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1.
Age Ageing ; 53(4)2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610062

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Delirium and pain are common in older adults admitted to hospital. The relationship between these is unclear, but clinically important. We aimed to systematically review the association between pain (at rest, movement, pain severity) and delirium in this population. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane and Web of Science were searched (January 1982-November 2022) for Medical Subject Heading terms and synonyms ('Pain', 'Analgesic', 'Delirium'). Study eligibility: (1) validated pain measure as exposure, (2) validated delirium tool as an outcome; participant eligibility: (1) medical or surgical (planned/unplanned) inpatients, (2) admission length ≥ 48 h and (3) median cohort age over 65 years. Study quality was assessed with the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. We collected/calculated odds ratios (ORs) for categorical data and standard mean differences (SMDs) for continuous data and conducted multi-level random-intercepts meta-regression models. This review was prospectively registered with PROSPERO [18/5/2020] (CRD42020181346). RESULTS: Thirty studies were selected: 14 reported categorical data; 16 reported continuous data. Delirium prevalence ranged from 2.2 to 55%. In the multi-level analysis, pain at rest (OR 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-3.30), movement (OR 1.30; 95% CI 0.66-2.56), pain categorised as 'severe' (OR 3.42; 95% CI 2.09-5.59) and increased pain severity when measured continuously (SMD 0.33; 95% CI 0.08-0.59) were associated with an increased delirium risk. There was substantial heterogeneity in both categorical (I2 = 0%-77%) and continuous analyses (I2 = 85%). CONCLUSION: An increase in pain was associated with a higher risk of developing delirium. Adequate pain management with appropriate analgesia may reduce incidence and severity of delirium.


Subject(s)
Delirium , Inpatients , Humans , Aged , Pain/diagnosis , Pain/epidemiology , Pain Management , Hospitals , Delirium/diagnosis , Delirium/epidemiology
2.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e079923, 2024 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38642997

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine demographic and diagnostic distributions of physical pain recorded in clinical notes of a mental health electronic health records database by using natural language processing and examine the overlap in recorded physical pain between primary and secondary care. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The data were extracted from an anonymised version of the electronic health records of a large secondary mental healthcare provider serving a catchment of 1.3 million residents in south London. These included patients under active referral, aged 18+ at the index date of 1 July 2018 and having at least one clinical document (≥30 characters) between 1 July 2017 and 1 July 2019. This cohort was compared with linked primary care records from one of the four local government areas. OUTCOME: The primary outcome of interest was the presence of recorded physical pain within the clinical notes of the patients, not including psychological or metaphorical pain. RESULTS: A total of 27 211 patients were retrieved. Of these, 52% (14,202) had narrative text containing relevant mentions of physical pain. Older patients (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.19), females (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.49), Asians (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.45) or black (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.40 to 1.59) ethnicities, living in deprived neighbourhoods (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.55 to 1.73) showed higher odds of recorded pain. Patients with severe mental illnesses were found to be less likely to report pain (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.46, p<0.001). 17% of the cohort from secondary care also had records from primary care. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show sociodemographic and diagnostic differences in recorded pain. Specifically, lower documentation across certain groups indicates the need for better screening protocols and training on recognising varied pain presentations. Additionally, targeting improved detection of pain for minority and disadvantaged groups by care providers can promote health equity.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Mental Health , Female , Humans , Natural Language Processing , Health Promotion , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pain/epidemiology , Electronic Health Records
3.
Glob Health Action ; 17(1): 2325728, 2024 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596846

