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2.
Brasília; IPEA; 20200500. 73 p. ilus.(Texto para Discussão / IPEA, 2559).
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1100677

ABSTRACT

Este texto apresenta um panorama internacional das medidas econômicas adotadas para reduzir os graves efeitos econômicos da pandemia de Sars-COV-2 em três países: Estados Unidos, Reino Unido e Espanha. A análise toma como base primordialmente documentos governamentais que normatizaram as medidas de política econômica. São analisados os diversos canais por meio dos quais a crise sanitária afeta a economia. Por um lado, estão os fatores de oferta: oferta de trabalho, produtividade do trabalho e funcionamento das cadeias produtivas. Por outro lado, encontram-se os fatores de demanda: consumo das famílias, investimento privado e comércio exterior. O terceiro canal diz respeito aos fatores financeiros que incidem sobre as variáveis de demanda e, principalmente, sobre o grau de liquidez das empresas financeiras e não financeiras. As medidas adotadas nos três países apresentam como características comuns a mobilização de grande volume de recursos fiscais e financeiros, a adoção de uma grande diversidade de instrumentos de política econômica e o uso de arranjos institucionais sofisticados em termos de regras de focalização e de mecanismos de operacionalização das medidas adotadas.


This text presents an international overview of the economic measures adopted to reduce the serious economic effects of the Sars-COV-2 pandemic in three countries: the USA, the United Kingdom and Spain. The analysis is based primarily on government documents that regulated economic policy measures. The various channels through which the health crisis affects the economy are analyzed. On one hand, there are the supply factors: labor supply, labor productivity and the functioning of production chains. On the other hand, there are demand factors: household consumption, private investment and foreign trade. The third channel concerns the financial factors on demand variables and, mainly, on the degree of liquidity of financial and non-financial companies. The measures adopted in the three countries have as common characteristics the mobilization of large volumes of fiscal and financial resources, the adoption of a wide range of economic policy instruments and the use of sophisticated institutional arrangements in terms of targeting rules and mechanisms for operationalizing the measures adopted.


Subject(s)
Public Policy , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
3.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: 49570, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF - Nursing | ID: biblio-1094832

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: discutir as experiências e contradições no controle da pandemia de Covid-19 sob a perspectiva da epidemiologia e das políticas públicas brasileiras. Conteúdo: o debate apresentado divide-se em duas seções: a primeira traça a reflexão dos parâmetros epidemiológicos sobre a curva epidêmica do SARS-CoV-2, bem como as experiências internacionais para o controle deste fenômeno. A segunda, ancorada nas políticas públicas brasileiras, apresenta uma análise comparada das experiências nacionais e internacionais, discutindo os potenciais reflexos sobre a pandemia, considerando algumas especificidades sociais. Conclusão: frente à impossibilidade de redução de pessoas susceptíveis por meio de estratégias vacinais, a redução da velocidade da curva epidêmica precisa ocorrer por meio de ações de isolamento físico social. Ademais, a construção de políticas públicas que visem a proteção ao trabalhador e a ampliação do investimento no setor saúde são medidas urgentes.


Objective: to discuss experiences and contradictions in the control of the Covid-19 pandemic from the perspective of epidemiology and Brazilian public policies. Content: the discussion presented is divided into two sections: the first one present epidemiological parameters on the epidemic curve of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the international experiences for the control of this phenomenon. The second, anchored in the Brazilian public policies, presents a comparative analysis of national and international experiences, discussing the potential impacts on the pandemic, considering some specific social issues. Conclusion: in the face of impossibility of reducing susceptible people through vaccination strategies, the reduction of the speed of the epidemic curve needs to occur through actions of social distance. In addition, the construction of public policies aimed at protecting workers and expanding investment in the health sector are urgent measures.


Objetivo: discutir las experiencias y contradicciones en el control de la pandemia Covid-19 desde la perspectiva de la epidemiología brasileña y las políticas públicas. Contenido: el debate presentado se divide en dos secciones. El primero traza la reflexión de los parámetros epidemiológicos en la curva epidémica del SARS-CoV-2, así como las experiencias internacionales para el control de este fenómeno. El segunda seccione, anclada en las políticas públicas brasileñas, presenta un análisis comparativo de las experiencias nacionales e internacionales, discutiendo los posibles impactos en la pandemia, considerando algunas especificidades sociales brasileñas. Conclusión: dada la imposibilidad de reducir a las personas susceptibles a través de estrategias de vacunación, la reducción de la velocidad de la curva epidémica debe ocurrir a través de acciones de aislamiento social y físico. Además, la construcción de políticas públicas destinadas a proteger a los trabajadores y ampliar la inversión en el sector de la salud son medidas urgentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Public Health Policy , Pandemics , Public Policy , Betacoronavirus
4.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: 49923, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF - Nursing | ID: biblio-1097213

