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1.
Holist Nurs Pract ; 38(3): 130-137, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709128

ABSTRACT

Humor can contribute to nursing practices for relieving pain and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during intravenous (IV) biologic treatment. This study used a prospective, randomized controlled study design to investigate the effect of humor on pain and state anxiety in patients with RA receiving IV infusion therapy. Two sample groups were formed: the intervention group (watching a comedy movie) (n = 18) and the control group (usual care) (n = 18). Both groups received IV biologic therapy. A significant difference was found between the groups' pain mean scores, but the effect size was small (P < .001, η² = 0.032). The mean visual analog scale scores decreased in both groups after the treatment; however, it decreased more in the intervention group (P < .001, Md = 2.44) than in the control group (P = .017, Md = 0.83). No significant difference was found between the groups' mean state anxiety scores, and the effect size was irrelevant (P > .05, η² = 0.001). There was a significant decrease in the anxiety levels of both groups (P < .001). During IV biologic infusion therapy, watching comedy movies is recommended as a nursing care intervention for reducing pain in patients with RA in cooperation with other health professionals.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Pain Management , Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/psychology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , Prospective Studies , Female , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/therapy , Anxiety/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pain Management/methods , Pain Management/standards , Pain Management/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Wit and Humor as Topic/psychology , Aged , Pain Measurement/methods , Pain Measurement/statistics & numerical data , Pain/psychology , Pain/etiology
2.
Vet Rec ; 194 Suppl 1: 9, 2024 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700153

ABSTRACT

This year BVA Live will, for the first time, feature farm animal and equine CPD. Among the varied topics on offer, Gemma Pearson will be presenting an introduction to equine behavioural medicine, examining the link between emotional and physical health in horses.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Animal , Pain , Animals , Horses/psychology , Pain/veterinary , Pain/psychology , Veterinary Medicine , Horse Diseases/psychology , Humans , United Kingdom
3.
Res Theory Nurs Pract ; 38(2): 252-269, 2024 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38663969

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The study aimed to examine the effect of a child-friendly design on the pain and anxiety levels during blood draw in children aged 1-3 years and the satisfaction levels of their parents toward the environment in which they receive health care services. Methods: The nonrandomized study was conducted with 158 children aged 1-3 years and their parents. Data were obtained with the "Personal Information Form," "Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability (FLACC) Pain Scale," "Visual Analog Scale (VAS) Anxiety Scale," and "Parental Satisfaction Scale-VAS." Data were collected from the control group before the design and from the intervention group after the design. Results: During the blood draw, the VAS Anxiety score of the children in the intervention group was 3.17 ± 1.44 and that of the control group was 7.00 ± 2.51 (t = 246.500, p < .001). The FLACC score was 3.94 ± 1.65 in the intervention group and 7.32 ± 2.51 in the control group (t = 915.000, p < .001). The mean satisfaction scores of the parents in the intervention group for the environment where they received health care were 10.00 ± 0.00, and those of the parents in the control group were 4.85 ± 1.68 (test = -11.561, p < .001). Conclusion: The child-friendly design effectively reduced children's pain and anxiety levels during blood draws and increased parents' satisfaction with the environment in which health care was received. Practical Implications: Implementing a child-friendly design in blood collection units is recommended to alleviate the pain and anxiety associated with children's blood draws, thereby enhancing parental satisfaction with the care provided.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Humans , Child, Preschool , Male , Anxiety/prevention & control , Female , Infant , Parents/psychology , Pain Management/methods , Pain Measurement , Blood Specimen Collection/psychology , Pain/psychology , Pain/prevention & control
4.
Neural Plast ; 2024: 6344925, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38645612

