was involved in the 2018 Health Behaviours at School-aged Children survey. The participants were divided into three nutritional status class: underweight, normal weight and overweight (overweight + obese). Results: The results show that there is a statistically significant difference in all categories between boys and girls aged 13 and 15 years; in girls aged 11 and 13 years, the Life Satisfaction of the overweight group is statistically lower than that of normal and underweight groups; Self-Rated Health is statistically lower in all age groups for overweight individuals compared to normal weight children, except for 11-year-old females. Conclusions: Viewing the psychosocial problems related to overweight, more attention and care must be placed on adolescents to ensure their healthier development.


Subject(s)
Health Status , Nutritional Status , Overweight , Personal Satisfaction , Humans , Italy , Female , Male , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Child , Overweight/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Health Behavior , Thinness/psychology , Thinness/epidemiology
10.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 65(1): E73-E82, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706772

ABSTRACT

Background: The increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight among health workers calls for an appraisal of their lifestyle. This study assessed medical practitioners' workhour feeding and lifestyle practices and explored the relationship between these practices and their body mass index (BMI). Methods: The survey involved 321 medical practitioners selected from 9 northern Nigeria hospitals in 2021. Data collected included biodata, medication history, workhour feeding characteristics, lifestyle behaviours, blood pressure, height, and weight measurements. Data were analyzed using Epi info software (version 7). Results: Most respondents were male (70.7%). Their mean age was 38 ± 7.4 years. During their last workhours, 84.1% had lunch, and 46.4% took sugary drinks. Usually, 41.7% source their lunch from the hospital canteen, and 18.7% patronize their canteen at least weekly. Most reported healthy behaviour towards alcohol consumption (99.7%), fruit and vegetable consumption (54.8%) and smoking (98.4%). However, only 22.4% were physically active. Their mean healthy behaviour score and BMI were 2.8 ± 0.7 and 26.1 ± 4.6 kg/m2, respectively. The obesity and overweight rates were 18.4% and 37.7%, respectively. Their source of lunch during workhours, age, sex, years of practice, employment duration, marital status, job category, systolic blood pressure, anti-hypertensive, and antidiabetic medication use were significantly associated with mean BMI. However, only antihypertensive medication use, being married, inadequate fruit/vegetable consumption and workhour sugary drinks consumption predicted obesity. The predictors of overweight/obese were years of practice (< 10 y) and use of antihypertensive medications. Conclusions: Obesity and overweight rates were high. Most were physically inactive. Workhour sugary drink consumption predicted obesity. Effective workplace and community interventions to improve practitioners' lifestyle behaviour and curtail obesity and overweight are needed.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Nigeria , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Middle Aged , Feeding Behavior , Physicians , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology
11.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1322, 2024 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755591

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The problem of overweight/obesity often coexists with the burden of undernutrition in most low- and middle-income countries. BMI change in India incorporating the most recent trends has been under-researched. METHODS: This repeated cross-sectional study of 1,477,885 adults in India analyzed the prevalence of different categories of BMI among adults (age 20-54) in 4 rounds of National Family Health Surveys (1998-1999, 2005-2006, 2015-2016, and 2019-2021) for 36 states/UTs. State differences across time were harmonized for accurate analysis. The categories were Severely/Moderately Thin (BMI < 17.0), Mildly Thin (17.0-18.4), Normal (18.5-24.9), Overweight (25.0-29.9), and Obese (≥ 30.0). We also estimated change in Standardized Absolute Change (SAC), ranking of states, and headcount burden to quantify the trend of BMI distribution across time periods for all-India, urban/rural residence, and by states/UTs. RESULTS: The prevalence of thinness declined from 31.7% in 1999 to 14.2% in 2021 for women, and from 23.4% in 2006 to 10.0% in 2021 for men. Obesity prevalence increased from 2.9% (1999) to 6.3% (2021) for women, and from 2.0% (2006) to 4.2% (2021) for men. In 2021, the states with the highest obesity prevalence were Puducherry, Chandigarh, and Delhi. These states also had a high prevalence of overweight. Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Diu, Gujarat, Jharkhand, and Bihar had the highest prevalence of severe/moderately thin. Prevalence of extreme categories (severely/moderately thin and obese) was larger in the case of women than men. While States/UTs with a higher prevalence of thin populations tend to have a larger absolute burden of severe or moderate thinness, the relationship between headcount burden and prevalence for overweight and obese is unclear. CONCLUSIONS: We found persistent interstate inequalities of undernutrition. Tailored efforts at state levels are required to further strengthen existing policies and develop new interventions to target both forms of malnutrition.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Obesity , Overweight , Humans , India/epidemiology , Adult , Male , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prevalence , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Young Adult , Overweight/epidemiology , Thinness/epidemiology , Health Surveys
12.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1371420, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721538