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: refletir sobre as intervenções/ações de cuidado em saúde mental voltados aos profissionais da saúde que prestam assistência ao paciente suspeito ou diagnosticado com COVID-19. Conteúdo: A pandemia de COVID-19 traz o desafio para profissionais da saúde em lidar com sua própria saúde mental e a dos pacientes. É fundamental conhecer e refletir sobre iniciativas que países apresentam para lidar com a manutenção da saúde mental de profissionais da saúde em tempos de pandemia e que contribuem para repensar o planejamento, execução e avaliação de estratégias a serem utilizadas no Brasil. Considerações finais: foi possível elencar ações em saúde mental que têm se mostrado assertivas no cuidado aos trabalhadores de saúde, atuantes na ponta do cuidado, sobretudo as baseadas no esclarecimento da doença, uso adequado de equipamentos de proteção individual, além do mapeamento daqueles profissionais fragilizados emocionalmente e/ou com sofrimento mental anterior à pandemia, além do suporte emocional oferecido por meio de plataformas digitais.


Objective: to reflect on mental health care interventions/actions aimed at health professionals who provide assistance to patients suspected or diagnosed with COVID-19. Content: The COVID-19 pandemic challenges health professionals to lead with their own and patients' mental health. It is essential to know and to reflect about countries' initiatives to deal with health professional's mental health maintenance in times of pandemic, and to help to re-think strategies planning, execution and evaluation to be used in Brazil. Final considerations: it was possible to list actions in mental health that have shown to be assertive in the care of health workers who are in the front line of caring, especially those based on clarifying the disease, appropriate use of individual protective equipment, in addition to mapping those emotionally weakened professionals and or with mental suffering prior to the pandemic, in addition to the emotional support offered through digital platforms.


Objetivo: reflexionar sobre las intervenciones/acciones de atención de salud mental dirigidas a profesionales de la salud que prestan asistencia a pacientes sospechosos o diagnosticados con COVID-19. Contenido: La pandemia COVID-19 desafía a los profesionales de la salud a hacer frente con la salud mental propia y de los pacientes. Es esencial conocer y reflexionar sobre las iniciativas de los países para enfrentar al mantenimiento de la salud mental de los profesionales de la salud en tiempos de pandemia, y para ayudar a repensar la planificación, ejecución y evaluación de estrategias que se utilizarán en Brasil. Consideraciones finales: fue posible enumerar acciones en salud mental que han demostrado ser asertivas en la atención de los trabajadores de salud que trabajan en la primera línea de atención de la salud, especialmente aquellos basados en la aclaración de la enfermedad, el uso apropiado de equipos de protección individual, además de mapear aquellos profesionales debilitados emocionalmente y / o con sufrimiento mental antes de la pandemia, además del apoyo emocional ofrecido a través de plataformas digitales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Mental Health/standards , Health Personnel/psychology , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Brazil , Occupational Health , Information Dissemination , Personal Protective Equipment
5.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: 49596, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF - Nursing | ID: biblio-1094830

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever as principais recomendações sobre ações de prevenção de contágio relacionadas à exposição ocupacional dos profissionais de saúde atuantes frente à COVID-19, disponíveis até março de 2020. Conteúdo: A atual pandemia da doença causada pelo novo coronavírus SARS-CoV-2 tem transmissão favorecida pelo contato próximo e desprotegido com secreções ou excreções de pacientes infectados, principalmente por meio de gotículas salivares. Práticas organizacionais de prevenção devem ser previstas antes da chegada do paciente ao serviço de saúde, reduzindo o fluxo de atendimento, no primeiro atendimento e durante as ações assistenciais, para minimizar a exposição ocupacional ao agente biológico. Profissionais de saúde classificados como grupo de risco devem ser afastados de atividades de risco de contaminação. Aqueles contaminados ou adoecidos devem permanecer em quarentena para minimizar a propagação da COVID-19. Considerações finais: os cuidados para prevenção de contaminação de trabalhadores nesta pandemia pelo novo coronavírus devem ser priorizados, evitando impactos negativos na assistência à população que busca atendimento nos serviços de saúde.


Objective: to describe the main recommended actions on prevention actions related to occupational exposure of health professionals working at COVID-19, available until March 2020. Content: The current pandemic disease caused by the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has its transmission favored by close and unprotected contact with secretions or excretions from infected patients, mainly through salivary droplets. Organizational prevention practices should be prioritized, since patient's arrival at the health service, optimizing the flow of care, the first care and during health care actions, to minimize occupational exposure to the biological agent. Health professionals classified as a risk group should be removed from activities at risk of contamination. Those contaminated or adulterated must remain in quarantine to minimize the spread of COVID-19. Final considerations: care to avoid contamination of workers in this pandemic by the new coronavirus must be prioritized, prevented from affecting the assistance to the population that seeks assistance in health services.