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to modulate pain, psychological aspects, and cognitive functions has increased in recent years. The present scoping review aims to investigate the use of tDCS in cancer patients and its significant impact on psychocognitive and pain related symptoms. Methods: From the earliest available date to June 2023, a comprehensive search was conducted in three electronic scientific databases-PubMed, Scopus, and Embase-and other supplementary sources. Ten relevant studies were identified and included, comprising single case studies, randomized controlled trials, pilot studies, and one retrospective study. PRISMA guidelines for scoping reviews were followed. Results: These studies investigated the use of tDCS to improve pain and psychocognitive aspects in patients with various types of cancer, including breast, oral, bladder, lung, pancreatic, head and neck cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and meningioma. Overall, the results suggest that tDCS has shown efficacy in relieving pain, reducing anxiety and depression, and improving cognitive function in cancer patients. Conclusion: Due to the limited number and high heterogeneity of the existing literature in this field, more investigation and the establishment of standardized protocols would be required to obtain more conclusive evidence.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation , Humans , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation/methods , Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasms/psychology , Neoplasms/complications , Pain Management/methods , Depression/therapy , Cognition/physiology , Pain/psychology , Anxiety/therapy
5.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 24(5): 470-476, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597140

ABSTRACT

AIM: Early mobilization of patients with a major lower extremity amputation (LEA) is often a challenge because of lack of compliance. Therefore, we investigated factors limiting independent mobility and physiotherapy on the first day with physiotherapy (PTDay1) and the following 2 days after LEA. METHODS: A total of 60 consecutive patients, mean age 73.7 years (SD 12.1 years), undergoing LEA were included over a period of 7 months. The Basic Amputee Mobility Score was used to assess basic mobility. Predefined limitations for not achieving independent mobility or not completing physiotherapy were residual limb pain, pain elsewhere, fear of being mobilized, fatigue, nausea/vomiting, acute cognitive dysfunction or "other" factors reported on PTDay1 and the following 2 days after LEA. RESULTS: Fatigue and fear of being mobilized were the most frequent limitations for not achieving independent mobility on PTDay1 and the following 2 days after LEA. Patients (n = 55) who were not independent in the Basic Amputee Mobility Score activity transferring from bed to chair on PTDay1 were limited by fatigue (44%) and fear of being mobilized (33%). A total of 21 patients did not complete planned physiotherapy on PTDay1, and were limited by fatigue (38%), residual limb pain (24%) and "other" factors (24%). CONCLUSION: Fatigue and fear of being mobilized were the most frequent factors that limited independent mobility early after LEA. Fatigue, residual limb pain and "other" factors limited completion of physiotherapy. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2024; 24: 470-476.


Subject(s)
Amputation, Surgical , Fatigue , Fear , Lower Extremity , Physical Therapy Modalities , Humans , Male , Aged , Female , Prospective Studies , Fear/psychology , Amputation, Surgical/rehabilitation , Amputation, Surgical/psychology , Fatigue/psychology , Fatigue/etiology , Lower Extremity/surgery , Aged, 80 and over , Mobility Limitation , Early Ambulation/methods , Middle Aged , Cohort Studies , Pain/psychology , Pain/rehabilitation
6.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1167, 2024 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664787

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The gym is a well-known place for health promoting or rehabilitating exercise whose availability to all is regarded significant for people's personal health work and the public's health. In this context, physical pain is usually discussed as something negative that people seek to dispose of. However, certain painful experiences appear to be an appreciated part of the gym experience. To investigate this seemingly contradictory landscape of meaning-imbued physical pain, the study aims to explore the different kinds of physical pain present at the gym and their significance for exercising, as experienced by 'normal' gym-users. METHODS: 24 semi-structured in-depth interviews with active, dedicated, reasonably healthy (= normal) adult gym-users have been analyzed using qualitative content analysis from a hermeneutical stance. RESULTS: Participants differentiate between three kinds of physical pain: the good pain of enhancement (often connected to muscle soreness and effort burn), the bad pain of impediment (primarily related to acute damage) and the composite, neutral pain of acceptance (potentially linked to all pains). CONCLUSION: When pursuing the goal of personal health development, normal gym-users argue that exercising at the gym means to expose yourself to pain and to do so willingly, even longingly. Refusing to share this understanding may diminish people's chances to occupy the gym space and, hence, reduce their chances to promote their health.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Interviews as Topic , Pain , Qualitative Research , Humans , Female , Adult , Male , Exercise/psychology , Sweden , Middle Aged , Pain/psychology , Young Adult , Fitness Centers
7.
Scand J Pain ; 24(1)2024 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38661113