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with poor health-related quality of life in adults with cancer in Uganda. METHODS: This cross-sectional study surveyed 385 adult patients (95% response rate) with various cancers at a specialised oncology facility in Uganda. Health-related quality of life was measured using the EORTC QLQ-C30 in the Luganda and English languages. Predetermined validated clinical thresholds were applied to the instrument in order to identify patients with poor health-related quality of life, that is, functional impairments or symptoms warranting concern. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with poor health-related quality of life in six subscales: Physical Function, Role Function, Emotional Function, Social Function, Pain and Fatigue. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 48 years. The majority self-reported poor functioning ranging between 61% (Emotional Function) to 79% (Physical Function) and symptoms (Fatigue 63%, Pain 80%) at clinically concerning levels. These patients were more likely to be older, without formal education and not currently working. Being an inpatient at the facility and being diagnosed with cervical cancer or leukaemia was a predictor of poor health-related quality of life. CONCLUSION: Improvement of cancer care in East Africa requires a comprehensive and integrated approach that addresses various challenges specific to the region. Such strategies include investment in healthcare infrastructure, for example, clinical guidelines to improve pain management, and patient education and support services.


Main findings: The majority of adult patients attending specialized cancer care in Uganda report impaired physical and emotional functioning, and pain, at levels that merit clinical concern.Added knowledge: The large proportion of in- and outpatients with poor self-reported health-related quality of life indicates supportive care needs, exceeding corresponding figures from high-income settings.Global health impact for policy and action: Improvement of cancer care in East Africa requires a comprehensive approach that should include investment in healthcare infrastructure, e.g. clinical guidelines to improve pain management, and patient education and support services.


Subject(s)
Quality of Life , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Quality of Life/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Uganda/epidemiology , Pain/epidemiology , Pain/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/psychology
4.
Br J Anaesth ; 132(6): 1285-1292, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521656

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic pain after injury poses a serious health burden. As a result of advances in medical technology, ever more military personnel survive severe combat injuries, but long-term pain outcomes are unknown. We aimed to assess rates of pain in a representative sample of UK military personnel with and without combat injuries. METHODS: We used data from the ADVANCE cohort study (ISRCTN57285353). Individuals deployed as UK armed forces to Afghanistan were recruited to include those with physical combat injuries, and a frequency-matched uninjured comparison group. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires, including 'overall' pain intensity and self-assessment of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. RESULTS: A total of 579 participants with combat injury, including 161 with amputations, and 565 uninjured participants were included in the analysis (median 8 yr since injury/deployment). Frequency of moderate or severe pain was 18% (n=202), and was higher in the injured group (n=140, 24%) compared with the uninjured group (n=62, 11%, relative risk: 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.2, P<0.001), and lower in the amputation injury subgroup (n=31, 19%) compared with the non-amputation injury subgroup (n=109, 26%, relative risk: 0.9, 95% CI: 0.9-1.0, P=0.034). Presence of at least moderate pain was associated with higher rates of post-traumatic stress (RR: 3.7, 95% CI: 2.7-5.0), anxiety (RR: 3.2, 95% CI: 2.4-4.3), and depression (RR: 3.4, 95% CI: 2.7-4.5) after accounting for injury. CONCLUSION: Combat injury, but not amputation, was associated with a higher frequency of moderate to severe pain intensity in this cohort, and pain was associated with adverse mental health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Afghan Campaign 2001- , Military Personnel , Humans , Male , Military Personnel/psychology , Military Personnel/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Adult , Cohort Studies , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Young Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Wounds and Injuries/psychology , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Chronic Pain/epidemiology , Chronic Pain/psychology , Pain/epidemiology , Pain/psychology , Pain/etiology , Pain Measurement/methods
5.
Age Ageing ; 53(3)2024 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the associations between pain trajectories and cognitive function in older adults. This study explored the associations between pain trajectories and different cognitive domains in older adults from a network perspective. METHODS: Data on pain trajectories were derived from the Health and Retirement Study between 2010 and 2020 using latent class growth analyses. Measurements of key cognition domains, including memory, attention, calculation, orientation and language, were included. Linear regression and network analysis were performed to evaluate the associations between different pain trajectories and cognition. RESULTS: A total of 9,551 older adults were included in this study and three trajectories of pain were identified. After controlling for the covariates, persistent severe pain trajectory was associated with poorer overall cognition, memory and calculation ability when compared to mild or non-persistent pain trajectory. In the pain and cognition network model, memory (expected influence (EI) = 0.62), language (EI = 0.58) and calculation (EI = 0.41) were the most central domains. CONCLUSIONS: Pain trajectories appeared stable over time among older adults in this study. Severity of persistent pain was an important risk factor for poor cognition, especially in relation to memory and calculation domains. Interventions targeting memory, language and calculation domains might be useful in addressing cognitive decline in older adults with persistent pain.