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Body mass composition is directly related to health and its disorders are correlated with diseases such as obesity, diabetes, osteoporosis and sarcopenia. The purpose of this study was to analyze body mass composition among traditional elementary school students and ballet school students. Methods: A total of 340 students participated in the study, 95 of whom attended ballet school and 245 elementary school students. A Tanita BC-418 MA analyzer was used to analyze body mass composition. Such body composition indices as BMI (Body Mass Index), muscle mass, fat mass, lean body mass and water content were evaluated. Results: The results show statistical significance for BMI between high school ballet students and elementary school ballet students, as well between high school ballet students and elementary school students. Comparisons in relation to gender and schools BMI, statistical significance was obtained for: BHSw (ballet high school women) and EBSw (elementary ballet school women), BHSw and ESw (elementary school women), BHSm (ballet high school men) and EBSm (elementary ballet school men), and between BHSm and ESw. Comparing muscle mass index (kg) between ballet high school and elementary school, between ballet high school and elementary school, and between ballet high school and elementary school - statistical significance was obtained for all comparisons. Analyzing in pairwise comparisons by gender and school achieved a statistically significant difference for: BHSw and EBSw, BHSm and EBSw, EBSw and ESm. Comparing the fat mass index (kg), no significant differences were observed between the analyzed schools and the school and gender of the children studied. The value of the lean body mass index differed significantly between groups by school and gender. Comparing the water content index, statistically significant differences were obtained for school and gender. Discussion: The body mass composition of ballet school students differs from that of standard school students.


Subject(s)
Body Composition , Body Mass Index , Overweight , Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity , Students/statistics & numerical data
13.
Physiol Res ; 73(2): 265-271, 2024 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710056

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the serum vitamin D level in overweight individuals and its correlation with the incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Between May 2020 and May 2021, the Department of Gastroenterology at the People's Hospital of Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine treated a total of 321 outpatients and inpatients with NAFLD, who were included in the NAFLD group, while 245 healthy age- and gender-matched individuals were included in the control group. All the data were collected for the relevant indices, including fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine transaminase, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D. The patients with NAFLD were divided into the normal BMI group, the overweight group, and the obese group, according to the body mass index, and the 25(OH)D levels were compared between the different groups. Spearman's correlation analysis was performed to analyze the correlation between the serum 25(OH)D level and NAFLD. Regarding the serum 25 (OH)D level, it was lower in the NAFLD group than in the control group ([18.36 + 1.41] µg/L vs [22.33 + 2.59] µg/L, t = ?5.15, P<0.001), and was lower in the overweight group than in the normal group ([18.09 ± 5.81] µg/L vs [20.60 ± 4.16] µg/L, t = 0.26, P = 0.041). The serum 25(OH)D level was thus negatively correlated with the incidence of NAFLD in overweight individuals (r = 0.625, P<0.05). In conclusion, the level of 25(OH)D decreased in patients with NAFLD with increasing BMI (normal, overweight, obese). Keywords: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Vitamin D.