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although the relationship between traumatic experiences (TEs) and psychosomatic manifestations (pain, somatization, somatosensory amplification [SSA], and alexithymia) has been widely described, very few studies have investigated how these variables correlate with each other and with a history of TEs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how current psychosomatic manifestations are correlated with major and minor adult- and childhood TEs. METHODS: One hundred and forty-six patients (91 with pain) from the Pisa Gift Institute for Integrative Medicine Psychosomatics Lab., Italy, were assessed for pain, history of TEs (divided into major and minor based on whether or not they meet the DSM-5 Criterion A for post-traumatic stress disorder), alexithymia, somatization, and SSA. RESULTS: TEs were positively correlated with age, the sensorial dimension and intensity of pain, somatization, psychopathology index, SSA, and alexithymia. Using the somatization score (controlled for age) as a covariate, the previous correlations between psychosomatic dimensions and TEs lost their statistical significance: SSA (total TEs: from r = 0.30, p = 0.000 to r = -0.04, p = 0.652); alexithymia (total TEs: from r = 0.28, p = 0.001 to r = 0.04, p = 0.663); sensorial dimension of pain (total TEs: from r = 0.30, p = 0.015 to r = 0.12, p = 0.373); and pain intensity (total TEs: from r = 0.38, p = 0.004 to r = -0.15, p = 0.317). Interestingly, the tendency to report more intense pain was mainly predicted by minor TEs in childhood (ß = 0.28; p = 0.030). CONCLUSIONS: The number of lifetime TEs is positively correlated with the sensorial dimension and intensity of pain but not its affective and cognitive dimensions. However, the former relationship depends on the presence of somatization. The intensity of pain is associated with minor rather than major TEs, especially when they occur in childhood.


Subject(s)
Affective Symptoms , Somatoform Disorders , Humans , Male , Female , Affective Symptoms/psychology , Adult , Middle Aged , Somatoform Disorders/psychology , Psychophysiologic Disorders/psychology , Psychophysiologic Disorders/epidemiology , Pain/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Young Adult , Aged , Italy/epidemiology
8.
Glob Health Action ; 17(1): 2325728, 2024 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596846

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with poor health-related quality of life in adults with cancer in Uganda. METHODS: This cross-sectional study surveyed 385 adult patients (95% response rate) with various cancers at a specialised oncology facility in Uganda. Health-related quality of life was measured using the EORTC QLQ-C30 in the Luganda and English languages. Predetermined validated clinical thresholds were applied to the instrument in order to identify patients with poor health-related quality of life, that is, functional impairments or symptoms warranting concern. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with poor health-related quality of life in six subscales: Physical Function, Role Function, Emotional Function, Social Function, Pain and Fatigue. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 48 years. The majority self-reported poor functioning ranging between 61% (Emotional Function) to 79% (Physical Function) and symptoms (Fatigue 63%, Pain 80%) at clinically concerning levels. These patients were more likely to be older, without formal education and not currently working. Being an inpatient at the facility and being diagnosed with cervical cancer or leukaemia was a predictor of poor health-related quality of life. CONCLUSION: Improvement of cancer care in East Africa requires a comprehensive and integrated approach that addresses various challenges specific to the region. Such strategies include investment in healthcare infrastructure, for example, clinical guidelines to improve pain management, and patient education and support services.


Main findings: The majority of adult patients attending specialized cancer care in Uganda report impaired physical and emotional functioning, and pain, at levels that merit clinical concern.Added knowledge: The large proportion of in- and outpatients with poor self-reported health-related quality of life indicates supportive care needs, exceeding corresponding figures from high-income settings.Global health impact for policy and action: Improvement of cancer care in East Africa requires a comprehensive approach that should include investment in healthcare infrastructure, e.g. clinical guidelines to improve pain management, and patient education and support services.