Subject(s)
Cognition Disorders , Cognitive Dysfunction , Humans , Aged , Cohort Studies , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Pain/diagnosis , Pain/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies
6.
Alcohol ; 117: 43-54, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38537764

ABSTRACT

The relationship between pain and alcohol use disorder (AUD) is complex and bidirectional. The current study examines risk factors for pain in a large comprehensively phenotyped sample including individuals from across the spectrum of alcohol use and misuse. Participants (n = 1101) were drawn from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Natural History Protocol and included treatment-seeking AUD inpatients (AUD+Tx, n = 369), individuals with AUD not seeking treatment (AUD+, n = 161), and individuals without AUD (AUD-, n = 571). General linear models were utilized to test the effects of AUD status, history of childhood trauma exposure, perceived stress, and psychological comorbidity on daily percent time in pain, as well as change in daily percent time in pain across the inpatient stay in AUD+Tx individuals. Overall, 60.2% individuals reported any pain, with a significantly higher prevalence in the AUD+Tx group (82.1%) compared to the AUD+ (56.5%) and AUD- (47.1%) groups. Daily percent time in pain was also highest in the AUD+Tx group (30.2%) and was further increased in those with a history of childhood abuse and comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Years of heavy drinking and craving were also associated with increased percent time in pain in the AUD+Tx group. Percent time in pain decreased following acute withdrawal in the AUD+Tx group but plateaued around 25% just prior to discharge. Individuals seeking inpatient treatment for AUD, especially those with a history of childhood trauma and/or comorbid PTSD, report greater percent time in pain compared to those not seeking treatment and those without AUD. The prolonged experience of pain in abstinent AUD inpatients after the resolution of acute withdrawal may signal the early stages of protracted withdrawal. Integrative treatments targeting pain and other symptoms of protracted withdrawal may be effective in improving overall function in people with severe AUD.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Comorbidity , Pain , Stress, Psychological , Humans , Female , Male , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/psychology , Adult , Middle Aged , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Pain/psychology , Pain/epidemiology , Adverse Childhood Experiences/psychology , Risk Factors
7.
Intern Med J ; 54(4): 671-674, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450876

ABSTRACT

A hospital-wide point prevalence study investigated frailty and pain in patients with a cancer-related admission. Modifiable factors associated with frailty in people with cancer were determined through logistic regression. Forty-eight patients (19%) with cancer-related admissions were 2.65 times more likely to be frail and 2.12 more likely to have moderate pain. Frailty and pain were highly prevalent among cancer-related admissions, reinforcing the need for frailty screening and importance of pain assessment for patients with cancer.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Neoplasms , Humans , Aged , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Prevalence , Frail Elderly , Hospitalization , Pain/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy
8.
J Affect Disord ; 355: 290-298, 2024 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study extends from the 2015 Shandong Province Epidemiological Survey of Mental Disorders in adults aged 18 and above. Over five years, it investigates pain characteristics and influencing factors in individuals with depressive disorders in Shandong Province. METHODS: The study encompasses 871 individuals who met DSM-IV criteria for depressive disorders in 2015. Using 1:1:1 matching by gender, age, and residence, 825 non-afflicted individuals were selected as high-risk controls, and 825 screening-negative individuals became low-risk controls. A follow-up study in 2020 involved 1848 participants. Survey tools included a general information questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), SCID-I/P, Global Pain Scale (GPS), Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ), PSQI, MoCA, and clinical data questionnaire. RESULTS: GPS scores in the current depressive group were higher than in non-current depressive group (Z = 14.36, P < 0.01). GPS scores in study group exceeded those in high-risk and low-risk control groups (H = 93.71, P < 0.01). GPS scores in non-remission group were higher than in the remission group (Z = 8.90, P < 0.01). Regression analysis revealed positive correlations between GPS scores and physical illnesses, current depression, incumbency, GHQ-12 total score, and PSQI total score. Negative correlations were observed with QLQ total score and MoCA total score. LIMITATIONS: The study could not assess pain during the 2015 survey, limiting controlled pain analysis before and after five years. CONCLUSION: Depression sufferers may experience prolonged heightened pain, potentially relieved when depression subsides. Individual pain is influenced by depression, physical illnesses, sleep quality, quality of life, cognitive function, gender, residence, and occupation.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , Mental Disorders , Adult , Humans , Follow-Up Studies , Quality of Life/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Pain/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology
9.
Headache ; 64(3): 306-316, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38440947