Subject(s)
Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Overweight , Vitamin D , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/blood , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Male , Female , Vitamin D/blood , Middle Aged , Overweight/blood , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/complications , Incidence , Adult , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis
14.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e075269, 2024 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569715

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the associations of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) trajectories with adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study. SETTING: This study was conducted in Shanghai Pudong New Area Health Care Hospital for Women and Children, Shanghai, China. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: A cohort study involving a total of 2174 pregnant women was conducted. Each participant was followed to record weekly weight gain and pregnancy outcomes. The Institute of Medicine classification was used to categorise prepregnancy BMI, and four GWG trajectories were identified using a latent class growth model. RESULTS: The adjusted ORs for the risks of large for gestational age (LGA), macrosomia, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) were significantly greater for women with prepregnancy overweight/obesity (OR=1.77, 2.13, 1.95 and 4.24; 95% CI 1.3 to 2.42, 1.32 to 3.46, 1.43 to 2.66 and 2.01 to 8.93, respectively) and lower for those who were underweight than for those with normal weight (excluding HDP) (OR=0.35, 0.27 and 0.59; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.53, 0.11 to 0.66 and 0.36 to 0.89, respectively). The risk of small for gestational age (SGA) and low birth weight (LBW) was significantly increased in the underweight group (OR=3.11, 2.20; 95% CI 1.63 to 5.92, 1.10 to 4.41; respectively) compared with the normal-weight group; however, the risk did not decrease in the overweight/obese group (p=0.942, 0.697, respectively). GWG was divided into four trajectories, accounting for 16.6%, 41.4%, 31.7% and 10.3% of the participants, respectively. After adjustment for confounding factors, the risk of LGA was 1.54 times greater for women in the slow GWG trajectory group than for those in the extremely slow GWG trajectory group (95% CI 1.07 to 2.21); the risk of SGA and LBW was 0.37 times and 0.46 times lower for women in the moderate GWG trajectory group and 0.14 times and 0.15 times lower for women in the rapid GWG trajectory group, respectively; the risk of macrosomia and LGA was 2.65 times and 2.70 times greater for women in the moderate GWG trajectory group and 3.53 times and 4.36 times greater for women in the rapid GWG trajectory group, respectively; and the women in the other three trajectory groups had a lower risk of GDM than did those in the extremely slow GWG trajectory group, but there was not much variation in the ORs. Notably, different GWG trajectories did not affect the risk of HDP. CONCLUSIONS: As independent risk factors, excessively high and low prepregnancy BMI and GWG can increase the risk of APOs.


Subject(s)
Diabetes, Gestational , Gestational Weight Gain , Child , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Overweight/complications , Overweight/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Fetal Macrosomia/epidemiology , Fetal Macrosomia/complications , Cohort Studies , Thinness/complications , Thinness/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , China/epidemiology , Weight Gain , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Weight Loss
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 119(4): 990-1006, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to several adverse health outcomes, thus many countries introduced taxation to reduce it. OBJECTIVES: To summarize national SSB taxation laws and to assess their association with obesity, overweight and diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a systematic scoping review up to January 2022 on PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Google Search to identify taxes on SSBs. An interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) was conducted on 17 countries with taxation implemented in 2013 or before to evaluate the level and slope modifications in the rate of change of standardized prevalence rates of overweight, obesity, and diabetes. Random-effects meta-regression was used to assess whether year of entry into force of the law, national income, and tax design affected observed results. RESULTS: We included 76 tax laws issued between 1940 and 2020 by 43 countries, which were heterogeneous in terms of tax design, amount, and taxed products. Among children and adolescents, ITSA showed level or slope reduction for prevalence of overweight and obesity in 5 (Brazil, Samoa, Palau, Panama, Tonga) and 6 (El Salvador, Uruguay, Nauru, Norway, Palau, Tonga) countries out of 17, respectively. No clear pattern of modification of results according to investigated factors emerged from the meta-regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Taxation is highly heterogeneous across countries in terms of products and design, which might influence its effectiveness. Our findings provide some evidence regarding a deceleration of the increasing prevalence rates of overweight and obesity among children occurring in some countries following introduction of taxation. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021233309.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Overweight/epidemiology , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages/adverse effects , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/etiology , Taxes , Beverages/adverse effects
16.
BMC Res Notes ; 17(1): 97, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561785