Subject(s)
Quality of Life , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Quality of Life/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Uganda/epidemiology , Pain/epidemiology , Pain/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/psychology
9.
Prog Orthod ; 25(1): 18, 2024 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38679672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to compare the impact of pain on quality of life and patient satisfaction during treatment with aligners. METHODS: Ninety-four subjects in active treatment were invited to answer self-reported questions concerning pain severity and duration, occurrence of other signs and symptoms, and level of satisfaction with their treatment. Also, the OHIP-14 questionnaire was applied to assess patients' OHRQoL. RESULTS: Ninety-four patients (49 women and 45 men) answered the survey. Pain duration of 1-3 days was reported by 69.1% of patients (n = 60). For those who reported pain (n = 84), it was considered mild severity by 42.9% and moderate by 52.4%. Almost sixty-four percent of the sample were very satisfied with the aligner's aesthetics (n = 60) and forty-nine percent were satisfied with treatment in general (n = 46). Mean OHIP-14 score was 3.36 ± 2.54. OHRQoL was significantly associated with pain severity, whereas patients who reported having experienced moderate pain presented a significantly higher mean OHIP-14 score than those who reported having experienced mild pain (3.92 ± 1.93 and 2.69 ± 2.83, respectively; p = 0.036). The "psychological discomfort" OHIP-14's domain was the most influenced by the level of pain. CONCLUSION: Pain severity significantly influenced OHRQoL, in adult patients under treatment with clear aligners. However, high levels of patient satisfaction were reported, regardless of pain duration or severity.


Subject(s)
Oral Health , Patient Satisfaction , Quality of Life , Humans , Female , Male , Adult , Pain Measurement , Surveys and Questionnaires , Pain/psychology , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 60(4)2024 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38674325

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Thoracic epidural catheterization (TEC) can be both uncomfortable and fearful for patients when performed awake with the thought that the procedure may be painful. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of low-dose intravenous ketamine administration on pain and anxiety during the TEC procedure. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups to receive intravenous (IV) placebo (Group P) and IV low-dose (0.15 mg/kg) ketamine (LDK) (Group K) 3 min before the procedure in a double-blind manner. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to measure anxiety (VAS-A) and pain (VAS-P) scores. Vital parameters were monitored before premedication (T1), 20 min after premedication (T2), during skin anesthesia (T3), during TEC (T4), and 5 min after TEC (T5). VAS-A values were recorded at T1, T3, T4, and T5 periods, and VAS-P levels were noted at T3, T4, and T5 periods. Results: During TEC (T4), both VAS-P and VAS-A were significantly lower in Group K (p < 0.001). The mean VAS-A value was 10.6 mm lower, and the mean VAS-P value was 9 mm lower in Group K than in Group P at the T4 time point. Additionally, the mean VAS-P value was 7.7 mm lower in Group K compared to Group P at the T3 time point (p < 0.001). Both groups showed a statistically significant difference in VAS-A measurements when compared at their respective time points (p < 0.001). However, only Group P demonstrated a statistically significant difference in VAS-P measurements (p < 0.001). VAS-P values remained stable in Group K. The number of patients who did not recall the procedure was significantly higher in Group K (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the number of patients who would consent to the same procedure in the future was significantly higher in Group K (p = 0.007). Conclusions: A preprocedural LDK (0.15 mg/kg) can effectively prevent anxiety and pain experienced by patients during the TEC procedure. Administration of LDK may provide a more comfortable procedure process without causing ketamine-induced side effects (hemodynamic, respiratory, and psychological).