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine factors associated with frequent headache remission in schoolchildren aged 10-18 years. BACKGROUND: Frequent headache is a common health problem in adolescence, and some individuals in this population experience remission. Factors preceding headache remission as opposed to ongoing headache, and their development over time, have not been examined extensively. METHODS: Data were derived from a large school sample (N = 2280). Over the course of 1 year, n = 156 adolescents experienced remission from frequent headaches, while n = 125 adolescents continued to have frequent headaches throughout the year. In this longitudinal case-control study, we predicted headache remission using demographic, pain, psychosocial, sleep, and physiological characteristics. Additionally, we sought to explore the development of psychosocial, sleep, and physiological characteristics in relation to remitted versus ongoing headache over the 1-year period. RESULTS: A model containing the variables sex (odds ratio [OR] = 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.248-0.76, p = 0.003), headache intensity (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.73-0.99, p = 0.035), anxiety score (OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.85-1.01, p = 0.071), and depression score (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.89-1.00, p = 0.041) predicted the outcome variable (remitted vs. non-remitted headache), explaining 17% of the variance in group membership. Schoolchildren reporting remitted headache at the end of the year exhibited lower depression (F[1, 557.01] = 45.77, p < 0.001) and anxiety scores (F[1, 557.01] = 21.72, p < 0.001), higher school satisfaction (F[1, 209.46] = 7.15, p = 0.008), and fewer difficulties falling asleep (F[1, 856.52] = 41.21, p < 0.001) or sleeping through the night (F[1, 731.12] = 26.42, p < 0.001) throughout the year compared to those with non-remitted headache. Depression scores declined significantly over the year in the group with remitted headache, whereas these scores remained constant in the group with non-remitted headache. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a correlation between headache remission and male sex, improved mental health, and reduced pain-related burden. Moreover, there was an observed decline in symptoms of depression during headache remission. Psychotherapy may be a promising treatment strategy for addressing frequent headaches reported by children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
Depression , Headache , Adolescent , Humans , Male , Child , Case-Control Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/complications , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/therapy , Headache/diagnosis , Pain/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies
10.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 25(1): 219, 2024 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pain in multiple body sites is common and often persistent. The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the change in the number of pain sites (NPS) over time and to evaluate to which extent clinical, demographic, lifestyle and health-related factors predict a change in NPS. METHODS: This was a population-based longitudinal cohort study of adults (n = 2,357). Data on pain, demographic, lifestyle, and health-related variables were collected by questionnaires in 2008 and 2020 and register data from 2006 to 2017. Data was analysed with linear regression. RESULTS: We found a mean decrease in NPS over the 12-year follow-up period (-0.36 (95% CI; -0.44; -0.27) and 56% of this sample reported no change or only one pain site increase/decrease over 12 years. While participants reporting pain for less than 3 months at baseline had almost no change in NPS (-0.04 (95% CI; -0.18; 0.10)), participants with pain for longer than 3 months decreased by -0.51 (95% CI; -0.62; -0.41). Age at baseline (20-49 years), pain intensity, and obesity (BMI ≥ 30) were associated with an increase in NPS over the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: NPS is relatively stable over time. We found a small mean decrease in NPS over 12 years varying between participants with pain for longer than 3 months and pain for less than 3 months respectively. The results also indicate that pain intensity, age, and obesity could be relevant factors to consider when predicting change in NPS.