Objetivo: describir las principales acciones recomendadas sobre acciones de prevención relacionadas con la exposición ocupacional de los profesionales de la salud que trabajan en COVID-19, disponible hasta marzo de 2020. Contenido: La enfermedad pandémica actual causada por el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 tiene su transmisión favorecida por contacto cercano y sin protección con secreciones o excreciones de pacientes infectados, principalmente a través de gotas salivales. Se deben priorizar las prácticas de prevención organizacional, desde la llegada del paciente al servicio de salud, optimizando el flujo de atención, la primera atención y durante las acciones de atención de salud, para minimizar la exposición ocupacional al agente biológico. Los profesionales de la salud clasificados como grupo de riesgo deben ser retirados de las actividades en riesgo de contaminación. Las personas contaminadas o adulteradas deben permanecer en cuarentena para minimizar la propagación de COVID-19. Consideraciones finales: se debe priorizar la atención para evitar la contaminación de los trabajadores en esta pandemia por el nuevo coronavirus, evitando que afecte la asistencia a la población que busca asistencia en los servicios de salud.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral , Occupational Risks , Risk Factors , Occupational Health , Health Personnel , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Health Workforce , Nurse Practitioners , Working Conditions , Nursing , Betacoronavirus
7.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 52(6): 0-0, jun.-jul. 2020.
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-187536

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is a positive single-stranded RNA virus that can be immediately translated and integrated into the host cell with its own RNA messenger, facilitating replication inside the cell and infectivity. The rapid progression of the disease presents a real challenge for the whole world. As the usual capacity for citizen care is exceeded, health professionals and governments struggle. One of the most important strategies to reduce and mitigate the advance of the epidemic are social distance measures; this is where telemedicine can help, and provide support to the healthcare systems, especially in the areas of public health, prevention and clinical practices, just as it is doing in others sectors. Telemedicine connects the convenience, low cost, and ready accessibility of health-related information and communication using the Internet and associated technologies. Telemedicine during the coronavirus epidemic has been the doctors’ first line of defense to slow the spread of the coronavirus, keeping social distancing and providing services by phone or videoconferencing for mild to focus personal care and limited supplies to the most urgent cases


El nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 es un virus de ARN monocatenario positivo que puede traducirse inmediatamente e integrarse en la célula huésped con su propio mensajero de ARN, facilitando la replicación dentro de la célula y la infectividad. La rápida progresión de la enfermedad presenta un verdadero desafío en todas las partes del mundo. A medida que se excede la capacidad habitual de atención sanitaria a los ciudadanos pueden generarse tensiones entre los profesionales de la salud y los gobiernos. Una de las estrategias más importantes para reducir y mitigar el avance de la epidemia son las medidas de distanciamiento social. Aquí es donde la telemedicina puede ayudar y brindar apoyo a los sistemas de salud, especialmente en las áreas de salud, prevención y prácticas clínicas, tal como se está están haciendo en otros sectores. La telemedicina conecta la conveniencia, el bajo costo y la fácil accesibilidad de la información y la comunicación relacionadas con la salud a través de Internet y las tecnologías asociadas. La telemedicina durante la epidemia de coronavirus ha sido la primera línea de defensa de los sanitarios para para frenar la propagación del coronavirus, brindando servicios por teléfono o videoconferencia para atención personalizada en casos leves y limitando los recursos sanitarios para los casos más urgentes


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pandemics , Telemedicine/methods , Telemonitoring
14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1123-1130, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475230

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, it has rapidly spread across many other countries. While the majority of patients were considered mild, critically ill patients involving respiratory failure and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome are not uncommon, which could result death. We hypothesized that cytokine storm is associated with severe outcome. We enrolled 102 COVID-19 patients who were admitted to Renmin Hospital (Wuhan, China). All patients were classified into moderate, severe and critical groups according to their symptoms. 45 control samples of healthy volunteers were also included. Inflammatory cytokines and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) profiles of serum samples were analyzed by specific immunoassays. Results showed that COVID-19 patients have higher serum level of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) and CRP than control individuals. Within COVID-19 patients, serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels are significantly higher in critical group (n = 17) than in moderate (n = 42) and severe (n = 43) group. The levels of IL-10 is positively correlated with CRP amount (r = 0.41, P < 0.01). Using univariate logistic regression analysis, IL-6 and IL-10 are found to be predictive of disease severity and receiver operating curve analysis could further confirm this result (AUC = 0.841, 0.822 respectively). Our result indicated higher levels of cytokine storm is associated with more severe disease development. Among them, IL-6 and IL-10 can be used as predictors for fast diagnosis of patients with higher risk of disease deterioration. Given the high levels of cytokines induced by SARS-CoV-2, treatment to reduce inflammation-related lung damage is critical.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , China , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology
15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1096-1101, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476607