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Ketamine , Pain Measurement , Humans , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Ketamine/therapeutic use , Male , Female , Double-Blind Method , Anxiety/prevention & control , Anxiety/drug therapy , Adult , Middle Aged , Pain Measurement/methods , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Catheterization/methods , Catheterization/adverse effects , Pain/drug therapy , Pain/prevention & control , Pain/psychology , Anesthesia, Epidural/methods
11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 318, 2024 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38658915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies conducted in Western societies have identified variables associated with chronic pain, but few have done so across cultures. Our study aimed to clarify the relationship between specific mental health markers (i.e., depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], perceived stress) as well as specific protective factors (i.e., social support and self-efficacy) related to physical pain among university students across non-WEIRD and WEIRD samples. METHOD: A total of 188 university students (131 women and 57 men) were included in the study. We used network analysis to ascertain mental health markers especially central to the experience of physical pain. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found between mental health markers (i.e., depression, anxiety, perceived stress, and PTSD) and protective factors (i.e., social support and self-efficacy) associated with physical pain symptoms for Swiss students versus Indian students (M = 0.325, p = .11). In addition, networks for Swiss versus Indian students did not differ in global strength (S = 0.29, p = .803). Anxiety was the most central mental health marker, and social support was the most important protective factor related to physical pain in both countries. However, for Swiss students, perceived stress, and for Indian students, PTSD symptoms were central mental health markers related to physical pain. CONCLUSION: Our results identify factors that may serve as important treatment targets for pain interventions among students of both countries before it becomes chronic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Depression , Protective Factors , Self Efficacy , Social Support , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Students , Humans , Male , Female , Students/psychology , Young Adult , Adult , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/psychology , Switzerland , India , Universities , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Chronic Pain/psychology , Adolescent , Mental Health , Pain/psychology
12.
PeerJ ; 12: e17204, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584938

ABSTRACT

Background: Because pain can have profound ramifications for quality of life and daily functioning, understanding nuances in the interplay of psychosocial experiences with pain perception is vital for effective pain management. In separate lines of research, pain resilience and mortality salience have emerged as potentially important psychological correlates of reduced pain severity and increased tolerance of pain. However, to date, there has been a paucity of research examining potentially interactive effects of these factors on pain perception. To address this gap, the present experiment investigated mortality salience as a causal influence on tolerance of laboratory pain and a moderator of associations between pain resilience and pain tolerance within a Chinese sample. Methods: Participants were healthy young Chinese adults (86 women, 84 men) who first completed a brief initial cold pressor test (CPT) followed by measures of demographics and pain resilience. Subsequently, participants randomly assigned to a mortality salience (MS) condition completed two open-ended essay questions in which they wrote about their death as well as a death anxiety scale while those randomly assigned to a control condition completed analogous tasks about watching television. Finally, all participants engaged in a delay task and a second CPT designed to measure post-manipulation pain tolerance and subjective pain intensity levels. Results: MS condition cohorts showed greater pain tolerance than controls on the post-manipulation CPT, though pain intensity levels did not differ between groups. Moderator analyses indicated that the relationship between the behavior perseverance facet of pain resilience and pain tolerance was significantly stronger among MS condition participants than controls. Conclusions: This experiment is the first to document potential causal effects of MS on pain tolerance and Ms as a moderator of the association between self-reported behavior perseverance and behavioral pain tolerance. Findings provide foundations for extensions within clinical pain samples.


Subject(s)
Pain , Quality of Life , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Pain/psychology , Pain Measurement/psychology , Pain Perception/physiology , Pain Threshold/psychology
13.
J Neurosci ; 44(17)2024 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38658164

ABSTRACT

Pain is considered a multidimensional experience that embodies not merely sensation, but also emotion and perception. As is appropriate for this complexity, pain is represented and processed by an extensive matrix of cortical and subcortical structures. Of these structures, the cerebellum is gaining increasing attention. Although association between the cerebellum and both acute and chronic pain have been extensively detailed in electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies, a deep understanding of what functions are mediated by these associations is lacking. Nevertheless, the available evidence implies that lobules IV-VI and Crus I are especially pertinent to pain processing, and anatomical studies reveal that these regions connect with higher-order structures of sensorimotor, emotional, and cognitive function. Therefore, we speculate that the cerebellum exerts a modulatory role in pain via its communication with sites of sensorimotor, executive, reward, and limbic function. On this basis, in this review, we propose numerous ways in which the cerebellum might contribute to both acute and chronic pain, drawing particular attention to emotional and cognitive elements of pain. In addition, we emphasise the importance of advancing our knowledge about the relationship between the cerebellum and pain by discussing novel therapeutic opportunities that capitalize on this association.