Subject(s)
Obesity , Pain , Adult , Humans , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Pain/diagnosis , Pain/epidemiology , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Soc Sci Med ; 346: 116692, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460426

ABSTRACT

Current studies have indicated that the number of individuals living with pain has risen in recent years, with nearly half of all adults in some countries living with some form of pain. Such trends have prompted researchers to explore differences in pain across different sociodemographic groups, with a dominant focus on educational attainment. However, much of the studies fail to consider the confounding role of early life characteristics, such as family background. Using data on over 400,000 individuals from the UK Biobank, we look at how educational attainment is associated with nine different domains of pain (headache, facial, neck, back, hip, knee, stomach, all over, and no pain). Ultimately, we find that compared to those with no educational credentials, education is associated with anywhere between a 0.1-15% change in the likelihood of reporting pain, depending on pain type and education level, with the greatest change occurring in those with the highest level. Yet, when accounting for family background characteristics in the form of sibling fixed effects, nearly all relationships between education and pain fell by either 50% or were eliminated. We ultimately conclude that failure to consider early life characteristics, such as family background characteristics may lead to inflated estimates of pain, and that future research should delve into early life exposures and their influence on pain in adulthood.


Subject(s)
Academic Success , Adult , Humans , Educational Status , Pain/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Siblings
12.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 36(1): 80, 2024 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed whether clinical, functional and behavioral factors were associated with the decrease in mobility trajectories reported in older people at risk of sarcopenia (RS) and without risk of sarcopenia (NRS) during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed mobility trajectories reported in older adults with RS and NRS over 16-month follow-up (Remobilize study). The self-perceived risk of sarcopenia and mobility were assessed using the SARC-F and the Life-Space Assessment (LSA) tools, respectively. Gender, age, comorbidities, pain, functional limitation, physical activity (time spent in walking; min/week), and sitting time (ST; hours/day) were assessed. We used a multilevel model to determine changes in mobility between groups and over time. RESULTS: Mobility was lower in RS than in NRS. Older people at RS, who were women, aged 70-79 years and 80 years or older, inactive, and with moderate to severe functional limitation experienced reduced mobility trajectories reported over the pandemic. For older people at NRS, trajectories with reduce mobility reported were experienced by women with comorbidities, for those with insufficient walking time and aged 70-79 years; aged 70-79 years and with ST between 5 and 7 hours/day; for those with insufficient walking time and increased ST; and for those with pain and increased ST. CONCLUSION: Mobility trajectories reported in older people at risk of sarcopenia were negatively influenced by insufficient level of physical inactivity and pre-existing moderate to severe functional limitation. Health and social interventions should be target to avoid mobility limitation during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Humans , Female , Aged , Male , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Pain/epidemiology , Mobility Limitation
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5613, 2024 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453981

ABSTRACT

Adequate analgesia is one of the most important interventions in emergency medicine. However, studies suggest that many patients are undertreated for pain. There can be many reasons why patients assess their pain differently to the paramedics. This study aimed to assess the differences in pain ratings between patients and paramedics and factors influencing them in prehospital emergencies. This prospective cross-sectional observational study included patients treated and transported by paramedics or paramedics and emergency physicians of the German Red Cross in Reutlingen, Germany. This study included 6,365 patients. The prevalence of pain was 49.7%. Among patients with a self-reported numerical rating scale (NRS) > 0, the mean patient pain rating was NRS 4.2 ± 2.7, while the mean paramedic pain rating was NRS 3.6 ± 2.4 (p < 0.001). Approximately 11.8% (n = 751) of patients reported subjectively unbearable pain. Patients reported a mean NRS of 7.7 ± 1.8 for unbearable pain, but a mean NRS of 3.3 ± 2.0 for bearable pain (p < 0.001). The difference in pain ratings between patients and paramedics increased with pain severity. Univariate analysis showed that there were no gender differences, but the difference in pain rating was influenced by patient age (p < 0.001) and paramedic age (p = 0.042). The differences in pain ratings were particularly pronounced for abdominal diseases (p < 0.001) and trauma (p < 0.001). There is a difference in pain ratings between patients and paramedics, which increases with pain severity and appears to be associated with the patient's age and the paramedic's age. To determine the desire and need for analgesics, the question about unbearable pain is a good addition to the NRS.