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly worldwide since it was confirmed as the causative agent of COVID-19. Molecular diagnosis of the disease is typically performed via nucleic acid-based detection of the virus from swabs, sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). However, the positive rate from the commonly used specimens (swabs or sputum) was less than 75%. Immunological assays for SARS-CoV-2 are needed to accurately diagnose COVID-19. Sera were collected from patients or healthy people in a local hospital in Xiangyang, Hubei Province, China. The SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM antibodies were then detected using a SARS-CoV-2 IgM colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA). Results were analysed in combination with sera collection date and clinical information. The GICA was found to be positive with the detected 82.2% (37/45) of RT-qPCR confirmed COVID-19 cases, as well as 32.0% (8/25) of clinically confirmed, RT-qPCR negative patients (4-14 days after symptom onset). Investigation of IgM-negative, RT-qPCR-positive COVID-19 patients showed that half of them developed severe disease. The GICA was found to be a useful test to complement existing PCR-based assays for confirmation of COVID-19, and a delayed specific IgM antibody response was observed among COVID-19 patients with severe progression.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus , Child , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Young Adult
16.
Community Dent Health ; 37(2): 108-109, 2020 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478496

ABSTRACT

It seems a strange thing to be writing about child oral health in the middle of a virus pandemic that has, in the UK at least, paused all routine dental care. Perhaps not; as thoughts turn to the return of "normal" opera- tion there are concerns over potential ongoing impacts from COVID-19 on health services including stricter infection-control requirements and economic impacts from the lockdown. It invites ridicule to try and predict what will happen in the coming years, but the economic and social impacts are likely to increase vulnerability among the already vulnerable and the delivery of dental care is likely to be more problematic and more expensive. More than ever we need to reduce the burden of avoidable dental disease.


Subject(s)
Oral Health , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , Child , Coronavirus Infections , Humans , Pandemics
18.
West Afr J Med ; 37(3): 295-316, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476126

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging infectious diseases pose a great hazard to public health and the global economy. A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerged from Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Since then, it has spread globally causing a global health emergency of inconceivable magnitude, with significant morbidity and mortality. There is the need for clinicians and health care providers to understand and gain knowledge of the different aspects of the disease as it evolves. OBJECTIVE: We reviewed existing literature on COVID-19 in order to present a synopsis of current understanding of the disease. METHODS: Using PubMed, Embase and Medline, articles published between January and April 2020 on Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and resources from World Health Organisation were analyzed in order to have an understanding of the clinical characteristics, transmission dynamics, virology, diagnostic possibilities, prevention, management approach, controversies and impact of COVID-19 on the healthcare workforce. RESULTS: Our review revealed that COVID-19 patients present with a myriad of symptoms, ranging from mild to severe respiratory disease, which can often be fatal. The mode of transmission via droplet infections makes it unduly contagious and difficult to control. Currently, antiviral drugs or vaccines are being developed to manage this condition. CONCLUSION: There is urgent need for potent antivirals and vaccine to manage those infected with COVID 19 and prevent infection. Global efforts need to be unified in combating this public health emergency and flattening the curve of spread.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
19.
Gulf J Oncolog ; 1(33): 7-18, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476644

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a public health emergency of major international concern. In December 2019, an outbreak of atypical pneumonia known as COVID-19 was identified in Wuhan, China. The newly identified zoonotic coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV-2), is characterized by rapid human-to-human transmission. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients are often in need for intensive chemotherapy to induce remission that will be complicated with prolonged period of cytopenias. They are often recalled to the hospital for treatment and disease surveillance. These patients may be immunocompromised due to the underlying malignancy or anti-cancer therapy. ALL patients are at higher risk of developing life-threatening infections. Several factors increase the risk of infection and the presence of multiple risk factors in the same patient is common. Cancer patients had an estimated 2-fold increased risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 than the general population. With the World Health Organization declaring the novel coronavirus outbreak a pandemic, there is an urgent need to address the impact of such pandemic on ALL patients. This include changes to resource allocation, clinical care, and the consent process during a pandemic. Currently and due to limited data, there are no international guidelines to address the optimal management of ALL patients in any infectious pandemic. In this review, we will address the potential challenges associated with managing ALL patients during the COVID-19 infection pandemic with suggestions of some practical approaches, focusing on screening asymptomatic ALL patients, diagnostic and response evaluation and choice of chemotherapy in different scenarios and setting and use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Immunocompromised Host , Opportunistic Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Clinical Decision-Making , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Critical Pathways , Decision Support Techniques , Humans , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Opportunistic Infections/transmission , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/immunology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
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