Subject(s)
Cerebellum , Pain , Humans , Cerebellum/physiopathology , Cerebellum/diagnostic imaging , Animals , Pain/physiopathology , Pain/psychology , Emotions/physiology
14.
Psychiatry Res ; 336: 115925, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38678744

ABSTRACT

Theoretical perspectives underscore that low pain tolerance may be a relevant 'barrier' to non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). However, there is limited longitudinal work on the link between pain tolerance and NSSI, which is needed to assess if pain tolerance precedes NSSI engagement, and/or if NSSI precedes altered pain tolerance. Further, assessing both NSSI frequency and versatility (or number of NSSI methods), in addition to engagement, can provide a more nuanced understanding of the influence of pain on NSSI severity. In the present study, 1125 undergraduate students at a large university (72 % female, Mage = 17.96) reported on their NSSI frequency, NSSI versatility, and perceived pain tolerance. Four individual regressions were run to examine the potential bidirectional nature of the association between NSSI frequency and pain tolerance, and NSSI versatility and pain tolerance. Pain tolerance predicted both NSSI frequency and versatility over time. Neither NSSI frequency nor versatility predicted pain tolerance. Results suggest that high pain tolerance may be a risk factor for severe NSSI engagement.


Subject(s)
Self-Injurious Behavior , Humans , Female , Self-Injurious Behavior/physiopathology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Pain Threshold/physiology , Adult , Pain/psychology , Pain/physiopathology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Students/psychology
15.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e53830, 2024 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38687594

ABSTRACT

Pain is a biopsychosocial phenomenon, resulting from the interplay between physiological and psychological processes and social factors. Given that humans constantly interact with others, the effect of social factors is particularly relevant. Documenting the significance of the social modulation of pain, an increasing number of studies have investigated the effect of social contact on subjective pain intensity and pain-related physiological changes. While evidence suggests that social contact can alleviate pain, contradictory findings indicate an increase in pain intensity and a deterioration of pain coping strategies. This evidence primarily stems from studies examining the effect of social contact on pain within highly controlled laboratory conditions. Moreover, pain assessments often rely on one-time subjective reports of average pain intensity across a predefined period. Ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) can circumvent these problems, as they can capture diverse aspects of behavior and experiences multiple times a day, in real time, with high resolution, and within naturalistic and ecologically valid settings. These multiple measures allow for the examination of fluctuations of pain symptoms throughout the day in relation to affective, cognitive, behavioral, and social factors. In this opinion paper, we review the current state and future relevance of EMA-based social pain research in daily life. Specifically, we examine whether everyday-life social support reduces or enhances pain. The first part of the paper provides a comprehensive overview of the use of EMA in pain research and summarizes the main findings. The review of the relatively limited number of existing EMA studies shows that the association between pain and social contact in everyday life depends on numerous factors, including pain syndromes, temporal dynamics, the nature of social interactions, and characteristics of the interaction partners. In line with laboratory research, there is evidence that everyday-life social contact can alleviate, but also intensify pain, depending on the type of social support. Everyday-life emotional support seems to reduce pain, while extensive solicitous support was found to have opposite effects. Moreover, positive short-term effects of social support can be overshadowed by other symptoms such as fatigue. Overall, gathering and integrating experiences from a patient's social environment can offer valuable insights. These insights can help interpret dynamics in pain intensity and accompanying symptoms such as depression or fatigue. We conclude that factors determining the reducing versus enhancing effects of social contact on pain need to be investigated more thoroughly. We advocate EMA as the assessment method of the future and highlight open questions that should be addressed in future EMA studies on pain and the potential of ecological momentary interventions for pain treatment.