Subject(s)
Emergency Medical Services , Paramedics , Humans , Pain Measurement , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Pain/diagnosis , Pain/epidemiology
14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428027

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Conscientiousness is associated with positive health behaviors and outcomes and has been shown to increase as individuals age. Both age and Conscientiousness affect pain, a highly prevalent correlate of aging. This study investigated the effect of Conscientiousness on the relationship between pain and pain interference and vice versa among older adults, who experience pain and functional limitations disproportionately compared with younger adults. METHODS: A total of 196 community-dwelling older adults (Mage = 73) provided pain and interference ratings semiannually for up to 10 years. Conscientiousness was assessed at the first visit and, on average, 7.6 years later. Multilevel models tested the effect of Conscientiousness on the relationship between pain and interference. Hierarchical regression modeled changes in Conscientiousness. RESULTS: Across all pain levels, higher Conscientiousness was associated with less pain interference (γ02 = -0.126, SE = 0.048, p < .01, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) [-0.22, -0.03]). This effect was more pronounced at higher levels of pain and older age. Conscientiousness increased slightly over time, but older baseline age (b = -0.01, 95% CI [-0.03, -0.001], R2 = 0.02) and more mean pain interference over the study period (b = -0.17, 95% CI [-0.30, -0.03], R2 = 0.03) were associated with less increase in Conscientiousness at follow-up. DISCUSSION: Higher pain and older age are associated with more pain interference, and Conscientiousness provided the most protection for these same individuals-those with higher pain and older age. Conscientiousness facilitated reduced interference, which may feed forward into higher Conscientiousness, potentially shaping a cycle between personality and health that extends through older adulthood.


Subject(s)
Aging , Personality , Humans , Aged , Pain/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Independent Living
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(13): e37581, 2024 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552034

ABSTRACT

Persons with HIV (PWH) experience high levels of pain. We examined the relationship of pain severity with use of cannabis and prescription opioids among PWH. This cross-sectional study evaluated associations between self-reported pain (moderate/severe vs mild/none) and cannabis and prescription opioid use in a primary care sample of PWH enrolled in an alcohol use treatment study at Kaiser Permanente, San Francisco. Prevalence ratios (PR) for moderate/severe pain associated with cannabis, opioid use, or both in the prior 30 days were obtained from Poisson regression models. Adjusted models included race/ethnicity, education, employment, HIV ribonucleic acid levels, depression, and anxiety. Overall, 614 PWH completed baseline questionnaires from May 2013 to May 2015, among whom 182/614 (29.6%) reported moderate/severe pain. The prevalence of moderate/severe pain varied by substances: 19.1% moderate/severe pain among study participants who reported neither cannabis or opioids, 30.2% for cannabis alone, 41.2% for opioids alone, and 60.9% for those reporting both substances. In adjusted models, compared with PWH who reported neither substance (reference), prevalence of moderate/severe pain was higher for those using cannabis alone (PR 1.54; 95% CI 1.13-2.09), opioids alone (PR 1.96; 95% CI 1.31-2.94), and those reporting both (PR 2.66; 95% CI 1.91-3.70). PWH who reported opioid and/or cannabis use were more likely to report moderate/severe pain compared with PWH who did not report use of these substances. To improve patient care, it is vital to assess patients' approaches to pain management including substance use and target appropriate interventions to reduce pain in PWH.