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Newer antiretrivirals (ART) have shifted the metabolic experiences of people with HIV (PWH) from those of wasting syndrome to increases in body mass index (BMI). This study sought to examine the relationship between BMI and ART use among youth with HIV (YWH). METHODS: Charts from YWH ages 10-24 with at least two documented BMIs at least 6 months apart between 2017 and 2020 were included (N = 44). Statistical analyses were conducted in SAS 9.4. RESULTS: Clients were predominately African American (66%) males (73%) aged 19-24 years (64%), with men having sex with men (48%) being the most common mode of transmission. YWH on non-integrase inhibitor (INSTI) regimens had greater absolute increases in BMI compared to those on INSTI regimens (p = 0.03). Fourteen percent of clients using INSTI experienced an increase in BMI class from normal to overweight or overweight to obese; no non-INSTI users changed BMI class. Time since diagnosis and BMI change due to weight gain were positively associated (p = 0.03) among behaviorally-acquired YWH. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing BMI and changing BMI classes may be more likely among YWH using INSTI. More longitudinal studies inclusive of diet and exercise profiles are needed to understand the relationship between INSTI and YWH BMI.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV Integrase Inhibitors , Male , Humans , Adolescent , Female , Overweight/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/drug therapy , Weight Gain , HIV Integrase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8113, 2024 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582755

ABSTRACT

Sleep duration has been associated with overweight/obesity. Since sleep quality and body composition alter during aging, we conducted this study to determine if sleep quality is linked to body composition components in elderly people. This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 305 Iranian community-dwelling elderly aged ≥ 65 years. Sleep quality and body composition components were evaluated using Pittsburgh sleep quality index and bioelectric impedance analysis, respectively. The association of sleep quality and body composition components was examined using linear regression analysis. The prevalence of poor sleep quality and overweight/obesity was 48.9% and 54.4% in men and 77.0% and 79.3% in women, respectively. Women had significantly higher scores in most PSQI items than men, indicating their worse sleep quality compared to men. Women also had significantly higher body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, and visceral adipose tissue and lower skeletal muscle and fat-free mass percentages than men. In the adjusted regression model, men showed positive associations between the third tertile of poor sleep quality and BMI (B = 1.35; 95% CI 0.08-2.61) and waist circumference (B = 4.14; 95% CI 0.39-7.89), but they did not demonstrate an association between sleep quality and body composition components. In the adjusted regression model for women, there were positive associations for BMI (B = 1.21; 95% CI 0.34-2.07), waist circumference (B = 2.95; 95% CI 0.99-4.91), body fat percentage (B = 2.75; 95% CI 1.06-4.45), and visceral adipose tissue (B = 7.80; 95% CI 1.73-13.87); also there were negative associations for skeletal muscle (B = - 1.40; 95% CI - 2.39 - - 0.41) and fat-free mass (B = - 2.76; 95% CI - 4.46 - -1.07) percentages. Except for waist circumference, other variables differed between men and women (P < 0.001). Weight management, prevention of muscle wasting, and improvement of sleep quality should be considered in a consortium when designing healthcare strategies for the elderly.


Subject(s)
Overweight , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Male , Aged , Humans , Female , Overweight/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sleep Quality , Iran/epidemiology , Body Composition/physiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Waist Circumference
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8092, 2024 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582931

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the trends and project the major risk factors of Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs) in Iran. We obtained the trend of prevalence of main risk factors related to NCDs in 30 to 70-year-old-individuals. The data were extracted from WHO STEP wise approach to NCDs risk factor surveillance (STEPS) survey. Also,the previous studies conducted at national and subnational levels from 2001 to 2016 were employed. The prevalence of risk factors was projected by 2030 using Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) and Spatio-temporal model stratified by sex and province. The percent change for the age-standardized prevalence of smoking in men between 2001 and 2016 was calculated to be - 27.0. Also, the corresponding values for the risk factors of diabetes, hypertension, obesity and overweight, physical inactivity (PI), and mean of salt intake were - 26.1, 29.0, 70.0, 96.8, 116.6, and 7.5, respectively. It is predicted that smoking and these risk factors will undergo a change to show values of - 1.26, 38.7, 43.7, 2.36, and 15.3 by 2030, respectively. The corresponding values in women for the time interval of 2001-2016 were - 27.3, 26.3, 82.8, 1.88, 75.2, and 4.2, respectively. Plus, projections indicate that the 2030 variation values are expected to be - 25.0, 16.7, 37.5, 28.7, 26.7, and 10.9 respectively. This study showed that the prevalence of four risk factors of PI, overweight and obesity, hypertension, and diabetes is increasing in Iran. Therefor, it is necessary to carry out effective interventions to adopt a healthy lifestyle and reduce the risk factors.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , Male , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Overweight/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology , Bayes Theorem , Risk Factors , Obesity/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Prevalence
19.
Public Health ; 230: 216-222, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579649