Subject(s)
Pain , Humans , Pain/psychology , Pain/physiopathology , Adaptation, Psychological , Social Interaction , Social Support , Ecological Momentary Assessment , Pain Measurement/methods
16.
Neuroimage ; 292: 120620, 2024 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38641257

ABSTRACT

Social pain, a multifaceted emotional response triggered by interpersonal rejection or criticism, profoundly impacts mental well-being and social interactions. While prior research has implicated the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) in mitigating social pain, the precise neural mechanisms and downstream effects on subsequent social attitudes remain elusive. This study employed transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) integrated with fMRI recordings during a social pain task to elucidate these aspects. Eighty participants underwent either active TMS targeting the rVLPFC (n = 41) or control stimulation at the vertex (n = 39). Our results revealed that TMS-induced rVLPFC facilitation significantly reduced self-reported social pain, confirming the causal role of the rVLPFC in social pain relief. Functional connectivity analyses demonstrated enhanced interactions between the rVLPFC and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, emphasizing the collaborative engagement of prefrontal regions in emotion regulation. Significantly, we observed that negative social feedback led to negative social attitudes, whereas rVLPFC activation countered this detrimental effect, showcasing the potential of the rVLPFC as a protective buffer against adverse social interactions. Moreover, our study uncovered the impact role of the hippocampus in subsequent social attitudes, a relationship particularly pronounced during excitatory TMS over the rVLPFC. These findings offer promising avenues for improving mental health within the intricate dynamics of social interactions. By advancing our comprehension of the neural mechanisms underlying social pain relief, this research introduces novel intervention strategies for individuals grappling with social distress. Empowering individuals to modulate rVLPFC activation may facilitate reshaping social attitudes and successful reintegration into communal life.


Subject(s)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prefrontal Cortex , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation , Humans , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation/methods , Male , Female , Young Adult , Prefrontal Cortex/physiology , Prefrontal Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Prefrontal Cortex/physiopathology , Adult , Attitude , Social Interaction , Pain/physiopathology , Pain/psychology , Brain Mapping/methods , Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex/physiology , Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex/diagnostic imaging
17.
Scott Med J ; 69(2): 37-44, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38449359

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: This study was carried out to determine the effect of the use of "virtual reality glasses," on anxiety, pain, and satisfaction level in order to reduce anxiety and pain during intrauterine device (IUD) insertion, which is a painful and stressful procedure for women and to divert attention to increase satisfaction. METHODS: This randomized controlled study in the gynecology clinic of a state hospital with 80 women who were accepted to participate in the study. Data were collected using structured patient information form, numerical pain rating scale, state-trait anxiety inventory, patient satisfaction evaluation form, and virtual reality glasses. RESULTS: Post-procedural pain scores in the control group after IUD application were higher than post-procedural pain in the virtual reality group. Measurements of post-procedure anxiety in the control group were higher than measurements of post-procedural in the virtual reality group. Satisfaction levels of women with virtual reality glasses during IUD insertion were also found to be high. CONCLUSIONS: It was determined that the use of virtual reality glasses, one of the methods of distraction during IUD insertion, was effective in reducing pain and anxiety and increasing patient satisfaction.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Intrauterine Devices , Pain Measurement , Patient Satisfaction , Virtual Reality , Humans , Female , Anxiety/prevention & control , Anxiety/etiology , Adult , Pain, Procedural/prevention & control , Pain, Procedural/etiology , Pain/prevention & control , Pain/etiology , Pain/psychology , Young Adult , Pain Management/methods
18.
Br J Anaesth ; 132(6): 1285-1292, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521656

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic pain after injury poses a serious health burden. As a result of advances in medical technology, ever more military personnel survive severe combat injuries, but long-term pain outcomes are unknown. We aimed to assess rates of pain in a representative sample of UK military personnel with and without combat injuries. METHODS: We used data from the ADVANCE cohort study (ISRCTN57285353). Individuals deployed as UK armed forces to Afghanistan were recruited to include those with physical combat injuries, and a frequency-matched uninjured comparison group. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires, including 'overall' pain intensity and self-assessment of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. RESULTS: A total of 579 participants with combat injury, including 161 with amputations, and 565 uninjured participants were included in the analysis (median 8 yr since injury/deployment). Frequency of moderate or severe pain was 18% (n=202), and was higher in the injured group (n=140, 24%) compared with the uninjured group (n=62, 11%, relative risk: 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.2, P<0.001), and lower in the amputation injury subgroup (n=31, 19%) compared with the non-amputation injury subgroup (n=109, 26%, relative risk: 0.9, 95% CI: 0.9-1.0, P=0.034). Presence of at least moderate pain was associated with higher rates of post-traumatic stress (RR: 3.7, 95% CI: 2.7-5.0), anxiety (RR: 3.2, 95% CI: 2.4-4.3), and depression (RR: 3.4, 95% CI: 2.7-4.5) after accounting for injury. CONCLUSION: Combat injury, but not amputation, was associated with a higher frequency of moderate to severe pain intensity in this cohort, and pain was associated with adverse mental health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Afghan Campaign 2001- , Military Personnel , Humans , Male , Military Personnel/psychology , Military Personnel/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Adult , Cohort Studies , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Young Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Wounds and Injuries/psychology , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Chronic Pain/epidemiology , Chronic Pain/psychology , Pain/epidemiology , Pain/psychology , Pain/etiology , Pain Measurement/methods
19.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(3)2024 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517177