Subject(s)
Cannabis , HIV Infections , Hallucinogens , Opioid-Related Disorders , Humans , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Self Report , Pain Measurement , Pain/drug therapy , Pain/epidemiology , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , California/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Primary Health Care
16.
J Occup Environ Med ; 66(5): 439-444, 2024 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446720

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Do the 3.5 million US veterans, who primarily utilize private healthcare, have similar burn pit exposure and disease compared to the VA Burn Pit registry? METHODS: This is an online volunteer survey of Gulf War and Post-9/11 veterans. RESULTS: Burn pit exposure had significantly higher odds of extremity numbness, aching pain and burning, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial lung disease, constrictive bronchiolitis, pleuritis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Chi-square did not reveal a difference in burn pit exposure and cancer diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate increased risk of neurological symptoms associated with burn pit exposure, which are not covered in the 2022 federal Promise to Address Comprehensive Toxics Act. Additional data will allow for the continued review and consideration for future medical benefits.


Subject(s)
Veterans , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Female , Adult , Prevalence , Asthma/epidemiology , Aged , Hypesthesia/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/epidemiology , Pain/epidemiology , Burns/epidemiology , Open Waste Burning
17.
J Subst Use Addict Treat ; 160: 209311, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336263

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A growing literature indicates bidirectional associations between pain and tobacco use. Cigarette smokers are at increased risk for chronic pain, and observational and experimental studies indicate that pain increases motivation to smoke. Tobacco use disorder frequently co-occurs with other substance use disorders, which are also associated with chronic pain vulnerability. Despite evidence that pain significantly predicts smoking and relapse, associations between smoking history/trajectory and changes in pain over the course of treatment have not been characterized. The objective of the study was to determine the association between in-treatment smoking trajectory, pack-years (i.e., number of cigarette packs smoked per day multiplied by smoking duration), pain-related interference in daily activities, and pain intensity over the course of residential treatment. METHODS: In this study, 280 adult smokers in a residential SUD treatment center in North Central Florida completed questionnaires assessing cigarette use, pain intensity, and pain interference at treatment entry and discharge (Mean = 80.3 days, SD = 25.6). Most participants were diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (66.1 %). Opioid (27.9 %) and cannabis use disorders (29.6 %) were also common. Participants were grouped by whether their smoking increased (n = 36), decreased (n = 46), or stayed the same (n = 133) from entry to discharge. RESULTS: Analyses indicated a positive association between pack-years and pain intensity at both baseline (r = 0.185, p = 0.018) and discharge (r = 0.184, p = 0.019). Smoking trajectory was associated with pack-years, with those decreasing smoking having greater pack-years than those sustaining or increasing use [F(2,136) = 8.62, p < 0.01, η2p = 0.114]. Mixed general linear models indicated pain intensity [F(1,274) = 44.15, p < 0.0001, η2p = 0.138] and interference in day-to-day activities [F(1,276) = 31.79, p < 0.0001, η2p = 0.103] decreased significantly over time. However, there was no main effect of smoking trajectory on pain intensity [F(2,212) = 2.051, p = 0.131, η2p = 0.019] or of smoking trajectory by time interaction [F(2, 212) = 1.228, p = 0.295, η2p = 0.011]. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, findings provide evidence that smoking behavior influences pain within the context of residential substance use treatment. Given that pain is associated with urge to use substances and risk of return to use, more consistent and rigorous assessment of pain and proactive pain management is likely to enhance substance use treatment outcomes among people who smoke.


Subject(s)
Residential Treatment , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Smoking/epidemiology , Smoking/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Chronic Pain/epidemiology , Chronic Pain/psychology , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Opioid-Related Disorders/psychology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/psychology , Substance Abuse Treatment Centers , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Cigarette Smoking/therapy , Marijuana Abuse/epidemiology , Marijuana Abuse/psychology , Marijuana Abuse/complications , Pain/epidemiology , Pain/etiology
18.
Res Dev Disabil ; 147: 104690, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38364615