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of overweight increases the risk of several non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and, consequently, the costs of health care systems. In this study, we aimed to project the economic burden of NCDs attributable to overweight in Brazil between 2021 and 2030. METHODS: A cohort simulation of adults (17-117 years) using multistate lifetable modeling was used to estimate the costs of NCDs attributable to overweight in Brazil. The projections of direct health care costs (outpatient and inpatient expenses in the Unified Health System) and indirect costs (years of productive life lost) considered different trajectories of the prevalence of overweight between 2021 and 2030. RESULTS: In 2019, the prevalence of overweight was 55.4% in the adult Brazilian population. We estimate that around 1.8 billion international dollars (Int$) would be spent on the direct health care cost of NCDs between 2021 and 2030, through the continued increase in overweight prevalence observed between 2006 and 2020. The indirect costs over the same time would be approximately 20.1 billion Int$. We estimate that halving the annual increase in body mass index slope from the beginning of 2021 until 2030 would save 20.2 million Int$ direct and indirect costs by 2030. In the scenario of keeping the prevalence of overweight observed in 2019 constant until 2030, the savings would be 40.8 million Int$. Finally, in the scenario of a 6.7% reduction in the prevalence of overweight observed in 2019 (to be achieved gradually until 2030), 74.1 million Int$ would be saved. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the high economic burden of overweight in the Brazilian adult population.


Subject(s)
Noncommunicable Diseases , Overweight , Adult , Humans , Overweight/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Financial Stress , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Health Care Costs
20.
Acta Oncol ; 63: 154-163, 2024 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies of excess weight and weight changes throughout adult life for prostate cancer (PCa) risk and prognosis have shown inconsistent results. METHODS: In a population-based cohort, the Prostate Cancer Study throughout life (PROCA-life), 16,960 healthy men from the prospective cohort Tromsø Study (1994-2016) were included. Body mass index (BMI) and weight were measured at all four attendings, and weight change was calculated as the difference between the first and last of either Tromsø4, Tromsø5 or Tromsø6. Overall, 904 men developed PCa during 16 years of follow-up, and Poisson regression with fractional polynomials was used to investigate trends in incidence. Cox proportional hazard and logistic regression models were used to study associations between measurements of BMI and weight change and PCa risk, severity, and mortality. RESULTS: At study entry, 46% of the participants (median age 44 years) were overweight, and 14% were obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2). We observed a 127% increase in overall age adjusted PCa incidence in the cohort during 1995 through 2019. No overall associations between BMI or weight change and PCa risk were observed. However, in sub-group analysis, weight gain among obese men was associated with a three-fold higher PCa risk (HR 3.03, 95% CI 1.39-6.58) compared with obese men with stable weight. Overweight was associated with lower risk of metastatic cancer (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.30-0.75) at diagnosis. Men with obesity had higher risk of PCa-specific death (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.03-2.88), while nonsmoking obese PCa cases had two times higher PCa-specific mortality compared with normal weighted PCa cases (HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.11-3.70). INTERPRETATION: In our cohort, weight gain among obese men was associated with higher risk of PCa, and obesity was associated with higher PCa-specific mortality, especially among nonsmokers. The relationship between weight and risk for PCa remains complicated, and future studies are needed to determine clinical implications.


Subject(s)
Overweight , Prostatic Neoplasms , Adult , Male , Humans , Overweight/complications , Overweight/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Prospective Studies , Weight Gain , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Body Mass Index
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