ABSTRACT

Empathy deficiencies are prevalent among deaf individuals. It has yet to be determined whether they exhibit an ingroup bias in empathic responses. This study employed explicit and implicit empathy tasks (i.e. attention-to-pain-cue [A-P] task and attention-to-nonpain-cue [A-N] task) to explore the temporal dynamics of neural activities when deaf individuals were processing painful/nonpainful stimuli from both ingroup models (deaf people) and outgroup models (hearing people), which aims to not only assist deaf individuals in gaining a deeper understanding of their intergroup empathy traits but also to aid in the advancement of inclusive education. In the A-P task, we found that (i) ingroup priming accelerated the response speed to painful/nonpainful pictures; (ii) the N2 amplitude of painful pictures was significantly more negative than that of nonpainful pictures in outgroup priming trials, whereas the N2 amplitude difference between painful and nonpainful pictures was not significant in ingroup priming trials. For N1 amplitude of the A-N task, we have similar findings. However, this pattern was reversed for P3/late positive component amplitude of the A-P task. These results suggest that the deaf individuals had difficulty in judging whether hearing individuals were in pain. However, their group identification and affective responses could shape the relatively early stage of pain empathy.


Subject(s)
Empathy , Pain , Humans , Pain/psychology , Attention , Reaction Time , Group Processes , Electroencephalography , Evoked Potentials/physiology
20.
Alcohol ; 117: 43-54, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38537764

ABSTRACT

The relationship between pain and alcohol use disorder (AUD) is complex and bidirectional. The current study examines risk factors for pain in a large comprehensively phenotyped sample including individuals from across the spectrum of alcohol use and misuse. Participants (n = 1101) were drawn from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Natural History Protocol and included treatment-seeking AUD inpatients (AUD+Tx, n = 369), individuals with AUD not seeking treatment (AUD+, n = 161), and individuals without AUD (AUD-, n = 571). General linear models were utilized to test the effects of AUD status, history of childhood trauma exposure, perceived stress, and psychological comorbidity on daily percent time in pain, as well as change in daily percent time in pain across the inpatient stay in AUD+Tx individuals. Overall, 60.2% individuals reported any pain, with a significantly higher prevalence in the AUD+Tx group (82.1%) compared to the AUD+ (56.5%) and AUD- (47.1%) groups. Daily percent time in pain was also highest in the AUD+Tx group (30.2%) and was further increased in those with a history of childhood abuse and comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Years of heavy drinking and craving were also associated with increased percent time in pain in the AUD+Tx group. Percent time in pain decreased following acute withdrawal in the AUD+Tx group but plateaued around 25% just prior to discharge. Individuals seeking inpatient treatment for AUD, especially those with a history of childhood trauma and/or comorbid PTSD, report greater percent time in pain compared to those not seeking treatment and those without AUD. The prolonged experience of pain in abstinent AUD inpatients after the resolution of acute withdrawal may signal the early stages of protracted withdrawal. Integrative treatments targeting pain and other symptoms of protracted withdrawal may be effective in improving overall function in people with severe AUD.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Comorbidity , Pain , Stress, Psychological , Humans , Female , Male , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/psychology , Adult , Middle Aged , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Pain/psychology , Pain/epidemiology , Adverse Childhood Experiences/psychology , Risk Factors
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