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To examine sleep problems in a population-based sample of school-aged children (8-12yo) with Cerebral Palsy (CP) METHOD: Eighty-six children (mean 9 years, 5 months, SD = 1 year, 6 months; male = 60) with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System; GMFCS I=46; II=21; III=9; IV=6; V=6) participated. Classifications/assessments included: Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC), Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), Communication Function Classification System (CFCS), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Cerebral Palsy- Quality of Life (CP-QOL) Pain Impact subscale. Analysis included linear and logistic regression. RESULTS: 38 (44 %) children were within the clinical range for sleep problems. Sleep problems were significantly associated with epilepsy, (95 % CI) = 14.48 (7.95 to 21.01), gross motor function, -0.13 (-0.26 to -0.01), manual ability, 7.26 (0.82 to 13.69), communication, 10.01 (2.21 to 17.80), child behaviour, 1.134 (0.74 to 1.53), and pain related QOL, 0.33 (0.12 to 0.53). For the multivariable model, sleep problems remained significantly associated with epilepsy, b (95 % CI) = 11.72 (4.88 to 18.57), child behaviour, 1.03 (0.65 to 1.41) and pain-related QOL, 0.21 (0.29 to 0.38). CONCLUSIONS: Sleep problems are common and associated with epilepsy, child behaviour and pain related QOL.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Palsy , Epilepsy , Sleep Wake Disorders , Child , Humans , Male , Cerebral Palsy/epidemiology , Cerebral Palsy/complications , Quality of Life , Pain/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/complications , Schools , Severity of Illness Index , Motor Skills
19.
J Sci Med Sport ; 27(4): 222-227, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331632

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and intensity of pain due to a football-related injury during activities of daily living and during training and/or match play in both male and female and youth and adult amateur players. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study involving amateur football players. METHODS: Players (n = 502, median age 18 years, range 14-46) responded to weekly questionnaires during one season, including the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Overuse Injury Questionnaire. Weekly pain prevalence and pain intensity (measured on the numeric rating scale [range 0-10]) during activities of daily living and while playing football were determined. RESULTS: A total of 6601 weekly questionnaires were collected (response rate 63.7 %). Average weekly pain prevalence during activities of daily living was 17.2 % for all players, and 15.7 % among players who participated in training and/or match play. Pain prevalence during training and/or match play was 18.3 % with an average pain intensity of 4.0. In 21.3 % of cases the recorded pain intensity was >5. Sex, age, and mode of injury onset (sudden or gradual) were not significant predictors of pain intensity. CONCLUSION: At a given week, one in six football players experiences pain during activities of daily living from a football-related injury. Almost one in five players reports pain while playing football, of whom >20% report a pain intensity above 5. Oftentimes, injury-related pain present while playing football transcends to activities of daily living. This warrants further monitoring and adequate management of pain within amateur football.


Subject(s)
Athletic Injuries , Soccer , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Activities of Daily Living , Athletic Injuries/epidemiology , Pain/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies
20.
J Dual Diagn ; 20(2): 122-131, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38408374

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that pain intensity may be indirectly linked to hazardous drinking and PTSD symptom severity via pain-related anxiety. The goal of this analysis was to test the hypotheses in a population with PTSD symptoms that pain intensity would be positively and indirectly associated with hazardous drinking, alcohol dependence, alcohol-related problems, and PTSD symptom severity via pain-related anxiety. METHODS: Heavy drinkers with probable PTSD were recruited via Qualtrics panels (N = 371, 53% Female, Mage = 39.68, SD = 10.86). Linear regression and conditional process models were conducted to examine indirect associations between pain intensity and primary outcomes via pain-related anxiety. RESULTS: Pain intensity was found to be indirectly associated with hazardous drinking, alcohol dependence, alcohol-related problems, and PTSD symptom severity via greater pain-related anxiety. CONCLUSION: These initial findings suggest that pain-related anxiety may play an important role in relations between the experience of pain and hazardous patterns of alcohol consumption among individuals with probable PTSD. Future research is needed to determine the temporal nature of these associations and to examine the potential utility of treatments that address pain-related anxiety in the context of comorbid pain, PTSD, and hazardous drinking.


Subject(s)
Alcohol-Related Disorders , Alcoholism , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Female , Adult , Male , Alcoholism/complications , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Pain Measurement , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/complications , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Pain/complications , Pain/epidemiology , Alcohol-Related Disorders/complications
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